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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3139 matches for " Roland; "
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Wardrobe Malfunctions and the Measurement of Internet Behaviour  [PDF]
Roland Pfister
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.23042
Abstract: The wardrobe malfunction – an unanticipated exposure of bodily parts in the public – has become a prevailing issue in concerts, shows and other celebrity events that is reliably reported by the media. The internet as the fastest source for celebrity gossip allows measuring the impact of such wardrobe malfunctions on the public in-terest in a celebrity. This measurement in turn allows conclusions about intention, motivation, and internet be-haviour of a wide variety of internet users. The present study exemplifies the use of an innovative non-reactive measure of active interest – the Search Volume Index – to assess the impact of a variety of internet-related phe-nomena, including wardrobe malfunctions. Results indicate that interest in a celebrity increases immediately af-ter such an event and stays at a high level for about three weeks (the wardrobe plateau). This special form of ce-lebrity gossip thus meets a constant interest of a substantial proportion of internet users.
Flow and Ductility of Smectite Clay for Skin Treatment  [PDF]
Roland Pusch
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2014.42010

It is important that pastes and creames for skin treatment have suitable rheological properties and ability to establish a good contact with the tissues while retaining their tightness. Thixotropy is desired for providing fluidity when agitated and a suitably degree of stiffening thereafter. This requires low shear resistance in the coating phase and microstructural reorganization when leaving the paste to rest. Following the principle of using only mineral components for skin treatment, use of expandable hydrophilic clay minerals should be considered. They sorb cations and positively charged organic molecules and are impermeable to fluids and gas under low pressure, hence providing oxygen-free micro-environment. They can balance pH and are excellent agents for cleaning skin.

The Post-Modern Mind. A Reconsideration of John Ashbery’s “Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror” (1975) from the Viewpoint of an Interdisciplinary History of Ideas  [PDF]
Roland Benedikter, Judith Hilber
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2012.21010
Abstract: This paper gives a short description of basic features of the dominating mindset in the Western world between the 1970s and today, often called “post-modern”, through a re-reading of John Ashbery’s poem “Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror” (1975). In doing so, it applies the viewpoint of an interdisciplinary history of ideas. Since collective mindsets have become the most important contextual political factors, the implications are multiple.
Suicide and Freedom from Suffering in Schopenhauer’s “Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung”  [PDF]
Christopher Roland Trogan
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.31002

Schopenhauer’s stance on suicide focuses on the possibility of achieving freedom from suffering through the denial of the individual will-to-life. Ultimately, Schopenhauer argues that suicide fails to achieve this freedom, primarily because it is an act of will that confirms, rather than denies, the will-to-life. Suicide, he argues, is a kind of contradiction in that it involves the individual will’s willfully seeking to exterminate itself as a way of escaping the wretchedness of willing. While Schopenhauer explicitly states that one possesses the individual right to commit suicide in order to attempt to obtain freedom from suffering, and even admits that he can understand why one would attempt to do so, he denies that there is any possibility that this freedom may be actualized. To take one’s life indicates a lack of awareness (or an unwillingness to become aware) of the futility of the individual will and the experience of the wholeness and totality of will-in-itself. One has the freedom to destroy oneself, but one’s freedom to free oneself from suffering is an illusion. If one concurs with Schopenhauer that suicide should be understood as a futile escape from the freedom of suffering, one cannot deny the brilliant insights of his argument. His is, one the one hand, a brilliant articulation of the function of suicide—placing the act squarely within what one would intuit as its primary purpose (freedom from suffering). On the other hand, given Schopenhauer’s philosophical framework, it negates that possibility and precludes consideration of any others.

Five-year impact of a new departmental protocol on emergency cesarean target times  [PDF]
Visnja Korda, Roland Zimmermann
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2013.31A028

Objective: To evaluate the impact of an emergency cesarean standard operating procedure (SOP) on the decision-to-delivery interval (DDI) and to determine whether a shorter DDI improves neonatal outcome. Methods: Retrospective analysis of emergency cesareans from 2004 (introduction of the new SOP) to 2009 in a Swiss Level 3 perinatal center. Primary endpoints were the DDI, the pathology-to-decision interval (PDI), the 5 year learning curve, and neonatal and maternal outcome. Results: In the emergency cesarean group (175 women and 188 infants), mean DDI decreased over the observation period from 15 to 9 minutes (mean 10 minutes 41 seconds), and mean PDI from 11 to 6 minutes (mean 8 minutes). Not only did the DDI not exceed 15 minutes in over 90% of cases during the 5 years, but it fell consistently below 10 minutes in the latter stages of the learning curve. Only 2/188 infants had an umbilical artery pH < 7.00 and 19/188 had an Apgar score <5 at 5 minutes. Maternal morbidity comprised three cases of superficial wound infection. Conclusion: Logistic prerequisites comprise a surgical capability directly within the delivery suite, a standby surgical and anesthetic team, a crash call system, and clear duty allocation. International guideline target times are readily achievable at no additional significant fetal or maternal cost.

Algorithmics for Preschoolers—A Contradiction?  [PDF]
Roland T. Mittermeir
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.49081

Developing an algorithm requires expressing it in some (formal) language. The respective language is usually understood to be textual (conventional programming language) or partly graphical (design languages, and languages in programming environments for children). As writing and reading are capabilities not to be presumed from preschoolers, many educators claim that confronting such young kids with algorithmic concepts is beyond their abstraction capability. This paper reports on an experiment with kindergarten-groups requiring them to discover simple algorithms without resorting to reading and writing. It clearly showed that limited capabilities of abstractions are not a hurdle at all, if the problems are posed in a way corresponding to the limited experience base of the children, and if solutions are small enough to be kept in memory and allow expressing themselves in other forms than writing.

The Game of Life, Decision and Communication  [PDF]
Roland Mühlenbernd, Simon Schulz
Natural Science (NS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2014.613097

The game of life represents a spatial environment of cells that live and die according to fixed rules of nature. In the basic variant of the game a cell’s behavior can be described as reactive and deterministic since each cell’s transition from an actual state to a subsequent state is straight-forwardly defined by the rules. Furthermore, it can be shown that the alive cells’ spatial occupation share of the environment decreases quickly and levels out at a really small value (around 3%), virtually independent of the initial number of alive cells. In this study we will show that this occupation share can be strongly increased if alive cells become more active by making non-deterministic sacrificial decisions according to their individual positions. Furthermore, we applied signaling games in combination with reinforcement learning to show that results can be even more improved if cells learn to signal for navigating the behavior of neighbor cells. This result stresses the assumption that individual behavior and local communication supports the optimization of resourcing and constitute important steps in the evolution of creature and man.


Nuclear Fusion during Early Stage of Microspore Embryogenesis Indicates Chromosome Doubling in Wheat (Triticum aestivum)  [PDF]
Roland Griggs, Ming Y. Zheng
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.73043
Abstract: Studies of barley and maize indicate that chromosome doubling occurs via nuclear fusion during an early stage of microspore embryogenesis, but the time and mechanism by which chromosome doubling occurs in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) remains undetermined. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative time during induction culture when chromosome doubling may occur in wheat, and to identify early indicators for doubled haploid microspores. Microspore nuclei were stained with 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and observed under a fluorescent microscope on the day of isolation, three days after isolation, and six days after isolation. The change in the percentage of microspores containing a single small nucleus, two small nuclei, a single enlarged nucleus, and three or more nuclei was then tracked throughout the six-day period. Ploidy levels were estimated by determining the cross-sectional area and number of nucleoli in microspores containing small and large nuclei then comparing the results of each respective cell-type. The percentage of microspores containing enlarged nuclei increased throughout the six-day test period, and the percentage of binucleated microspores containing small nuclei decreased. Comparison of the changes in average percentage of microspores containing a single small nucleus, binucleated microspores, microspores containing a single large nucleus, and multinucleate microspores on days 0, 3, and 6 indicates that nuclei classified as “small” are likely haploids and nuclei classified as “large” are doubled haploids. The percentage of microspores with enlarged nucleus (nuclei) during the first six days of induction culture could be used as an early indicator for the frequency of chromosome doubling in wheat microspore culture.
Funding of Agricultural Research and Development in Ghana: The Case of Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)  [PDF]
Roland Asare, George Owusu Essegbey
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2016.72006
Abstract: Agricultural Research and Development (R&D) investments contribute greatly to economic growth, agricultural development and poverty reduction in developing countries. This paper examines the financial investment and expenditure trends in agricultural R&D in Ghana with emphasis on the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and the implication for the policies driving agricultural research in Ghana. Data from Agricultural Science & Technology Indicator (ASTI) and in-depth studies on agricultural R&D in Ghana were used. Purposive sampling was used to gather data in thirteen agricultural research institutes and five public universities in Ghana. Through questionnaire administration, data were collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study revealed that, total public agricultural R&D expenditure had increased by 59 per cent from 42.5 million (2005 PPP) dollars in 2000 to 67.7 million (2005 PPP) dollars in 2011 and with an average expenditure of 54.1 million (2005 PPP) dollars per year. The total expenditure by CSIR constitutes about 50 per cent of the total agricultural research expenditure in Ghana. The study however, showed a drastic decline in capital investments from 6.7 per cent in 2000 to 0.1 per cent in 2011 of the total government funding with operational cost following similar declining pattern. Still, when considering the totality of funding including salaries and wages, government support is the main source of funding for agricultural R&D in Ghana (85 per cent) with donors (7.3 per cent), sale of goods and services (6.7 per cent) and others serving as complementary sources. Though there have been considerable government investments in agricultural R&D in CSIR over the period, impact on operational and research activities has been minimal as the chunk of it went into payment of salaries and wages. The fundamental challenge is funding the very important operational and research activities which lead to technology development and innovation. Increasing commercialization of research technologies and government investment in agricultural R&D in Ghana, are recommended to address this investment challenge.
Early 20th Century Climate-Driven Shift in the Dynamics of Forest Tent Caterpillar Outbreaks  [PDF]
Barry J. Cooke, Jens Roland
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2018.72017
Abstract: Using tree-ring analysis, we show that the dynamics of forest tent caterpillar [Malacosoma disstria (Hbn.)] outbreaks in Alberta, Canada shifted at the turn of the 20th century from cyclic, synchronous behaviour 1850-1910 to complex, asynchronous behavior 1910-1993. This shift in dynamics coincided with the emergence in 1910 of a latitudinal gradient in outbreak stability and periodicity reflecting a similar gradient in the periodicity of winter temperatures. We postulate that the synchronizing strength of winter temperatures has diminished as a result of climate warming, and that any synchronizing strength due to inter-population migration has been superseded by regionalized patterns of periodic forcing caused by weak low-frequency variability in winter temperatures. We speculate that a decrease in polar vorticity at the start of the 20th century led to increased meridional jet stream flow and more frequent arctic weather anomalies, resulting in a loss of synchronous decadal periodicity in outbreak occurrence. These changes in insect disturbance probabilities, including rising uncertainty, have profound consequences for forest disturbance risk management.
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