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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 201027 matches for " Roland N. Ndip "
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DNA Sequence Analysis of South African Helicobacter pylori Vacuolating Cytotoxin Gene (vacA)
Nicoline F. Tanih,Lucy M. Ndip,Roland N. Ndip
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijms12117459
Abstract: Sequence diversity and population structures can vary widely among pathogenic bacteria species. In some species, all isolates are highly similar, whereas in others most of the isolates are distinguished easily. H. pylori is known for its wide genetic diversity amongst the various strains most especially in the genes involved in virulence. The aim of this study was to evaluate by PCR and sequence analysis, the genetic profile of H. pylori vacA gene (s1, s2, m1 and m2). We sequenced small DNA segments from 13 vacAs1, 10 vacAm2, 6 vacAm1 and 6 vacAs2 strains which were amplified with amplicon size of 259/286 bp, 290 bp and 352 bp for vacAs1/s2, m1 and m2 respectively. Based on similarities among our strains accession numbers were provided for seven vacAs1 (HQ709109–HQ709115), six vacAs2 (JN848463–JN848468), six vacAm1 (JN848469–JN848474) and six vacAm2 (HQ650801–HQ650806) strains. Amongst the strains studied, 98.07%, 98.58%, 97.38% and 95.41% of vacAs1, vacAs2, vacAm1 and vacAm2 of the strains were conserved respectively. Findings of this study underscores the importance of understanding the virulence composition and diversity of H. pylori in South Africa for enhanced clinico-epidemiological monitoring and pathophysiology of disease.
Evaluation of the Acetone and Aqueous Extracts of Mature Stem Bark of Sclerocarya birrea for Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties
Nicoline F. Tanih,Roland N. Ndip
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/834156
Abstract: We assayed the antimicrobial activity of acetone and aqueous extracts of the stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea on some selected bacteria and fungi species including; Streptococcus pyogenes, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella typhimurium, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida glabrata, Trichosporon mucoides, and Candida krusei using both agar well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays. Based on the levels of activity, the acetone extract was examined for total polyphenolic content, radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Total phenols of the extract were determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH, ABTS and reducing power. All the bacteria and fungi species were susceptible to the plant extracts. The acetone extract was the most active for the bacterial species with MIC (0.156–0.625 mg/mL) while the aqueous extract was the most active for the fungi species with MIC (0.3125–1.25 mg/mL). The polyphenolic compounds were found as 27.2 mg/g tannic acid equivalent, 25.2 mg/g quercetin equivalent, 9.1 mg/g quercetin equivalent for phenols, flavonoid and flavonols respectively. The acetone extract exhibited a remarkable ability to scavenge radicals, strong reducing ability and a potential source of natural antioxidants. Both the acetone and aqueous extracts of S. birrea may provide a target for drug discovery.
Molecular Detection and Drug Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex from Cattle at a Dairy Farm in the Nkonkobe Region of South Africa: A Pilot Study
Blessing Silaigwana,Ezekiel Green,Roland N. Ndip
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph9062045
Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) causes tuberculosis (TB) in humans and animals. We investigated the presence of MTBC in cattle milk and its drug resistance using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two hundred samples (100 mL each) were obtained from a dairy farm in the Nkonkobe region of South Africa. The samples were processed using the modified Petroff method. DNA was isolated using a Zymo Bacterial DNA kit and amplified using Seeplex ? MTB Nested ACE assay. The Genotype ? Mycobacterium tuberculosis-multidrug resistant plus (MTBDR plus) assay was used to perform drug susceptibility and detection of mutations conferring resistance to isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF). Eleven samples tested positive for MTBC DNA using the Seeplex ? MTB Nested ACE assay. The Genotype ? MTBDR plus assay showed that 10/11 samples were resistant to both INH and RIF i.e., multi-drug resistant (MDR). The most and least frequent rpoB mutations detected in RIF resistant samples were H526Y (9/10) and D516V (2/10) respectively. None of the INH resistant samples harbored mutations in the katG gene. However, all of them harbored the T8A mutation in the inhA gene. These results have clinical and epidemiological significance and calls for further studies and necessary actions to delineate the situation.
Identification and Antibacterial Evaluation of Bioactive Compounds from Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds
Christinah T. Seanego,Roland N. Ndip
Molecules , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/molecules17066569
Abstract: We assessed the bioactivity of G. kola seeds on Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Plesiomonas shigelloides and Salmonella typhimurium. The crude ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol, acetone and aqueous extracts were screened by the agar-well diffusion method and their activities were further determined by Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) assays. The extracts were fractionated by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Bioautography was used to assess the activity of the possible classes of compounds present in the more active extracts. Column chromatography was used to purify the active compounds from the mixture, while GC-MS was used to identify the phytocomponents of the fractions. The inhibition zone diameters of the extracts ranged from 0–24 ± 1.1 mm, while MIC and MBC values ranged between 0.04–1.25 mg/mL and 0.081–2.5 mg/mL, respectively. The chloroform/ethyl acetate/formic acid (CEF) solvent system separated more active compounds. The MIC of the fractions ranged between 0.0006–2.5 mg/mL. CEF 3 (F3), CEF 11 (F11) and CEF 12 (F12) revealed the presence of high levels of linoleic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid and 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl ester, respectively. The results obtained from this study justify the use of this plant in traditional medicine and provide leads which could be further exploited for the development of new and potent antimicrobials.
Aqueous and Organic Solvent-Extracts of Selected South African Medicinal Plants Possess Antimicrobial Activity against Drug-Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori: Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential
Collise Njume,Afolayan A. Jide,Roland N. Ndip
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijms12095652
Abstract: The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinal plants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos species were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori alongside a reference control strain (NCTC 11638) using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the plants demonstrated anti- H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm and 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC 50) values ranging from 0.06 to 5.0 mg/mL. MIC 50 values for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.63 mg/mL and 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extracts of C. molle and S. birrea exhibited a remarkable bactericidal activity against H. pylori killing more than 50% of the strains within 18 h at 4× MIC and complete elimination of the organisms within 24 h. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to the control antibiotics. However, the activity of the ethanol extract of G. kola was lower than amoxicillin ( P < 0.05) as opposed to metronidazole ( P > 0.05). These results demonstrate that S. birrea, C. molle and G. kola may represent good sources of compounds with anti- H. pylori activity.
The Effect of the Acetone Extract of Arctotis arctotoides (Asteraceae) on the Growth and Ultrastructure of Some Opportunistic Fungi Associated with HIV/AIDS
Wilfred M. Otang,Donald S. Grierson,Roland N. Ndip
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijms12129226
Abstract: In this study, the effect of the acetone extract of Arctotis arctotoides (L.f.) O.?Hoffm. (Asteraceae) on the growth and ultrastructure of some opportunistic fungi associated with HIV/AIDS was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM). Remarkable morphological alterations in the fungal mycelia which were attributed to the loss of cell wall strength ranged from loss of turgidity and uniformity, collapse of entire hyphae to evident destruction of the hyphae. The elements responsible for giving the fungi their characteristic virulence were detected and quantified by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis techniques. X-ray microanalysis showed the specific spectra of sodium, potassium and sulfur as the principal intersection of the four pathogenic fungi studied. Since these ions have the potential of fostering fungal invasion by altering the permeability of hosts’ membranes, their presence was considered inherent to the pathogenicity of the opportunistic fungi. Hence, these findings indicate the potential of the crude extract of A. arctotoides in preventing fungal invasion and subsequent infection of host’s membranes.
Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity of Extracts of the Stem Bark of Bridelia micrantha (Hochst., Baill., Euphorbiaceae)
Benjamin I. Okeleye,Pascal O. Bessong,Roland N. Ndip
Molecules , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/molecules16086193
Abstract: Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for gastritis, ulcers and gastric cancer. This study was aimed to determine the antimicrobial activity of the stem bark of Bridelia. micrantha on H. pylori isolated in South Africa. Extracts and clarithromycin were tested against 31 clinical strains, including a standard strain (NCTC 11638) of H. pylori, by measuring the diameters of the corresponding inhibition zones, followed by determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) (using metronidazole, and amoxicillin as control antibiotics) and the rate of kill. Preliminary phytochemical screening was also done. Inhibition zone diameters which ranged from 0–23 mm were observed for all five of the extracts and 0–35 mm for clarithromycin. Marked susceptibility of strains (100%) was noted for the acetone extract (P < 0.05), followed by ethyl acetate extract (93.5%). The MIC50 values ranged from 0.0048 to 0.156 mg/mL for the ethyl acetate extract and 0.0048 to 0.313 mg/mL for the acetone extract. The MIC90 values ranged from 0.0048 to 2.5 mg/mL for the ethyl acetate extract and 0.078 to >0.625 mg/mL for the acetone extract, respectively. Insignificant statistical difference in potency was observed when comparing the crude ethyl acetate extract to metronidazole and amoxicillin (P > 0.05). Complete killing of strain PE430C by the ethyl acetate extract was observed at 0.1 mg/mL (2 × MIC) and 0.2 mg/mL (4 × MIC) at 66 and 72 h. For strain PE369C, 100% killing was observed at 0.1 mg/mL (2 × MIC) in 66 and 72 h. The ethyl acetate extract could thus be a potential source of lead molecules for the design of new anti-Helicobacter pylori therapies as this study further confirmed the presence of phytochemicals including alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, tannins and saponins.
Evaluation of the Effect of Different Growth Media and Temperature on the Suitability of Biofilm Formation by Enterobacter cloacae Strains Isolated from Food Samples in South Africa
Mirriam E. Nyenje,Ezekiel Green,Roland N. Ndip
Molecules , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/molecules18089582
Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of growth medium, temperature, and incubation time on biofilm formation by Enterobacter cloacae strains. The ability to adhere to a surface was demonstrated using a microtiter plate adherence assay whereas the role of cell surface properties in biofilm formation was assessed using the coaggregation and autoaggregation assays. The architecture of the biofilms was examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM). All the strains adhered to the well of the microtiter plate when incubated for 48 h, irrespective of the growth medium and incubation temperature. It was also noted that 90% and 73% of strains prepared from nutrient broth and cultured in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and tryptic soy broth (TSB), respectively, were able to form biofilms, in contrast to 73% and 60% strains from nutrient agar and cultured in BHI and TSB respectively grown under similar conditions. However, no statistically significant difference was observed when the two methods were compared. The coaggregation index ranged from 12% to 74%, with the best coaggregate activity observed when partnered with Streptococcus pyogenes (54%–74%). The study indicates the suitability of BHI and TSB medium for the cultivation of E. cloacae biofilms, however, temperature and incubation time significantly affect biofilm formation by these bacteria.
Current Status of Antibiograms of Listeria ivanovii and Enterobacter cloacae Isolated from Ready-To-Eat Foods in Alice, South Africa
Mirriam E. Nyenje,Nicoline F. Tanih,Ezekiel Green,Roland N. Ndip
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph9093101
Abstract: This study assessed the antimicrobial susceptibility of 51 Listeria ivanovii and 33 Enterobacter cloacae strains isolated from various ready-to-eat foods sold in Alice, South Africa. Isolates were identified using standard microbiological tests and further confirmed using API 20E and API Listeria kits. The disc diffusion technique was used to screen for antimicrobial susceptibility against 15 antimicrobials; minimum inhibitory concentration of five antibiotics was determined by the broth dilution method. All the strains of E . cloacae (100%) and 96% of L. ivanovii isolates were resistant to at least four or more of the antibiotics; nineteen antibiotypes were obtained based on the antibiotics used in the study. Antibiotype A5: A R PG R VA R E R AP R was predominant in both L. ivanovii (23.5%) and E. cloacae (57.5%) isolates. Marked susceptibility of Listeria ivanovii was observed against chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (100%) each while E. cloacae registered 100% susceptibility to ciprofloxacin only. Various percentages of susceptibility was reported to chloramphenicol and gentamicin (91%) each, nalidixic acid (97%) and streptomycin (94%). The MIC 90 ranged from 0.004–7.5 μg/mL with E. cloacae being the most susceptible organism. The study demonstrated the presence of multi-resistant strains of bacteria in ready-to-eat-foods and speculates that these foods could serve as important vehicles transmitting multi-resistant bacteria to humans.
Volatile Compounds in Honey: A Review on Their Involvement in Aroma, Botanical Origin Determination and Potential Biomedical Activities
Christy E. Manyi-Loh,Roland N. Ndip,Anna M. Clarke
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijms12129514
Abstract: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in honey are obtained from diverse biosynthetic pathways and extracted by using various methods associated with varying degrees of selectivity and effectiveness. These compounds are grouped into chemical categories such as aldehyde, ketone, acid, alcohol, hydrocarbon, norisoprenoids, terpenes and benzene compounds and their derivatives, furan and pyran derivatives. They represent a fingerprint of a specific honey and therefore could be used to differentiate between monofloral honeys from different floral sources, thus providing valuable information concerning the honey’s botanical and geographical origin. However, only plant derived compounds and their metabolites (terpenes, norisoprenoids and benzene compounds and their derivatives) must be employed to discriminate among floral origins of honey. Notwithstanding, many authors have reported different floral markers for honey of the same floral origin, consequently sensory analysis, in conjunction with analysis of VOCs could help to clear this ambiguity. Furthermore, VOCs influence honey’s aroma described as sweet, citrus, floral, almond, rancid, etc. Clearly, the contribution of a volatile compound to honey aroma is determined by its odor activity value. Elucidation of the aroma compounds along with floral origins of a particular honey can help to standardize its quality and avoid fraudulent labeling of the product. Although only present in low concentrations, VOCS could contribute to biomedical activities of honey, especially the antioxidant effect due to their natural radical scavenging potential.
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