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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9880 matches for " Roland Krüger equal contributor "
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The Roles of APC and Axin Derived from Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of the Wnt Pathway
Ethan Lee equal contributor,Adrian Salic equal contributor,Roland Krüger equal contributor,Reinhart Heinrich ,Marc W Kirschner
PLOS Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0000010
Abstract: Wnt signaling plays an important role in both oncogenesis and development. Activation of the Wnt pathway results in stabilization of the transcriptional coactivator β-catenin. Recent studies have demonstrated that axin, which coordinates β-catenin degradation, is itself degraded. Although the key molecules required for transducing a Wnt signal have been identified, a quantitative understanding of this pathway has been lacking. We have developed a mathematical model for the canonical Wnt pathway that describes the interactions among the core components: Wnt, Frizzled, Dishevelled, GSK3β, APC, axin, β-catenin, and TCF. Using a system of differential equations, the model incorporates the kinetics of protein–protein interactions, protein synthesis/degradation, and phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. We initially defined a reference state of kinetic, thermodynamic, and flux data from experiments using Xenopus extracts. Predictions based on the analysis of the reference state were used iteratively to develop a more refined model from which we analyzed the effects of prolonged and transient Wnt stimulation on β-catenin and axin turnover. We predict several unusual features of the Wnt pathway, some of which we tested experimentally. An insight from our model, which we confirmed experimentally, is that the two scaffold proteins axin and APC promote the formation of degradation complexes in very different ways. We can also explain the importance of axin degradation in amplifying and sharpening the Wnt signal, and we show that the dependence of axin degradation on APC is an essential part of an unappreciated regulatory loop that prevents the accumulation of β-catenin at decreased APC concentrations. By applying control analysis to our mathematical model, we demonstrate the modular design, sensitivity, and robustness of the Wnt pathway and derive an explicit expression for tumor suppression and oncogenicity.
Epigenetic Silencing of Spermatocyte-Specific and Neuronal Genes by SUMO Modification of the Transcription Factor Sp3
Bastian Stielow equal contributor,Imme Krüger equal contributor,Rolf Diezko,Florian Finkernagel,Nynke Gillemans,John Kong-a-San,Sjaak Philipsen,Guntram Suske
PLOS Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1001203
Abstract: SUMO modification of transcription factors is linked to repression of transcription. The physiological significance of SUMO attachment to a particular transcriptional regulator, however, is largely unknown. We have employed the ubiquitously expressed murine transcription factor Sp3 to analyze the role of SUMOylation in vivo. We generated mice and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) carrying a subtle point mutation in the SUMO attachment sequence of Sp3 (IKEE553D mutation). The E553D mutation impedes SUMOylation of Sp3 at K551 in vivo, without affecting Sp3 protein levels. Expression profiling revealed that spermatocyte-specific genes, such as Dmc1 and Dnahc8, and neuronal genes, including Paqr6, Rims3, and Robo3, are de-repressed in non-testicular and extra-neuronal mouse tissues and in mouse embryonic fibroblasts expressing the SUMOylation-deficient Sp3E553D mutant protein. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that transcriptional de-repression of these genes is accompanied by the loss of repressive heterochromatic marks such as H3K9 and H4K20 tri-methylation and impaired recruitment of repressive chromatin-modifying enzymes. Finally, analysis of the DNA methylation state of the Dmc1, Paqr6, and Rims3 promoters by bisulfite sequencing revealed that these genes are highly methylated in Sp3wt MEFs but are unmethylated in Sp3E553D MEFs linking SUMOylation of Sp3 to tissue-specific CpG methylation. Our results establish SUMO conjugation to Sp3 as a molecular beacon for the assembly of repression machineries to maintain tissue-specific transcriptional gene silencing.
Integrative “Omics”-Approach Discovers Dynamic and Regulatory Features of Bacterial Stress Responses
Bork A. Berghoff equal contributor ,Anne Konzer equal contributor,Nils N. Mank,Mario Looso,Tom Rische,Konrad U. F?rstner,Marcus Krüger,Gabriele Klug
PLOS Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003576
Abstract: Bacteria constantly face stress conditions and therefore mount specific responses to ensure adaptation and survival. Stress responses were believed to be predominantly regulated at the transcriptional level. In the phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides the response to singlet oxygen is initiated by alternative sigma factors. Further adaptive mechanisms include post-transcriptional and post-translational events, which have to be considered to gain a deeper understanding of how sophisticated regulation networks operate. To address this issue, we integrated three layers of regulation: (1) total mRNA levels at different time-points revealed dynamics of the transcriptome, (2) mRNAs in polysome fractions reported on translational regulation (translatome), and (3) SILAC-based mass spectrometry was used to quantify protein abundances (proteome). The singlet oxygen stress response exhibited highly dynamic features regarding short-term effects and late adaptation, which could in part be assigned to the sigma factors RpoE and RpoH2 generating distinct expression kinetics of corresponding regulons. The occurrence of polar expression patterns of genes within stress-inducible operons pointed to an alternative of dynamic fine-tuning upon stress. In addition to transcriptional activation, we observed significant induction of genes at the post-transcriptional level (translatome), which identified new putative regulators and assigned genes of quorum sensing to the singlet oxygen stress response. Intriguingly, the SILAC approach explored the stress-dependent decline of photosynthetic proteins, but also identified 19 new open reading frames, which were partly validated by RNA-seq. We propose that comparative approaches as presented here will help to create multi-layered expression maps on the system level (“expressome”). Finally, intense mass spectrometry combined with RNA-seq might be the future tool of choice to re-annotate genomes in various organisms and will help to understand how they adapt to alternating conditions.
Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Clades V and VI (Europe 1 and 2) in Ticks in Kosovo, 2012
Kurtesh Sherifi equal contributor,Daniel Cadar equal contributor,Skender Muji,Avni Robaj,Salih Ahmeti,Xhevat Jakupi,Petra Emmerich,Andreas Krüger
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003168
Abstract: Despite being a small country, Kosovo represents one of the few foci of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Europe. The distribution of Kosovar tick vectors and the evolution of CCHF virus in ticks are both as yet unknown. A better description of the extent and the genetic diversity of CCHFV in ticks from endemic settings is essential, in order to be controlled. We investigated the 2012 distribution of Kosovar ticks alongside the prevalence and the phylogeography of tick-derived CCHFV. Hyalomma marginatum dominated in the endemic municipalities with 90.2% versus 24.3% in the non-endemic regions. Of 1,102 tested ticks, 40 (3.6%) were CCHFV-positive, belonging to H. marginatum (29), Rhipicephalus bursa (10), and Ixodes ricinus (1). The virus strains clustered with clade V and VI related sequences. They fell into two lineages: Kosovo I and II. Kosovo I comprised strains recovered exclusively from R. bursa ticks and was closely related to AP92 prototype strain. Kosovo II clustered into Kosovo IIa, including human-derived strains, and IIb including only strains detected in H. marginatum and I. ricinus. Our phylogeographic reconstruction suggests two temporally distinct CCHFV introductions: the most probable location of the most recent common ancestor of Kosovo I lineage was in Greece (63 years ago) and that of lineages IIa-b in Turkey (35 years ago). After each CCHFV introduction into Kosovo, subsequent lineage expansions suggest periods of in situ evolution. The study provides the first insight into the genetic variability and the origin of CCHFV in ticks from Kosovo. Our findings indicate the spreading of CCHFV to non-endemic areas, which underlines the importance of further studies in order to monitor and predict future CCHF outbreaks in Kosovo. The AP92-like strains appear to be more widespread than previously thought and may provide a promising target for experimental studies due to their assumed low pathogenicity.
SLO-1-Channels of Parasitic Nematodes Reconstitute Locomotor Behaviour and Emodepside Sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans slo-1 Loss of Function Mutants
Claudia Welz equal contributor,Nina Krüger equal contributor,Monika Schniederjans,Sandra M. Miltsch,Jürgen Krücken,Marcus Guest,Lindy Holden-Dye,Achim Harder,Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna
PLOS Pathogens , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001330
Abstract: The calcium-gated potassium channel SLO-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans was recently identified as key component for action of emodepside, a new anthelmintic drug with broad spectrum activity. In this study we identified orthologues of slo-1 in Ancylostoma caninum, Cooperia oncophora, and Haemonchus contortus, all important parasitic nematodes in veterinary medicine. Furthermore, functional analyses of these slo-1 orthologues were performed using heterologous expression in C. elegans. We expressed A. caninum and C. oncophora slo-1 in the emodepside-resistant genetic background of the slo-1 loss-of-function mutant NM1968 slo-1(js379). Transformants expressing A. caninum slo-1 from C. elegans slo-1 promoter were highly susceptible (compared to the fully emodepside-resistant slo-1(js379)) and showed no significant difference in their emodepside susceptibility compared to wild-type C. elegans (p = 0.831). Therefore, the SLO-1 channels of A. caninum and C. elegans appear to be completely functionally interchangeable in terms of emodepside sensitivity. Furthermore, we tested the ability of the 5′ flanking regions of A. caninum and C. oncophora slo-1 to drive expression of SLO-1 in C. elegans and confirmed functionality of the putative promoters in this heterologous system. For all transgenic lines tested, expression of either native C. elegans slo-1 or the parasite-derived orthologue rescued emodepside sensitivity in slo-1(js379) and the locomotor phenotype of increased reversal frequency confirming the reconstitution of SLO-1 function in the locomotor circuits. A potent mammalian SLO-1 channel inhibitor, penitrem A, showed emodepside antagonising effects in A. caninum and C. elegans. The study combined the investigation of new anthelmintic targets from parasitic nematodes and experimental use of the respective target genes in C. elegans, therefore closing the gap between research approaches using model nematodes and those using target organisms. Considering the still scarcely advanced techniques for genetic engineering of parasitic nematodes, the presented method provides an excellent opportunity for examining the pharmacofunction of anthelmintic targets derived from parasitic nematodes.
Association of eGFR-Related Loci Identified by GWAS with Incident CKD and ESRD
Carsten A. B?ger,Mathias Gorski,Man Li,Michael M. Hoffmann,Chunmei Huang,Qiong Yang,Alexander Teumer,Vera Krane,Conall M. O'Seaghdha,Zoltán Kutalik,H.-Erich Wichmann,Thomas Haak,Eva Boes,Stefan Coassin,Josef Coresh,Barbara Kollerits,Margot Haun,Bernhard Paulweber,Anna K?ttgen,Guo Li,Michael G. Shlipak,Neil Powe,Shih-Jen Hwang,Abbas Dehghan,Fernando Rivadeneira,André Uitterlinden,Albert Hofman,Jacques S. Beckmann,Bernhard K. Kr?mer,Jacqueline Witteman,Murielle Bochud,David Siscovick,Rainer Rettig,Florian Kronenberg,Christoph Wanner,Ravi I. Thadhani,Iris M. Heid,Caroline S. Fox equal contributor ,W. H. Kao equal contributor ,The CKDGen Consortium
PLOS Genetics , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002292
Abstract: Family studies suggest a genetic component to the etiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end stage renal disease (ESRD). Previously, we identified 16 loci for eGFR in genome-wide association studies, but the associations of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for incident CKD or ESRD are unknown. We thus investigated the association of these loci with incident CKD in 26,308 individuals of European ancestry free of CKD at baseline drawn from eight population-based cohorts followed for a median of 7.2 years (including 2,122 incident CKD cases defined as eGFR <60ml/min/1.73m2 at follow-up) and with ESRD in four case-control studies in subjects of European ancestry (3,775 cases, 4,577 controls). SNPs at 11 of the 16 loci (UMOD, PRKAG2, ANXA9, DAB2, SHROOM3, DACH1, STC1, SLC34A1, ALMS1/NAT8, UBE2Q2, and GCKR) were associated with incident CKD; p-values ranged from p = 4.1e-9 in UMOD to p = 0.03 in GCKR. After adjusting for baseline eGFR, six of these loci remained significantly associated with incident CKD (UMOD, PRKAG2, ANXA9, DAB2, DACH1, and STC1). SNPs in UMOD (OR = 0.92, p = 0.04) and GCKR (OR = 0.93, p = 0.03) were nominally associated with ESRD. In summary, the majority of eGFR-related loci are either associated or show a strong trend towards association with incident CKD, but have modest associations with ESRD in individuals of European descent. Additional work is required to characterize the association of genetic determinants of CKD and ESRD at different stages of disease progression.
Gene-Lifestyle Interaction and Type 2 Diabetes: The EPIC InterAct Case-Cohort Study
Claudia Langenberg equal contributor ,Stephen J. Sharp equal contributor,Paul W. Franks equal contributor,Robert A. Scott,Panos Deloukas,Nita G. Forouhi,Philippe Froguel,Leif C. Groop,Torben Hansen,Luigi Palla,Oluf Pedersen,Matthias B. Schulze,Maria-Jose Tormo,Eleanor Wheeler,Claudia Agnoli,Larraitz Arriola,Aurelio Barricarte,Heiner Boeing,Geraldine M. Clarke,Fran?oise Clavel-Chapelon,Eric J. Duell,Guy Fagherazzi,Rudolf Kaaks,Nicola D. Kerrison,Timothy J. Key,Kay Tee Khaw,Janine Krger,Martin Lajous,Andrew P. Morris,Carmen Navarro,Peter M. Nilsson,Kim Overvad,Domenico Palli,Salvatore Panico,J. Ramón Quirós,Olov Rolandsson,Carlotta Sacerdote,María-José Sánchez,Nadia Slimani,Annemieke M. W. Spijkerman,Rosario Tumino,Daphne L. van der A,Yvonne T. van der Schouw,Inês Barroso,Mark I. McCarthy,Elio Riboli,Nicholas J. Wareham
PLOS Medicine , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001647
Abstract: Background Understanding of the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has progressed rapidly, but the interactions between common genetic variants and lifestyle risk factors have not been systematically investigated in studies with adequate statistical power. Therefore, we aimed to quantify the combined effects of genetic and lifestyle factors on risk of T2D in order to inform strategies for prevention. Methods and Findings The InterAct study includes 12,403 incident T2D cases and a representative sub-cohort of 16,154 individuals from a cohort of 340,234 European participants with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up. We studied the combined effects of an additive genetic T2D risk score and modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors using Prentice-weighted Cox regression and random effects meta-analysis methods. The effect of the genetic score was significantly greater in younger individuals (p for interaction = 1.20×10?4). Relative genetic risk (per standard deviation [4.4 risk alleles]) was also larger in participants who were leaner, both in terms of body mass index (p for interaction = 1.50×10?3) and waist circumference (p for interaction = 7.49×10?9). Examination of absolute risks by strata showed the importance of obesity for T2D risk. The 10-y cumulative incidence of T2D rose from 0.25% to 0.89% across extreme quartiles of the genetic score in normal weight individuals, compared to 4.22% to 7.99% in obese individuals. We detected no significant interactions between the genetic score and sex, diabetes family history, physical activity, or dietary habits assessed by a Mediterranean diet score. Conclusions The relative effect of a T2D genetic risk score is greater in younger and leaner participants. However, this sub-group is at low absolute risk and would not be a logical target for preventive interventions. The high absolute risk associated with obesity at any level of genetic risk highlights the importance of universal rather than targeted approaches to lifestyle intervention. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Massive Depletion of Bovine Leukemia Virus Proviral Clones Located in Genomic Transcriptionally Active Sites during Primary Infection
Nicolas A. Gillet ,Gerónimo Gutiérrez equal contributor,Sabrina M. Rodriguez equal contributor,Alix de Brogniez equal contributor,Nathalie Renotte,Irene Alvarez,Karina Trono,Luc Willems
PLOS Pathogens , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003687
Abstract: Deltaretroviruses such as human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) induce a persistent infection that remains generally asymptomatic but can also lead to leukemia or lymphoma. These viruses replicate by infecting new lymphocytes (i.e. the infectious cycle) or via clonal expansion of the infected cells (mitotic cycle). The relative importance of these two cycles in viral replication varies during infection. The majority of infected clones are created early before the onset of an efficient immune response. Later on, the main replication route is mitotic expansion of pre-existing infected clones. Due to the paucity of available samples and for ethical reasons, only scarce data is available on early infection by HTLV-1. Therefore, we addressed this question in a comparative BLV model. We used high-throughput sequencing to map and quantify the insertion sites of the provirus in order to monitor the clonality of the BLV-infected cells population (i.e. the number of distinct clones and abundance of each clone). We found that BLV propagation shifts from cell neoinfection to clonal proliferation in about 2 months from inoculation. Initially, BLV proviral integration significantly favors transcribed regions of the genome. Negative selection then eliminates 97% of the clones detected at seroconversion and disfavors BLV-infected cells carrying a provirus located close to a promoter or a gene. Nevertheless, among the surviving proviruses, clone abundance positively correlates with proximity of the provirus to a transcribed region. Two opposite forces thus operate during primary infection and dictate the fate of long term clonal composition: (1) initial integration inside genes or promoters and (2) host negative selection disfavoring proviruses located next to transcribed regions. The result of this initial response will contribute to the proviral load set point value as clonal abundance will benefit from carrying a provirus in transcribed regions.
Integrating Computational Biology and Forward Genetics in Drosophila
Stein Aerts equal contributor,Sven Vilain equal contributor,Shu Hu equal contributor,Leon-Charles Tranchevent equal contributor,Roland Barriot,Jiekun Yan,Yves Moreau,Bassem A. Hassan ,Xiao-Jiang Quan equal contributor
PLOS Genetics , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000351
Abstract: Genetic screens are powerful methods for the discovery of gene–phenotype associations. However, a systems biology approach to genetics must leverage the massive amount of “omics” data to enhance the power and speed of functional gene discovery in vivo. Thus far, few computational methods for gene function prediction have been rigorously tested for their performance on a genome-wide scale in vivo. In this work, we demonstrate that integrating genome-wide computational gene prioritization with large-scale genetic screening is a powerful tool for functional gene discovery. To discover genes involved in neural development in Drosophila, we extend our strategy for the prioritization of human candidate disease genes to functional prioritization in Drosophila. We then integrate this prioritization strategy with a large-scale genetic screen for interactors of the proneural transcription factor Atonal using genomic deficiencies and mutant and RNAi collections. Using the prioritized genes validated in our genetic screen, we describe a novel genetic interaction network for Atonal. Lastly, we prioritize the whole Drosophila genome and identify candidate gene associations for ten receptor-signaling pathways. This novel database of prioritized pathway candidates, as well as a web application for functional prioritization in Drosophila, called Endeavour-HighFly, and the Atonal network, are publicly available resources. A systems genetics approach that combines the power of computational predictions with in vivo genetic screens strongly enhances the process of gene function and gene–gene association discovery.
Cytokine Responses to Novel Antigens in an Indian Population Living in an Area Endemic for Visceral Leishmaniasis
Om Prakash Singh,Carmel B. Stober,Abhishek Kr. Singh,Jenefer M. Blackwell equal contributor ,Shyam Sundar equal contributor
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001874
Abstract: Background There are no effective vaccines for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a neglected parasitic disease second only to malaria in global mortality. We previously identified 14 protective candidates in a screen of 100 Leishmania antigens as DNA vaccines in mice. Here we employ whole blood assays to evaluate human cytokine responses to 11 of these antigens, in comparison to known defined and crude antigen preparations. Methods Whole blood assays were employed to measure IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 responses to peptide pools of the novel antigens R71, Q51, L37, N52, L302.06, J89, M18, J41, M22, M63, M57, as well as to recombinant proteins of tryparedoxin peroxidase (TRYP), Leishmania homolog of the receptor for activated C kinase (LACK) and to crude soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA), in Indian patients with active (n = 8) or cured (n = 16) VL, and in modified Quantiferon positive (EHC+ve, n = 20) or modified Quantiferon negative (EHC?ve, n = 9) endemic healthy controls (EHC). Results Active VL, cured VL and EHC+ve groups showed elevated SLA-specific IFN-γ, but only active VL patients produced IL-10 and EHC+ve did not make TNF-α. IFN-γ to IL-10 and TNF-α to IL-10 ratios in response to TRYP and LACK antigens were higher in cured VL and EHC+ve exposed individuals compared to active VL. Five of the eleven novel candidates (R71, L37, N52, J41, and M22) elicited IFN-γ and TNF-α, but not IL-10, responses in cured VL (55–87.5% responders) and EHC+ve (40–65% responders) subjects. Conclusions Our results are consistent with an important balance between pro-inflammatory IFNγ and TNFγ cytokine responses and anti-inflammatory IL-10 in determining outcome of VL in India, as highlighted by response to both crude and defined protein antigens. Importantly, cured VL patients and endemic Quantiferon positive individuals recognise 5 novel vaccine candidate antigens, confirming our recent data for L. chagasi in Brazil, and their potential as cross-species vaccine candidates.
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