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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1397 matches for " Roine Johansson "
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Clustering and inertia: structural integration of home care in Swedish elderly care
Nils Olof Hedman,Roine Johansson,Urban Rosenqvist
International Journal of Integrated Care , 2007,
Abstract: Purpose: To study the design and distribution of different organizational solutions regarding the responsibility for and provision of home care for elderly in Swedish municipalities. Method: Directors of the social welfare services in all Swedish municipalities received a questionnaire about old-age care organization, especially home care services and related activities. Rate of response was 73% (211/289). Results: Three different organizational models of home care were identified. The models represented different degrees of integration of home care, i.e. health and social aspects of home care were to varying degrees integrated in the same organization. The county councils (i.e. large sub-national political-administrative units) tended to contain clusters of municipalities (smaller sub-national units) with the same organizational characteristics. Thus, municipalities' home care organization followed a county council pattern. In spite of a general tendency for Swedish municipalities to reorganize their activities, only 1% of them had changed their home care services organization in relation to the county council since the reform. Conclusion: The decentralist intention of the reform—to give actors at the sub-national levels freedom to integrate home care according to varying local circumstances—has resulted in a sub-national inter-organizational network structure at the county council, rather than municipal, level, which is highly inert and difficult to change.
Lipids of Archaeal Viruses
Elina Roine,Dennis H. Bamford
Archaea , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/384919
Abstract: Archaeal viruses represent one of the least known territory of the viral universe and even less is known about their lipids. Based on the current knowledge, however, it seems that, as in other viruses, archaeal viral lipids are mostly incorporated into membranes that reside either as outer envelopes or membranes inside an icosahedral capsid. Mechanisms for the membrane acquisition seem to be similar to those of viruses infecting other host organisms. There are indications that also some proteins of archaeal viruses are lipid modified. Further studies on the characterization of lipids in archaeal viruses as well as on their role in virion assembly and infectivity require not only highly purified viral material but also, for example, constant evaluation of the adaptability of emerging technologies for their analysis. Biological membranes contain proteins and membranes of archaeal viruses are not an exception. Archaeal viruses as relatively simple systems can be used as excellent tools for studying the lipid protein interactions in archaeal membranes.
Lipids of Archaeal Viruses
Elina Roine,Dennis H. Bamford
Archaea , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/384919
Abstract: Archaeal viruses represent one of the least known territory of the viral universe and even less is known about their lipids. Based on the current knowledge, however, it seems that, as in other viruses, archaeal viral lipids are mostly incorporated into membranes that reside either as outer envelopes or membranes inside an icosahedral capsid. Mechanisms for the membrane acquisition seem to be similar to those of viruses infecting other host organisms. There are indications that also some proteins of archaeal viruses are lipid modified. Further studies on the characterization of lipids in archaeal viruses as well as on their role in virion assembly and infectivity require not only highly purified viral material but also, for example, constant evaluation of the adaptability of emerging technologies for their analysis. Biological membranes contain proteins and membranes of archaeal viruses are not an exception. Archaeal viruses as relatively simple systems can be used as excellent tools for studying the lipid protein interactions in archaeal membranes. 1. Introduction Viruses are obligate parasites. Their hallmark is the virion, an infectious particle made of proteins and encapsidating the viral genome. Many viruses, however, also contain lipids as essential components of the virion [1]. The majority of viral lipids are found in membranes, but viral proteins can also be modified with lipids [2, 3]. 1.1. Membrane Containing Viruses in the Viral Universe Membrane containing viruses can roughly be divided into two subclasses [1]. The first subclass contains viruses in which the membrane, also called an envelope, is the outermost layer of the viral particle. In the second class of viruses, the membrane is underneath the usually icosahedral protein capsid. Few viruses contain both the inner membrane as well as an envelope [1]. Lipid membranes of viruses have evolved into essential components of virions that in many cases seem to be involved in the initial stages of infection [4–6]. The majority of membrane containing viruses infect animals both vertebrate and invertebrate that do not have a cell wall surrounding the cytoplasmic membrane. For other host organisms such as plants and prokaryotes there are much fewer membrane containing viruses known [1]. Usually the cells of these organisms are covered with a cell wall. By far the majority of known viruses that infect prokaryotes, that is, bacteria (bacteriophages), and archaea (archaeal viruses) belong to the order Caudovirales, the tailed viruses (Figure 1) [1, 7]. These viruses are made of the icosahedrally
Application of Pedagogical Perspectives in the Teaching and Training of New Cataract Surgeons—A Literature-Based Essay  [PDF]
Bj?rn Johansson
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2013.33015
Abstract:

Cataract is the most common cause of visual impairment that can be effectively treated by surgery and cataract surgery is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the world. With modern cataract operation techniques, patients expect excellent results. Teaching and training of new surgeons involve both pedagogical and ethical challenges for teachers and trainees, and also may pose a potential risk to patients. This literature-based essay aims to describe how behavioristic, cognitive and conceptual learning perspectives can be recognized during the trainee surgeons progress. It also describes how teacher-pupil relationships may vary during the training process. Finally it presents the concept of situational tutorship, where the teacher adapts to the stages that the trainee passes through with increasing experience. Teaching and trainee surgeons who are aware of pedagogical concepts such as teacher-pupil relationships and tutoring strategies may use this knowledge to optimize the learning process. Further research is needed to clarify how using this knowledge may affect the training of new cataract surgeons.

Isotropic non-white matter partial volume effects in constrained spherical deconvolution
Timo Roine,Ben Jeurissen,Daniele Perrone,Alexander Leemans,Jan Sijbers
Frontiers in Neuroinformatics , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fninf.2014.00028
Abstract: Diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive imaging method, which can be used to investigate neural tracts in the white matter (WM) of the brain. Significant partial volume effects (PVEs) are present in the DW signal due to relatively large voxel sizes. These PVEs can be caused by both non-WM tissue, such as gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and by multiple non-parallel WM fiber populations. High angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) methods have been developed to correctly characterize complex WM fiber configurations, but to date, many of the HARDI methods do not account for non-WM PVEs. In this work, we investigated the isotropic PVEs caused by non-WM tissue in WM voxels on fiber orientations extracted with constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD). Experiments were performed on simulated and real DW-MRI data. In particular, simulations were performed to demonstrate the effects of varying the diffusion weightings, signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), fiber configurations, and tissue fractions. Our results show that the presence of non-WM tissue signal causes a decrease in the precision of the detected fiber orientations and an increase in the detection of false peaks in CSD. We estimated 35–50% of WM voxels to be affected by non-WM PVEs. For HARDI sequences, which typically have a relatively high degree of diffusion weighting, these adverse effects are most pronounced in voxels with GM PVEs. The non-WM PVEs become severe with 50% GM volume for maximum spherical harmonics orders of 8 and below, and already with 25% GM volume for higher orders. In addition, a low diffusion weighting or SNR increases the effects. The non-WM PVEs may cause problems in connectomics, where reliable fiber tracking at the WM–GM interface is especially important. We suggest acquiring data with high diffusion-weighting 2500–3000 s/mm2, reasonable SNR (~30) and using lower SH orders in GM contaminated regions to minimize the non-WM PVEs in CSD.
Insomnia is associated to depressive symptoms in patients with chronic heart failure  [PDF]
Peter Johansson, Anders Brostr?m
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2013.31005
Abstract:
Introduction: Insomnia and depressive symptoms are common among patients with chronic heart failure (HF). Aim: The aim was to describe the prevalence of insomnia and depressive symptoms, as well as to examine the association between insomnia and depressive symptoms in patients with HF. Method: A crosssectional descriptive study including 212 patients with HF. All patients responded to questionnaires regarding sleeping difficulties (Uppsala Sleep Inventory-Chronic Heart Failure), daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale) and depressive symptoms (The Mental Health Scale). Results: Patients with depressive symptoms (34%) had, compared to those without, significantly more major complaints of insomnia as indicated by the sub-types; non-restorative sleep (66% vs. 32%, p < 0.0001), difficulty in maintaining sleep (35% vs. 16%, p = 0.003), difficulty in initiating sleep (29% vs. 14%, p = 0.009) and early morning awakenings (25% vs. 10%, p = 0.004). The odds ratio (OR) to suffer from depressive symptoms; were for; non-restorative sleep 5.2 (CI 95%, 2.2 - 12.3), difficulties maintaining sleep 2.5 (CI 95%, 1.2 - 4.9), difficulties in initiating sleep 2.2 (CI 95%, 1.1 - 4.4) and early morning awakenings 2.4 (CI 95%, 1.1 - 5.4). When categorising insomnia into three severity groups, 1) non insomnia, 2) mild insomnia, and 3) severe insomnia, the OR for depressive symptoms for the mild insomnia and severe insomnia group were 2.2 (CI 95%, 1.1 - 4.2) and 7.4 (CI 95%, 2.4 - 22.8) respectively, compared to the non insomnia group. Conclusion: Insomnia is independently associated to depressive symptoms. Assessment of depressive symptoms and insomnia in patients with HF is important since treatment could be targeted to depressive symptoms only and/or to the sleep disturbance.
Site Index Curves for Young Hybrid Larch Growing on Former Farmland in Sweden
Tord Johansson
Forests , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/f3030723
Abstract: Site index (SI) curves for H 20 (dominant height at 20 years total age) were constructed for hybrid larch ( Larix × eurolepis Henry) growing in 26 stands on former farmland in southern and central Sweden (Latitude 56–60° N.). The mean total age of the stands was 23 ± 10 (range 17–49) years; the mean diameter at breast height (ob) was 16 (7–34) cm; the mean height was 14 (8–29) m; and the stands had a mean density of 993 (266–2195) stems ha ?1. A model derived by Cieszewski (2001) performed best for the data. The model explained 99% of the observed variation in height development. No apparent bias across the range of predicted site indices was found. SI was examined in relation to soil types. Multiple samples were available for three soil types: light clay, medium clay and till. There were no significant differences between these soil types with respect to the choice of SI curve.
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Leukotoxin: A Powerful Tool with Capacity to Cause Imbalance in the Host Inflammatory Response
Anders Johansson
Toxins , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/toxins3030242
Abstract: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been described as a member of the indigenous oral microbiota of humans, and is involved in the pathology of periodontitis and various non-oral infections. This bacterium selectively kills human leukocytes through expression of leukotoxin, a large pore-forming protein that belongs to the Repeat in Toxin (RTX) family. The specificity of the toxin is related to its prerequisite for a specific target cell receptor, LFA-1, which is solely expressed on leukocytes. The leukotoxin causes death of different leukocyte populations in a variety of ways. It activates a rapid release of lysosomal enzymes and MMPs from neutrophils and causes apoptosis in lymphocytes. In the monocytes/macrophages, the toxin activates caspase-1, a cysteine proteinase, which causes a proinflammatory response by the activation and secretion of IL-1β and IL-18. A specific clone (JP2) of A. actinomycetemcomitans with enhanced leukotoxin expression significantly correlates to disease onset in infected individuals. Taken together, the mechanisms by which this toxin kills leukocytes are closely related to the pathogenic mechanisms of inflammatory disorders, such as periodontitis. Therapeutic strategies targeting the cellular and molecular inflammatory host response in periodontal diseases might be a future treatment alternative.
History of the world allergy organization: Time to change!
SGO Johansson
World Allergy Organization Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1097/wox.0b013e31823c029c
Abstract:
The consequences of the heterosexual norm
Anna Johansson
Libreas : Library Ideas , 2008,
Abstract: Librarians may exclude people accidentally. This is so because there is a widespread use of classifications and subject headings reflecting the heterosexual norm. Critical classification theory tackles this norm for the reason that it affects the retrieval of gay literature. In order to allow a reconsideration of this exclusive practice in the LIS community I challenge two main questions: Firstly, how does the heterosexual norm appear in classification systems and subject headings lists? And secondly, what are the consequences of that practice for the retrieval of gay literature?This paper focuses on the professional practise in Swedish public libraries. If subject cataloguing prevents Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals and Transgender (LGBT) finding their literatures, then Swedish public libraries are upholders of the exclusive heterosexual norm in society.
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