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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10401 matches for " Rodrigo; Arnaiz "
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Razón cintura estatura como predictor de riesgo cardiometabólico en ni os y adolescentes Waist-Height ratio as a predictor if cardio-metabolic risk in children
Pilar Arnaiz,Mónica Acevedo,Carlos Díaz,Rodrigo Bancalari
Revista Chilena de Cardiología , 2010,
Abstract: En ni os, la obesidad general y visceral se asocian con mayor riesgo cardiometabólico. El aumento en la prevalencia del síndrome metabólico (SM) en ni os y adolescentes empeora el riesgo cardiovascular. Necesitamos contar con nuevos marcadores que permitan predecir el SM en ni os. Objetivo: Comparar índice de masa corporal (zIMC) con razón cintura estatura (RCE) como pre-dictores de SM en ni os chilenos. Método: Estudio transversal en 618 escolares, edad 10.8± 1.9 a os, 51.6% mujeres, 190 eutróficos, 174 sobrepeso, 254 obesos, estrato socioeconómico medio y medio bajo, área urbana de Santiago. Determinamos peso, talla, circunferencia de cintura, presión arterial, perfil lipídico y glicemia. Diagnóstico de SM basado en la presencia de > 3 criterios de Cook. El SM se modeló en función de RCE y z score IMC , con modelos de regresión logística. Se usaron curvas ROC para comparar RCE y zIMC como predictores de SM. Punto de corte según índice de YOUDEN. Resultados: La prevalencia de SM fue 15.37 %. Promedio de z IMC + 1.22± 0.90 y de RCE 0.52±0.07. Punto de corte óptimo para SM: RCE 0.55 (sensibilidad 72%, especificidad 70%)yzIMC: 1.76 (sensibilidad 71%, especificidad 74%). Conclusión: RCE y zIMC predicen igualmente el riesgo cardiometabólico en ni os y adolescentes. Dada la mayor facilidad de calcular RCE, la transforma en mejor herramienta definiendo riesgo en este grupo. El punto de corte > 0.55 sería buen predictor de SM en ni os y adolescentes. Background: Among children both general and visceral obesity are associated with increased cardio-metabolic risk. The increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in children and adolescents increases cardiovascular risk. Studies of new clinical markers which can easily and accurately predict MS in children and adolescents are needed. Aim: To compare zBMI and waist to height ratio (WHR) as predictors of MS in Chilean children. Method: We performed a crossectional study of 618 schoolchildren, age 11 ± 2 years, 52 % females, 190 eutrophic, 174 overweight, 254 obese, from middle and low social economic strata from the Santiago urban área. We determined weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure and fasting lipids and glycemia. MS diagnosis was based on the presence of > 3 Cook criteria. MS was modeled in function of WHR and z score BMI, through logistic regression models. ROC curves were used to compare zBMI and WHR as predictors of MS. The cutoff point by YOUDEN índex was used. Results: The prevalence of MS was 15%. Mean zBMI was +1.22 ± 0.90 and WHR 0.52 ± 0.07. Cutoff point for MS were: WHR 0,55 (
Thou shalt not get fat: Medical representations and self-images of obesity in a Mediterranean society  [PDF]
Mabel Gracia-Arnaiz
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.57159
Abstract:

This paper examines the link between lipophobia and representations and experiences of obesity in Catalonia (Spain) from two points of view: that of the physicians and other health professionals who diagnose and treat obesity as an illness, and that of their patients, especially those between adolescence and early adulthood. The qualitative data demonstrate that the increasing social rejection of fat people can be traced not only to moralizing discourses on “excessive” food consumption or the commodification of slenderness and health, but also to the recent definition of obesity as a disease. The medicalization of fatness, far from helping to destigmatize obesity, is becoming a way of resignifying it in moral terms. While doctors’ and patients’ perspectives diverge in some ways, they converge in others. In this text, I focus on the points of convergence arguing that biomedical understandings of obesity and overweight are characterized by a profound ambivalence. Young patients are regarded both as innocent victims of a permissive consumer society, and guilty of not following doctors’ orders. Although the family is held accountable for overweight or obesity in children, as young people become more independent, guilt is individualized and environmental causes are limited to inappropriate diet and insufficient exercise. Most narratives of young people with weight problems reflect similar ideas about the causes and the responsibility for obesity. Their acceptance of the basic premise that deviating from weight standards and rules for healthy eating are voluntary actions leads them to lose faith in themselves. The stigmatization of obesity thus becomes a vicious circle: the obese acceptance—even consider normal—the incriminations leveled at them, and blame themselves for their situation and their inability to prevent it.

Perfil de riesgo cardiovascular en adultos jóvenes asintomáticos con grosor íntima media carotídeo elevado Cardiovascular risk factors among young subjects with high carotid intima media thickness
Mónica Acevedo,Verónica Kr?mer,Rodrigo Tagle,Pilar Arnaiz
Revista médica de Chile , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Cardiovascular risk factor (RF) assessment is essential to prevent and predict cardiovascular disease. The presence of RF at early ages, are determinant for the presence of atherosclerosis later in life. Aim: To determine the RF profile of young subjects with high carotid intima media thickness (CIMT). Material and Methods: We studied 689 subjects (50% women, mean age 36±6 years) from Santiago, Chile. We determined body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting serum lipids, blood glucose and C-reactive protein. CIMT was assessed by ultrasound using an automatic border recognition software. Results: Body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure and serum lipids were significantly higher among subjects located in the higher CIMT quartile. Also, subjects in the higher quartile of CIMT had a higher prevalence of three or more RF compared with the lower quartile (p = 0.01). Finally, individuals with three or more RF showed three times more risk of being in the higher CIMT quartile, than subjects with no RF (odds ratio = 3.1, p < 0.01). Conclusions: There is a negative influence of cardiovascular RF on CIMT among young subjects.
IS THE FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASS REALLY A MORE THREATENING PLACE THAN THE VIRTUAL ENVIROMENT?
Patricia Arnaiz
Revista de Lingüística y Lenguas Aplicadas , 2012, DOI: 10.4995/rlyla.2012.1124
Abstract: Computer technology has the potential to provide rich resources for language teaching and learning. As computer access increases, so do new learning technologies in education. This paper is specifically interesed in the case of English language instruction in a Teacher Training Faculty, and blended e-learning components as tools for supporting English language acquisition. Through the analysis of a researcher-developed survey, this study examines and compares students’ feelings and perceptions towards their participation in class and their participation in the online environment with the aim of detecting whether major differences between the two contexts exist. It also seeks to discover the extent to which learners value the online environment within the whole language learning process. The paper concludes by emphasizing the need for and relevance of research focusing on this learning format, given the specific characteristics of University education today, in the light of the recent implementation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) at University.
Razón cintura estatura como predictor de riesgo cardiometabólico en ni?os y adolescentes
Arnaiz,Pilar; Acevedo,Mónica; Díaz,Carlos; Bancalari,Rodrigo; Barja,Salesa; Aglony,Marlene; Cavada,Gabriel; García,Hernán;
Revista chilena de cardiología , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-85602010000300001
Abstract: background: among children both general and visceral obesity are associated with increased cardio-metabolic risk. the increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (ms) in children and adolescents increases cardiovascular risk. studies of new clinical markers which can easily and accurately predict ms in children and adolescents are needed. aim: to compare zbmi and waist to height ratio (whr) as predictors of ms in chilean children. method: we performed a crossectional study of 618 schoolchildren, age 11 ± 2 years, 52 % females, 190 eutrophic, 174 overweight, 254 obese, from middle and low social economic strata from the santiago urban área. we determined weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure and fasting lipids and glycemia. ms diagnosis was based on the presence of > 3 cook criteria. ms was modeled in function of whr and z score bmi, through logistic regression models. roc curves were used to compare zbmi and whr as predictors of ms. the cutoff point by youden índex was used. results: the prevalence of ms was 15%. mean zbmi was +1.22 ± 0.90 and whr 0.52 ± 0.07. cutoff point for ms were: whr 0,55 (sensitivity 72%, specificity 70%)andzbmi: 1.76 (sensitivity 71%, specificity 74%). conclusions: both whr and zbmi similarly predicted cardio metabolic risk in children and adolescents. the greater feasibility of calculating whr makes it a good tool for defining risk in this group. a cutoff point >0.55 might be a good predictor of ms in children and adolescents .
Perfil de riesgo cardiovascular en adultos jóvenes asintomáticos con grosor íntima media carotídeo elevado
Acevedo,Mónica; Kr?mer,Verónica; Tagle,Rodrigo; Arnaiz,Pilar; Corbalán,Ramón; Berríos,Ximena; Navarrete,Carlos;
Revista médica de Chile , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0034-98872011001000011
Abstract: background: cardiovascular risk factor (rf) assessment is essential to prevent and predict cardiovascular disease. the presence of rf at early ages, are determinant for the presence of atherosclerosis later in life. aim: to determine the rf profile of young subjects with high carotid intima media thickness (cimt). material and methods: we studied 689 subjects (50% women, mean age 36±6 years) from santiago, chile. we determined body mass index (bmi), waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting serum lipids, blood glucose and c-reactive protein. cimt was assessed by ultrasound using an automatic border recognition software. results: body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure and serum lipids were significantly higher among subjects located in the higher cimt quartile. also, subjects in the higher quartile of cimt had a higher prevalence of three or more rf compared with the lower quartile (p = 0.01). finally, individuals with three or more rf showed three times more risk of being in the higher cimt quartile, than subjects with no rf (odds ratio = 3.1, p < 0.01). conclusions: there is a negative influence of cardiovascular rf on cimt among young subjects.
De modernidades y alimentación: comer hoy en Espa?a
Arnaiz, Mabel Gracia;
Horizontes Antropológicos , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-71832010000100010
Abstract: the new eating manners state that, in spain, there are some simplifications and individualization of meals and an increase in the number of daily intakes. although these changes would partially support the thesis of the non-structural meals proposed to define the food modernity, our hypothesis suggests that the spanish eating behaviours have changed and diversified to adapt to the new socioeconomic constrictions imposed by an increasing industrialized society. the food practices observed didn't show any disturbing symptoms of a general dysfunction but instead it showed the eating manners as more operational and flexible.
Alimentación y cultura en Espa?a: una aproximación desde la antropología social
Gracia Arnaiz, Mabel;
Physis: Revista de Saúde Coletiva , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-73312010000200003
Abstract: the food fact is essentially multidimensional: it goes between ecological, biological, psychological, socio-economic or political spaces. as other complex phenomena, today no one can deny that food should be studied from a cross-disciplinary perspective. in spain, there are many studies made from experimental, social or human sciences that, using hyper-specialized knowledge, show nutritional, psychological or economic dimensions, e.g., of food preferences and aversions, food consumption or malnutrition. however, they are usually unidirectional approaches of the same phenomenon, supported by the frameworks of each epistemic science. scientific collaboration includes scarcely closer disciplines. but sparing scientific intersections does not seem, as i will try to show in this paper, appropriate or useful. especially when it is necessary to understand and solve problems, that affect social groups, operate in multiple and changing contexts.
La emergencia de las sociedades obesogénicas o de la obesidad como problema social
Arnaiz, Mabel Gracia;
Revista de Nutri??o , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-52732009000100001
Abstract: this article shows how the biomedical conception of obesity and the preventive proposals that have been institutionally produced in spain during the last decade have helped to turn the body weight and food into a social problem. the experts' definition relating to the main causes of increase in body fat provide paramount information on the concept of so-called obesogenic societies and their lifestyles. normally, the means adopted to change lifestyles focus primarily on individual responsibility and nutritional educations. this article demonstrates that even though there is unanimity in the diagnosis, it is insufficient or not accurate enough, as it should enclose more detail about the consequences of changing eating habits, and how these influence the health of different social groups. an analysis of the initiatives and prevention programs developed in several countries may favor the standardization of international strategies against the obesity epidemic and serves to reflect on the effects of establishing a limited concept of culture and food.
Pensando sobre el riesgo alimentario y su aceptabilidad: el caso de los alimentos transgénicos
Arnaiz, Mabel Gracia;
Revista de Nutri??o , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-52732004000200001
Abstract: in the last decade, numerous studies have analysed society's perception of eating safety and, in particular, the social representations of risk. most of these studies attempt to explain why the negative perception that people have of certain technological applications in food and, in general, of industrial food has increased just when food is abundant, the food chain is under greater control than ever before, life expectancy is at an all time high and food-related health problems, although they still exist, have less dramatic consequences than in previous ages. it is stressed, however, that today we know less or little about what we eat. although it is true that this negative assessment is partly due to the changes in the new ways of life and the fact that the activities of the population have become separated from food production or preparation, it is also partly due to the succession of food-related incidents and crises that have taken place in the european context and the important political, economic and social consequences that they have had. in this respect, the public debate that has arisen around genetically modified organisms and, particularly, transgenic food is a paradigmatic case that illustrates the cultural diversity in relation to their acceptability or repulse from the anthropological perspective.
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