Abstract:
For the comparison of the prevalence of HPV infection in men and women, we used the MacNemar test. This test is used to prove a hypothesis of equality of proportions in non-independent groups. In this case the groups of men and women are not independent because they are sexual partners. Table 1 shows that the prevalence of HPV is greater in men than in women (20.4% vs 13.7%, p value = 0.0009). There were no statistically significant differences between type specific infection in men and women; only in types HPV31, HPV53, HPV55, HPV61 and HPV84 (Table 1 and Figure 1).The analysis of known risk factors for HPV infection was carried out separately for men and women. Non-conditional logistic regression was performed. When stratifying by sex we do not need to consider the condition of sexual partners. This part of the analysis was performed in this way, as it allows us to include explanatory variables in men - variables that cannot be defined in women, such as circumcision, use of condoms, and some specific characteristics on sexual risk behaviors. In women it allows us to consider, in addition to characteristics of their own sexual behaviors, characteristics of their male partner's sexual behavior - circumcision, use of condoms, etc. (Table 2). The last section of the study focuses on assessing the risk of HPV infection in women, considering the presence of HPV infection in their sex partners as an explanatory variable. Thus we find that women whose sexual partners are HPV positive have 5.15 times greater risk of HPV, compared to those whose partners are HPV negative (CI 95% 3.01, 8.82). Indeed, what matters to us in this part is proving that the variable "presence of HPV in male partner" be associated with the presence of HPV in the female. We do not seek to compare the risk of HPV infection between men and women (Table 3).We are thankful for your observations and deeply regret the confusion in the results presented.The pre-publication history for this paper can be acc

Abstract:
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 504 clinically healthy heterosexual couples from four municipalities in the State of Mexico, Mexico. HPV testing was performed using biotinylated L1 consensus primers and reverse line blot in cervical samples from women and in genital samples from men. Thirty-seven HPV types were detected, including high-risk oncogenic types and low-risk types. Multivariate logistic regression models were utilized to evaluate factors associated with HPV.The prevalence of HPV infection was 20.5% in external male genitals and 13.7% in cervical samples. In 504 sexual couples participating in the study, concordance of HPV status was 79%; 34 partners (6.7%) were concurrently infected, and 21 out of 34 partners where both were HPV positive (61.8%) showed concordance for one or more HPV types. The principal risk factor associated with HPV DNA detection in men as well as women was the presence of HPV DNA in the respective regular sexual partner (OR = 5.15, 95%CI 3.01-8.82). In men, having a history of 10 or more sexual partners over their lifetime (OR 2.5, 95%CI 1.3 - 4.8) and having had sexual relations with prostitutes (OR 1.7, 95%CI 1.01 - 2.8) increased the likelihood of detecting HPV DNA.In heterosexual couples in rural regions in Mexico, the prevalence of HPV infection and type-specific concordance is high. High-risk sexual behaviors are strong determinants of HPV infection in men.Although there is clear evidence for the influence of the male factor in the development of cervical neoplasia[1,2], HPV transmission in heterosexual couples has rarely been studied. The few studies conducted have included the male sexual partners of women with clinical HPV lesions [3-8] In addition, heterosexual couples have been studied through controlled clinical trials to evaluate the effect of the use of condoms on the rate of persistence of flat penile lesions[9]. Previous reports from prospective studies of women initiating sexual life have estimated an accumul

Abstract:
In this paper we construct a combinatorial algorithm of resolution of singularities for binomial ideals, over a field of arbitrary characteristic. This algorithm is applied to any binomial ideal. This means ideals generated by binomial equations without any restriction, including monomials and $p$-th powers, where $p$ is the characteristic of the base field. In particular, this algorithm works for toric ideals. However, toric geometry tools are not needed, the algorithm is constructed following the same point of view as Villamayor algorithm of resolution of singularities in characteristic zero.

Abstract:
This paper is devoted to give all the technical constructions and definitions that will lead to the construction of an algorithm of resolution of singularities for binomial ideals. We construct a resolution function that will provide a resolution of singularities for binomial ideals, over a field of arbitrary characteristic. For us, a binomial ideal means an ideal generated by binomial equations without any restriction, including monomials and $p$-th powers, where $p$ is the characteristic of the base field. This resolution function is based in a modified order function, called $E$-order. The $E$-order of a binomial ideal is the order of the ideal along a normal crossing divisor $E$. The resolution function allows us to construct an algorithm of $E$-\emph{resolution of binomial basic objects}, that will be a subroutine of the main resolution algorithm.

Abstract:
We study monomial ideals, always locally given by a monomial, like a reasonable first step to estimate in general the number of monoidal transformations of Villamayor's algorithm of resolution of singularities. The resolution of a monomial ideal $$ is interesting due to its identification with the particular toric problem $$. In the special case, when all the exponents $a_i$ are greater than or equal to the critical value $c$, we construct the largest branch of the resolution tree which provides an upper bound involving partial sums of Catalan numbers. This case will be called ``minimal codimensional case''. Partial sums of Catalan numbers (starting $1,2,5,...$) are $1,3,8,22,...$ These partial sums are well known in Combinatorics and count the number of paths starting from the root in all ordered trees with $n+1$ edges. Catalan numbers appear in many combinatorial problems, counting the number of ways to insert $n$ pairs of parenthesis in a word of $n+1$ letters, plane trees with $n+1$ vertices, $... $, etc. The non minimal case, when there exists some exponent $a_{i_0}$ smaller than $c$, will be called ``case of higher codimension''. In this case, still unresolved, we give an example to state the foremost troubles. Computation of examples has been helpful in both cases to study the behaviour of the resolution invariant. Computations have been made in Singular (see \cite{sing}) using the \emph{desing} package by G. Bodn\'ar and J. Schicho, see \cite{lib}.

This Paper presents a theoretical outline
regarding the Emotional Well-being (EW) function as an extension of the economic
utility function. EW includes habitual factors that are always present in
everyday decision making. Firstly, an analytical-mathematical conceptualization
of EW is carried out, followed by a study of the concept of emotional security,
in order to define a new idea of emotional rationality as a complement to
economic rationality. An explanation is put forth, as an application, of the
concentration of wealth phenomenon according to the focus on economic and emotional
rationality. The conclusion is that EW is a theoretical approach which can
clarify the understanding of the decision making process in economics
activities.

In this paper, an approach to
Pythagoras’ Theorem is presented within the historical context in which it was
developed and from the underlying intellectual outline of the Pythagorean
School. This was analyzed from a rationalism standpoint. An experiment is
presented to the reader so that they, through direct observation, can analyze
Pythagoras’ Theorem and its relation to the creation of knowledge. The theory
of knowledge conceptualization is used.

We give a new way to price American options by using Samuelson’s formula. We first obtain the option price corresponding to a European option at time t, weighing it by the probability that the underlying asset takes the value S at time t. We then use Samuelson’s formula with this factor which is given by the solution of the Fokker-Planck (Kolmogorov) equation for the transition probability density. The main advantage of this approach is that we can systematically introduce the effect of macroeconomic factors. If a macroeconomic framework is given by a dynamical system in the form of a set of ordinary differential equations we only have to solve a partial differential equation for the transition probability density. In this context, we verify, for the sake of consistency, that this formula coincides with the Black-Scholes model and compare several numerical implementations.

Abstract:
the construction 01' a unified health system in a country with a federal system 01' government constitutes a challenge to the extent that government authorities whose autonomy is guaranteed by the constitution must establish agreed guidelines for their relationship in order to maintain their right to exerci se their power within their respective territorial limits, as well as in order to share this same power at times, in specific acls and in carrying out general and sectorial policies. thus, the construction 01' a system where various degrees 01' hierarchy exist, means making compatible the various specific powers that are characteristic 01' the scope of each sphere of government. based on this premi se, this article analyzed the formation 01' a state health system in the state 01' rio de janeiro from the point of view 01' decentralization and intergovernmental relations. for this, the formation of the federal state in 1975, from the merger 01' the formei' state of guanabara (municipality 01' rio de janeiro) with the state of rio de janeiro was taken as a starting point. in the whole history 01' the formation 01' this system, it was observed that there are no signs that the merger occurred in the health area. the municipality of rio de janeiro acts autonomously, referring to itself only, without depending on the state, and maintains direct relations with the federal government. it shows that ali the times of change in the area of health were intimately related to federal transformation in lhe country. each change has a characteristic: pre-ais, the state governments act independently; in the ais, the federal authority is supreme - centralized federalism; in lhe suds, the state takes command - return to the politics of the state governors, and in the sus, there is federal chaos and the municipalities organize themselves autonomously - there is a lack of definition in the role 01' the states and the federal government reduces its role in social policies. the rhythm 01

Abstract:
Recently, to publish or to perish has become a motto governing most of researchers work. In Portugal, what makes the whole process so prone to hardships and disappointments is the lack of resources, mainly financial. At least, that’s what most of the interviewees – researchers working mostly at some of the major Portuguese public universities – mentioned. Such a lack of resources is cross-sectional to all aspects under analysis: accessibility, costs, reviewing, time delay, language, impact and reputation. However, some additional specificities must be pointed out, namely those deriving from a lack of organization (e.g., absence of national databases) or from the need to, most of the time, publish in a non-native language due to impact and reputation issues, with all the reviewing and time delay question specifically deriving from it. Finally, participants’ expectation and/or suggestions concerning an Open Access European Psychology Publication Platform will be outlined.