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Drift-Diffusion in Mangled Worlds Quantum Mechanics
Robin Hanson
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2005.1640
Abstract: In Everett's many worlds interpretation, where quantum measurements are seen as decoherence events, inexact decoherence may let large worlds mangle the memories of observers in small worlds, creating a cutoff in observable world size. I solve a growth-drift-diffusion-absorption model of such a mangled worlds scenario, and show that it reproduces the Born probability rule closely, though not exactly. Thus deviations from exact decoherence can allow the Born rule to be derived in a many worlds approach via world counting, using a finite number of worlds and no new fundamental physics.
When Worlds Collide: Quantum Probability From Observer Selection?
Robin D. Hanson
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1063/1.1619652
Abstract: In Everett's many worlds interpretation, quantum measurements are considered to be decoherence events. If so, then inexact decoherence may allow large worlds to mangle the memory of observers in small worlds, creating a cutoff in observable world size. Smaller world are mangled and so not observed. If this cutoff is much closer to the median measure size than to the median world size, the distribution of outcomes seen in unmangled worlds follows the Born rule. Thus deviations from exact decoherence can allow the Born rule to be derived via world counting, with a finite number of worlds and no new fundamental physics.
Probability and Asset Updating using Bayesian Networks for Combinatorial Prediction Markets
Wei Sun,Robin Hanson,Kathryn Blackmond Laskey,Charles Twardy
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: A market-maker-based prediction market lets forecasters aggregate information by editing a consensus probability distribution either directly or by trading securities that pay off contingent on an event of interest. Combinatorial prediction markets allow trading on any event that can be specified as a combination of a base set of events. However, explicitly representing the full joint distribution is infeasible for markets with more than a few base events. A factored representation such as a Bayesian network (BN) can achieve tractable computation for problems with many related variables. Standard BN inference algorithms, such as the junction tree algorithm, can be used to update a representation of the entire joint distribution given a change to any local conditional probability. However, in order to let traders reuse assets from prior trades while never allowing assets to become negative, a BN based prediction market also needs to update a representation of each user's assets and find the conditional state in which a user has minimum assets. Users also find it useful to see their expected assets given an edit outcome. We show how to generalize the junction tree algorithm to perform all these computations.
Trade-based Asset Model using Dynamic Junction Tree for Combinatorial Prediction Markets
Wei Sun,Kathryn Laskey,Charles Twardy,Robin Hanson,Brandon Goldfedder
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Prediction markets have demonstrated their value for aggregating collective expertise. Combinatorial prediction markets allow forecasts not only on base events, but also on conditional and/or Boolean combinations of events. We describe a trade-based combinatorial prediction market asset management system, called Dynamic Asset Cluster (DAC), that improves both time and space efficiency over the method of, which maintains parallel junction trees for assets and probabilities. The basic data structure is the asset block, which compactly represents a set of trades made by a user. A user's asset model consists of a set of asset blocks representing the user's entire trade history. A junction tree is created dynamically from the asset blocks to compute a user's minimum and expected assets.
Learning about Vegetarian Diets in School: Curricular Representations of Food and Nutrients in Elementary Health Education  [PDF]
Clara Hanson
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2012.21010
Abstract: This paper examines the way non-meat and plant based diets are discussed in four elementary curricula. The author used an open coding technique of grounded theory to understand the way food, nutrition and vegetarianism was discussed. The curricula relied heavily upon the USDA Food Pyramid and a related concept of “balance” for nutritional information. The curricula also discussed nutrition in terms of food and food groups, rather than in terms of nutrients. Although some of the curricula included information about the benefits of vegetarian diets, the high level of use of the Food Pyramid often overwhelmed the low level of information about vegetarianism.
Trends in U.S. Voting Attitudes with a Consideration of Variation by Gender and Race/Ethnicity  [PDF]
Sandra L. Hanson
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2016.64038
Abstract: Low turnout rates and discussions of disaffected voters are receiving considerable attention as we approach the 2016 U.S. presidential elections. Do trends in American’s attitudes about voting and correlates of these attitudes (political involvement, efficacy, and social connectedness) confirm the pessimistic assessments and do voters across gender and race/ethnic groups think similarly? Data from the American National Election Studies (ANES) provide some reason for optimism. Trends over the past few presidential election periods show a majority of Americans intend to vote and this majority is increasing. Trends show increases or stability on numerous correlates of voting attitudes including political involvement and social connectedness. Trends in voting attitudes by gender and race/ethnicity show considerable variation. Women and race/ethnic minorities (especially African Americans) are an important element of the positive trends shown here. Findings on external efficacy are an exception to the generally optimistic trends with data showing a majority of respondents don’t believe public officials care what people like the respondent think. However, trends do not show an increase in negative attitudes about public officials. Implications of the findings are considered.
Aging and the decline in health  [PDF]
Robin Holliday
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.26092
Abstract: The biological reasons for aging are now understood. Aging is the result of multiple stochastic events in molecules, cells, tissues and organs. These together produce the aged phenotype, senescence and ultimately death. Many of these changes can be directly linked to specific age-associated disease. However, there are also age-related changes that are not pathological. It can be said that aging has multiple causes, or is instead due to a general loss of molecular fidelity, that is, an increase in disorder. The complexity of organism means that they develop as ordered structures by obtaining energy from the environment. These ordered structures must be maintained by a wide variety of mechanisms which also depend on energy resources. Eventually these mechanisms fail, and senescence sets in. It is known that the efficiency of maintenance is correlated directly with the lifespan of different mammalian species. Also, these lifespans are inversely correlated with fecundity or reproductive potential. There is a trade off between investment of resources in maintenance of the body, or soma, and investment in reproduction.
Fifty years of entomological publications in the Revista de Biología Tropical
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2002,
Abstract: over its fifty year history nearly twenty percent of the papers published in the revista de biología tropical have been about inseets and arachnids. in the 1950's papers on arthropods of medical importance were dominant, in the 1960's there was a poliferation of papers on bees, and in more recent years the subjects have become incresingly diverse. in terms of nationality of contributing authors, the journal appears to have become increasingly international in later years.
Toxicants and physicochemical characteristics of the seeds of African black pear (Dacryodes edulis).
I Hanson
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2009,
Abstract: This experiment investigated the antinutrients content and functional properties of the seeds of African black pear (Dacryodes edulis). The study derived its importance from the environmental problem posed by the seeds of this highly cherished fruit. The aim of the project was to determine through empirical means the possible recycling potential that might be inherent in the seeds of the African black pear. Three seed varieties of the same sample categorized as Small (S), Medium (M) and Large (L) were used for this study. Standard experimental protocols were employed in the estimation of all indices. Data obtained indicate that the seed samples contained phytic acid: 12.13 + 1.14; 12.37 + 1.82 and 13.37 + 0.65g/100g sample on dry matter basis (DMB), respectively for Small, Medium and Large. Trypsin inhibitory activities (TIA) were determined as 546.67 + 30.55; 520.00 + 20.00; and 473.33 + 23.10g/100g sample on DMB in the same order, respectively. High amounts of oxalate 0.24 + 0.02 g-1100g for Small; 0.35 + 0.03 g-1100g for Medium and 0.37 + 0.03 g-1100g for Large while tannins were also found to be (5.07 + 0.14; 5.16 + 0.08; 5.02 + 0.16)g- 1100g for Small; Medium; and Large, respectively in the seeds. Water and oil absorption capacity as well as foam capacity and bulk density for all the samples did not differ significantly (P>0.05). The Medium seed flour, however, showed significantly (P<0.05) higher values in emulsion activity (40.82 + 1.52)% and foam stability (6.20 + 0.33)% as compared to foam stability of the Large seed (5.80 + 0.08)% variety. It may, therefore, be concluded from the strength of this novel results, that the seeds of Dacryodes edulis contained high amounts of phytic acid, oxalate, TIA and tannins. Physicochemical data on the other hand suggest the seeds of Dacryodes edulis to have valuable functional attributes of industrial interest.
Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion
Mark Hanson
Theological Librarianship , 2010,
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