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The Necessity of Information Security in the Vulnerable Pharmaceutical Industry  [PDF]
Shawn Josette Roberts
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2014.54014
Abstract: The pharmaceutical industry produces billions of dollars in sales each year. The industry is evolving and relying on using technology more and more to conduct day-to-day business. The pharmaceutical industry generates enormous amounts of sensitive and private information such as medical records, employee information, financial data and research data. This makes the pharmaceutical industry vulnerable to cybercrime. The pharmaceutical industry has a big responsibility to stakeholders, patients, employees and customers all over the world to ensure this information is secure. It is imperative for organizations to budget adequate amounts of money and resources to have effective Information Security Management. Information Security Management is critical in the pharmaceutical industry and the alternative of not having it would be devastating to a pharmaceutical company. Cyber criminals can tarnish company reputations and the effects can take years to overcome. The main contributions of this paper will be to describe the concerns about the security of information in the pharmaceutical industry, provide examples of organizations that are victims of cybercrime, describe regulations in place to help reduce information security breaches and illustrate why information security is necessary in the pharmaceutical industry.
Adoption of Innovation within Universities: Proposing and Testing an Initial Model  [PDF]
Abdulrahman Hariri, Paul Roberts
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.62017
Abstract: This study discusses the need for improvement and innovation in universities so they can effectively serve students and stay ahead in competition. Many technologies and innovations are already being used in universities. However, in order to diffuse or spread technologies or innovations effectively, it is important to understand the reasons leading to the adoption of technologies and innovations in universities. Based on a number of established theories and models on innovation and technology adoption and acceptance, this study proposes a theoretical model that helps explain the factors responsible for innovation adoption within universities. Measures for the study were adopted from previous studies, and an online questionnaire was used. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to test and better understand the underlying structure of the proposed model. Reliability and validity of the proposed model were also examined. The initially proposed model seems to help in explaining the adoption of innovations within universities and is of value to researchers when investigating adoption within universities.
Increasing Positive Perceptions of Diversity for Religious Conservative Students  [PDF]
Alison Cook, Ronda Roberts Callister
Creative Education (CE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2010.12014
Abstract: Evidence suggests that positive perceptions toward diversity enhance the potential group and organizational benefits resulting from diversity. Given the make-up of today’s organizations, encountering diversity has become the norm ra-ther than the exception. As such, it is becoming increasingly important to address diversity issues, and take steps to increase positive perceptions of diversity within the business classroom in order to carry that advantage into the workplace. Religious conservative students present a unique challenge to diversity education in that they likely hold value- laden attitudes that lack alignment with diversity principles. This study prescribes a scaffolding approach to increase positive perceptions of diversity within a classroom comprised predominantly of religious conservative students
Environmental Impact of Flooding in the Main (Smallwood) Reservoir of the Churchill Falls Power Plant, Labrador, Canada . III. Environmental Impact Zones and Direct and Indirect Changes.  [PDF]
Denes Bajzak, B. A. Roberts
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2011.33020
Abstract: The Churchill Falls Hydro Project (called the ‘Upper Churchill Development’) in Labrador [CF(L)Co], was initiated in the late 1960s. At that time, in general, not much attention was paid to the impact of such development on the flooding of vegetation, especially forest stands. Both forested and un-forested terrestrial vegetation types were flooded (244,915 ha creating some 74,075 ha of Islands) in the construction of the Main (Smallwood) Reservoir. The effect of flooding and of the constructions, both above and below the Main Reservoir major dyke system, were the subject of our investigation. This paper, the third in a series, reports on the effect of building the dykes during the early phases of construction with the descriptions of the post flooded conditions below the dykes as related to vegetation. The direct disturbances were excavations, fills, and partial and /or total removal of vegetation cover from fabrication platforms and from gravel and rock extraction sites. No new vegetation cover established in the abandoned quarries and gravel pits. However camp sites and manufacturing platforms were subsequently taken over by Alder growth. The indirect disturbances were the flooding of land areas and the de-watering of sections of the original river and lowering of the water level in some lakes. The results of flooding and the de-watering of some nearby areas are illustrated with aerial photographs and figures showing the environmental impact zones and new shore line development. The flooded trees in large and small pools of stagnant water died suddenly and remain in their original place. New vegetation cover developed on the exposed shore lines of de-watered rivers and lakes.
Environmental Impact of Flooding in the Main (Smallwood) Reservoir of the Churchill Falls Power Plant, Labrador, Canada. II. Chemical and Mechanical Analysis of Flooded Trees and Shoreline Changes.  [PDF]
Denes Bajzak, Bruce A. Roberts
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2011.33019
Abstract: The Churchill Falls Hydro Project (called the “Upper Churchill Development”) in Labrador, Canada, was initiated in the late 1960s. At that time, in general, not much attention was paid to the impact of such devel-opment on the flooding of vegetation especially forest stands. Both forested and un-forested terrestrial vege-tation types were flooded (244 915 ha). Some islands were created and in addition portions of existing areas were flooded to form islands (74 075 ha) in the Main (Smallwood) Reservoir area. This paper, the second in a series provides the rate of bio-chemical and physical deterioration of flooded trees in typical forest stands. The analysis of samples taken from selected trees indicated that their lignin content slightly increased and their elastic module decreased on the short term (three years after flooded). A model for the new shore line development was developed and illustrated with graphics and with an aerial photographic sterogramm in a typical flooded forest stand. Major changes were taking place within three years after the flooding. The most significant changes had occurred near the edge of the reservoir due to the continuous variation of water level caused by the amount of seasonal precipitation and by the required drawdown of water to operate the power plant. In general the water in the Main Reservoir reaches its maximum elevation in August, after this (from October to May) the water level slowly decreases during the ice cover. Ice forms first, when the water level is high, then the water level drops resulting in large vertical forces on the trees trapped in the ice. When the water in the reservoir is at its lowest point (at the spring) the ice cruses the trees, and when the water rises (in July) the ice up-roots the captured trees.
Environmental Impact of Flooding in the Main (Smallwood) Reservoir of the Churchill Falls Power Plant, Labrador, Canada. I. Background and Descriptions of Flooded Conditions Related to Vegetation and Land Cover Types  [PDF]
Denes Bajzak, Bruce A. Roberts
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2011.33018
Abstract: This paper, the first in a series provides the background of the project, reports on the early phases of construction with the descriptions of the pre and post flooded conditions related to vegetation and land cover types surrounding the reservoir. Currently there are plans to develop the so called “Lower Churchill Area” by establishing new power plants at Gull Island and at Muskrat Falls with associated reservoirs. These new plants would use the discharged water of the plant from Churchill Falls and the additional water collected from some of the Churchill River Basin. The information provided by these papers could have relevance to the environmental evaluation of these new developments. The Churchill Falls Hydro Project (called the “Upper Churchill Development”) in Labrador, Canada, was initiated in the late 1960s and the 5428-MW hydro generating plant constructed was then among the largest in the world. At that time, in general, not much attention was paid to the impact of such development on the flooding of vegetation especially forest stands. Both forested and un-forested terrestrial vegetation types were flooded (244 915 ha). Some islands were created and in addition portions of existing areas were flooded to form islands (74 075 ha) in the Main (Smallwood) Reservoir area. The flooded area of forest and un-forested land in the reservoir is 77% while the islands is 23 percent. The percentages of forested and un-forested areas lost to flooding are 64% and 36% respectively. The percent of commercial forests lost to flooding is approximately 1% and the non-commerci- al forests is 99% (with a total volume of approximately 10 million cubic meters of wood).
Low Cost Osseointegrated Implant System for Developing Countries  [PDF]
Kayla M. Foyt, Jason Roberts
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery (IJOHNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijohns.2013.25039
Abstract: Objective: Osseointegrated hearing implants have been readily available and extensively used in developed countries for over twenty years. Despite a great need for this technology, use of these implants in developing countries has been limited due to the prohibitive cost of the surgical implant system as well as the implant devices themselves. To address this problem we have developed a drill and implant system that mimics the currently available instrumentation using materials that are readily available at a fraction of the cost. Study Design: Proof of Concept. Methods: The construction of the drill and implant system will be described. Testing of the system so that it adhered to Cochlear’sTM Bone anchored hearing aid system specifications including the drill speed and torque settings were measured. Temperature readings were also recorded during procedures performed on human cadaveric temporal bones. Results: The speed of the drill with the guide drill and countersink drill bits ranged from 1400 revolutions per minute (rpm) to 2300 rpm’s. The temperature change of the room temperature temporal bones varied from 0 degrees to +0.2 degrees Fahrenheit during the drilling process with both drill bits. All five implants were stable in the cadaver bone after being checked for initial stability. Conclusion: This low cost implant system may make the BAHA technology more easily available to developing countries pending future studies with animal models.
Impacts of Air Pollution on Productivity Growth in the Air and Truck Transportation Industries in the US: an Application of the Data Envelopment Analysis Malmquist Environmental Productivity Index  [PDF]
Jaesung Choi, David C. Roberts
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.32016
Abstract: Air pollution worsens work environment and increases the likelihood of health risks and even premature death for humans. Owing to the fundamental structure of growth through the combustion of fossil fuels, productivity growth in the transportation industry has affected the natural environment. In this study, the authors use the Malmquist environmental productivity index to consider the effects of air pollution on productivity growth in the air and truck transportation industries, which are the biggest air polluters in the US. This study finds that on average, the air transportation industry does not increase actual productivity with an air pollution reduction, but the truck transportation industry positively grows with a reduction in one of the air pollutants studied (carbon monoxide, particulate matter) or both from 2008 to 2011, suggesting entering a period of environmentally sustainable transportation industry growth.
How Does the Change of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Affect Transportation Productivity? A Case Study of the US Transportation Sector from 2002 to 2011  [PDF]
Jaesung Choi, David C. Roberts
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.32013
Abstract: A variety of research fields has analyzed actual productivity change from environmental pollution through the Malmquist environmental productivity index, but to our best knowledge, no research has thus far been conducted in the transportation sector to evaluate the effects of a CO2 emissions change on actual productivity. For this reason, this study reviews how actual productivity in the US transportation sector has been affected by the CO2 emissions change for 2002-2012 and then reveals the driving forces behind it. We find that the CO2 emissions increase from 2002 to 2007 has a negative effect on actual productivity in the US transportation sector, but the CO2 emissions reduction for 2008-2011 increases actual productivity. A state mainly showing a sustainable growing pattern (decrease in CO2 emissions and increase in actual productivity) experiences a higher technological innovation increase than an efficiency decrease. This finding suggests that using fuel-efficient and carbon reduction technologies as well as alternative transportation energy sources may be essential factors to both grow transportation and prevent global warming.
Side effects of selection in laboratory animals
RC Roberts
Genetics Selection Evolution , 1978, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-10-1-143b
Abstract:
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