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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 22371 matches for " Roberto Gasparotti "
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Reward and adversity processing circuits, their competition and interactions with dopamine and serotonin signaling
Karin Vadovi?ová,Roberto Gasparotti
Quantitative Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.14293/S2199-1006.1.SOR-LIFE.AEKZPZ.v1
Abstract: We propose that dACC, AI and caudolateral OFC(clOFC) project to lateral habenula (LHb) and D2 loop of ventral striatum (VS), forming a functional adversity processing circuit, directed towards inhibitory avoidance and self-control. This circuit learns what is bad or harmful to us and predicts risks, to stop us from going/moving for bad or suboptimal choices that decrease our well-being and survival chances. Proposed dACC role is to generate a WARNING signal when things are going (or might end) bad or wrong to prevent negative consequences: pain, harm, loss or failure. The AI signals about bad low aversive qualities, which make us sick or cause discomfort. These cortical inputs activate directly and indirectly (via D2 loop of VS) the LHb, which inhibits dopamine and serotonin release (and is reciprocally inhibited by VTA, DRN) to avoid choosing and doing things leading to harm or loss, but also to make us feel worse, down when overstimulated. We propose that dopamine attenuates the output of the adversity processing circuit, thus decreasing inhibitory avoidance and self-control, while serotonin attenuates dACC, AI, clOFC, D1 loop of VS, LHb, amygdala and pain pathway. Thus, by reciprocal inhibition, by causing dopamine and serotonin suppression - and by being suppressed by them, the adversity processing circuit competes with reward processing circuit for control of choice behaviour and affective states. We propose stimulating effect of dopamine and calming inhibitory effect of serotonin on the active avoidance circuit involving amygdala, linked to threat processing, anger, fear, self-defense and violences. We describe causes and roles of dopamine and serotonin signaling, and mental dysfunctions. We add new idea on vACC role in signaling that we are doing well and in inducing serotonin, when we gain/reach safety, comfort, valuable resources, social/biological rewards, affection or goals.
New MR sequences in daily practice: susceptibility weighted imaging. A pictorial essay
Roberto Gasparotti,Lorenzo Pinelli,Roberto Liserre
Insights into Imaging , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s13244-011-0086-3
Abstract: SWI is useful in differentiating and characterising diverse brain disorders.
Interculturalidade e o papel da escola na atualidade: reflex?es a partir do filme Entre os muros da escola
Flaviana Gasparotti, Nunes;
Pro-Posi??es , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-73072011000300009
Abstract: we take into consideration the importance that issues such as cultural diversity and identity have risen for the reflection on the role of the school today. hence, in this text, we try to develop some ideas regarding this topic based on the elements brought by laurent cantet in the film "the class". the option to discuss this question through elements/situations from a cinematographic piece of work is justified by the fact that we understand the relevance of the cinema as a language in expressing views, meanings and reflections on questions posed to society. therefore, we try to discuss the way cantet uses the microcosm of the classroom and of the school, highlighting their "walls" as a metaphor, so as to think about the society itself. we point out, as a result of the issues approached by cantet, the relevance of the intercultural education proposals in order to rethink the role of the school today.
Cognitive Reserve in Granulin-Related Frontotemporal Dementia: from Preclinical to Clinical Stages
Enrico Premi, Stefano Gazzina, Marco Bozzali, Silvana Archetti, Antonella Alberici, Mara Cercignani, Angelo Bianchetti, Roberto Gasparotti, Marinella Turla, Carlo Caltagirone, Alessandro Padovani, Barbara Borroni
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074762
Abstract: Objective Consistent with the cognitive reserve hypothesis, higher education and occupation attainments may help persons with neurodegenerative dementias to better withstand neuropathology before developing cognitive impairment. We tested here the cognitive reserve hypothesis in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), with or without pathogenetic granulin mutations (GRN+ and GRN-), and in presymptomatic GRN mutation carriers (aGRN+). Methods Education and occupation attainments were assessed and combined to define Reserve Index (RI) in 32 FTD patients, i.e. 12 GRN+ and 20 GRN-, and in 17 aGRN+. Changes in functional connectivity were estimated by resting state fMRI, focusing on the salience network (SN), executive network (EN) and bilateral frontoparietal networks (FPNs). Cognitive status was measured by FTD-modified Clinical Dementia Rating Scale. Results In FTD patients higher level of premorbid cognitive reserve was associated with reduced connectivity within the SN and the EN. EN was more involved in FTD patients without GRN mutations, while SN was more affected in GRN pathology. In aGRN+, cognitive reserve was associated with reduced SN. Conclusions This study suggests that cognitive reserve modulates functional connectivity in patients with FTD, even in monogenic disease. In GRN inherited FTD, cognitive reserve mechanisms operate even in presymptomatic to clinical stages.
Pontine tegmental cap dysplasia: developmental and cognitive outcome in three adolescent patients
Marilena Briguglio, Lorenzo Pinelli, Lucio Giordano, Alessandro Ferraris, Eva Germanò, Serena Micheletti, Mariasavina Severino, Laura Bernardini, Sara Loddo, Gaetano Tortorella, Francesca Ormitti, Roberto Gasparotti, the CBCD Study Group, Andrea Rossi, Enza Valente
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1750-1172-6-36
Abstract: Here we describe three adolescent patients with PTCD. All presented bilateral deafness and multiple cranial neuropathies, variably associated with skeletal, cardiac and gastro-intestinal malformations. Feeding and swallowing difficulties, that are often causative of recurrent aspiration pneumonias and death in the first years of life, completely resolved with age in all three patients. Neuropsychological assessment showed borderline to moderate cognitive impairment, with delay in adaptive functioning, visual-spatial and language deficits. Two of three patients also showed mild behavioural problems, although their overall socialization abilities were well preserved. Cochlear implantation in two patients significantly improved their relational and learning abilities. Fibre tractography confirmed the abnormal bundle of transversely oriented fibres forming the typical pontine "tegmental cap" and absence of decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncles, supporting the hypothesis that PTCD results from abnormal axonal guidance and/or migration.These data indicate that PTCD may have a favourable long-term outcome, with borderline cognitive deficit or even normal cognition and partially preserved speech.Pontine Tegmental Cap Dysplasia (PTCD) is a recently described syndrome that was reported to date only in 19 patients [1-9]. The diagnostic signature of PTCD stems from a peculiar constellation of hindbrain malformations, including cerebellar vermis hypo-dysplasia, absence of inferior olives and near absence of middle cerebellar peduncles, lateralized superior cerebellar peduncles with shortening of the isthmus, flattened ventral pons, and vaulted pontine tegmentum (the so-called "tegmental cap"). Fibre tractography performed in two patients showed an abnormal transverse bundle of fibres in the upper pons forming the cap [1,2].Patients typically present with neonatal hypotonia, pyramidal and cerebellar signs, multiple deficits of the cranial nerves and extracranial malfor
Elecciones tecnológicas en la alfarería. Un abordaje preliminar de la cerámica de Corral Alto, Antofagasta de la Sierra (Catamarca)
Gasparotti,Leticia I.; Escola,Patricia S.;
La zaranda de ideas , 2012,
Abstract: in this paper a preliminary analysis of a ceramic assemblage from the surface collection of the site corral alto (antofagasta de la sierra, catamarca) is presented. the study is developed from a technological perspective that try to evaluate the own choices that made each potter in the manufacturing process. it also attempts to access to the intentions or purposes that guided the production of the assemblage. in this sense, from the development of ceramic group discussed a number of variables related to the technological component of the pots. the results achieved are new information for the regional late period (ca. 1000 a 1430 d.c.) from the intermediate sectors of the basin of antofagasta de la sierra.
Análisis del perfil hematológico de vacas gestantes de la región centro de Santa Fe (Analysis of hematologic profile in pregnant cows of a center region of Santa Fe)
Roldán,V.P,Gasparotti,M.L,Gasparotti,M.L,Luna, M
REDVET , 2005,
Abstract: El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar parámetros hematológicos en vacas gestantes de dos zonas edáficas diferentes del Departamento "Las Colonias" (Región Centro de Santa Fe) con diferentes concentraciones de cobre en suelo. Se trabajó con treinta vacas gestantes de las zonas de Pilar y de la Cuenca del Salado. Las determinaciones hematológicas que se realizaron en sangre anticoagulada con EDTA extraídas de vena yugular, fueron: Hematocrito(Hto), Volumen Corpuscular Medio(VCM), Glóbulos Rojos(GR/mm3), Glóbulos blancos (GB/mm3), concentración de Hemoglobina (Hb g/dl) y la fórmula porcentual. Para el tratamiento de los datos se empleó el método estadístico ANOVA. Los valores promedio de las determinaciones hematológicas para las zonas de Pilar y de la Cuenca del Salado fueron: Glóbulos rojos: 6.999.000 ± 382.000; 6.541.000 ± 733.000 mm3; VCM: 44,43 ± 2,28; 44,13 ± 3,31 m3; Hto: 33,79 ± 1,84; 31,6 ± 3,54 %; Hb: 10,28 ± 0,62; 9,81 ± 0,86 g/dl; Glóbulos blancos: 10.600 ± 1.600; 10.400 ± 3.600 mm3, neutrófilos: 34,57 ± 8,46; 38,73 ± 4,71%; eosinófilos: 3,42 ± 3,11; 5,41 ± 2,58 %; basófilos: 0,072 ± 0,267; 0,133 ± 0,351%; linfocitos: 60,57 ± 7,57; 58,40 ± 6,54%; monocitos: 1,35 ± 0,49; 1,33 ± 0,49% respectivamente. Los valores obtenidos para los distintos parámetros hematológicos se encuentran dentro de los rangos normales citados en la bibliografía; sin embargo se hallaron diferencias significativas (p< 0,05) entre los dos grupos, para los valores de glóbulos rojos y hematocrito, siendo menor en los animales de la región de baja concentración de cobre edáfico. Si bien, comparativamente, los valores de Hto y GR fueron más bajos para la zona de la Cuenca del Salado respecto de Pilar; no tendrían correspondencia con una anemia por hipocuprosis subclínica The object of this work was to study hematologic parameters in pregnant cows of two differents edaphics areas from the Departmet "Las Colonias" (Santa Fe Center Region) with different copper concentration in soil. Thirty pregnant cows were used from Pilar and Cuenca del Salado areas. The hematologic determinations performed in blood with EDTA, from the jugular vein were: Hematocrite (Hto); Middle corpuscular volume (MCV), Red globules (RG/mm3), White globules (WG/mm3), Hemoglobine concentration (Hb g/dl), and percentual formula. The statistic method ANOVA was applied for data treatment. Mean values of hematologic determinations for Pilar and Cuenca del Salado were: RG: 6.999.000 ± 382.000; 6.541.000 ± 733.000 mm3; MCV: 44,43 ± 2,28; 44,13 ± 3,31 m3; Hto: 33,79 ± 1,84; 31,6 ± 3,54%; Hb: 10,28 ± 0,62; 9,81 ± 0,8
Experimental Approach to the Transmission of Information in Hypnosis  [PDF]
Edoardo Casiglia, Federica Albertini, Valérie Tikhonoff, Federica Gasparotti, Jacopo Favaro, Francesco Finatti, Panagiota Rempelou, Antonio Maria Lapenta, Paolo Spinella
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2018.91001
Abstract: The means by which information can be transmitted in hypnosis are debated. Aim of this pilot study was to induce and maintain hypnosis without the hypnotist and the subject being in the same room. In other words, we wanted to clarify, using measurable outcomes, if the hypnotic message could be conveyed through an electronic device. We studied 6 young healthy highly hypnotizable volunteers. After a session aimed at creating the rapport, each participant underwent an experimental session consisting in the execution of a cold pressor test (CTP) in basal awake condition, during hypnotic focused analgesia in the presence of the hypnotist (HFA-P) and during hypnotic focused analgesia suggested via transceiver (HFA-R). Cardiovascular monitoring was performed throughout the session. Perceived pain intensity and hemodynamic parameters during the CPT (baseline, 1st minute, end of the test) in the three phases of the experimental session were compared with paired t-test. During both HFA-P and HFA-R, perceived pain was nullified. The times of permanence in icy water significantly increased in comparison to non-hypnotic condition by 369.2% in HFA-P and by 394.3% in HFA-R. The systolic blood pressure × heart rate product increased in non-hypnotic conditions (+27.8%, p < 0.01, at the 1st minute; +35.3%, p = 0.01, at the end) but not during HFA-P (-1% and -0.2%, NS) or HFA-R (+7.3% and -1.6%, NS). In conclusion, hypnosis induced and maintained via transceiver was equivalent to that in the presence of the hypnotist. The hypnotic information therefore turned out to be more important than the means chosen to transmit it.
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Demonstrates That Hypnosis Is Conscious and Voluntary  [PDF]
Edoardo Casiglia, Francesco Finatti, Federica Gasparotti, Maria Rosaria Stabile, Micaela Mitolo, Federica Albertini, Antonio M. Lapenta, Enrico Facco, Valérie Tikhonoff, Annalena Venneri
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2018.97095
Abstract: Hypnosis is a condition of modified consciousness (monoideism) resulting from a mental representation able to produce psychological and physical effects. The general belief is that hypnosis is conscious and voluntary, but the practical demonstration of this hypothesis is far to be demonstrated. Twenty healthy highly hypnotizable volunteers were studied during through functional magnetic resonance imaging during a task. The task was necessary because functional magnetic resonance imaging gives no interesting results in neutral hypnosis. During the hypnotic task, the prefrontal dorso-lateral cortex, genual cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and orbital portion of the inferior frontal convolution (i.e. the Broadmann areas 9, 25, 32 and 47) were activated. Such areas are associated to egoic consciousness and voluntary processes. The results show that the hypothesis that hypnosis is conscious and voluntary is correct.
Granone’s Plastic Monoideism Demonstrated by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)  [PDF]
Edoardo Casiglia, Francesco Finatti, Valérie Tikhonoff, Maria R. Stabile, Micaela Mitolo, Federica Gasparotti, Federica Albertini, Antonio M. Lapenta, Annalena Venneri
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2019.104030
Abstract: Plastic monoideism is the supposed basis of hypnosis, but has never been experimentally demonstrated. The aim of the paper presented herein is to demonstrate that plastic monoideism exists and can be put in evidence by functional magnetic resonance (fMRI). To this aim, fMRI brain areas activation was examined in 20 highly hypnotizable young participants during a task represented by hypnotic analgesia. Inhibition of pain transmission from periphery to brain cortex was demonstrated during hypnotic analgesia by lack of activation of central somatosensory areas. At the same time, the Brodmann areas 9, 25, 32 and 47 were highly activated. This indicates that during a hypnotic task the iper-activity of certain brain areas inhibits the other ones. This is just, for the neurobiologist, what plastic monoideism is for the clinic hypnotist. The hyper-activated areas represent the physiological basis of the monoideism, which was therefore confirmed by brain imaging.
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