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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 349527 matches for " Robert S. Ware "
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Evaluation of a School-Based Health Education Program for Urban Indigenous Young People in Australia  [PDF]
Claire Malseed, Alison Nelson, Robert Ware
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.67077
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based health promotion and education program in improving knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy and behaviours of urban Indigenous young people regarding chronic disease and associated risk factors. A mixed methods approach was adopted for this evaluation; however, this paper will focus on the quantitative aspect of the study. The Deadly Choices? health education program was delivered weekly at six education facilities in Brisbane, Australia to participants from years seven to 12 over seven weeks. One school that received the Deadly Choices program the following term acted as the control group. Questionnaire data was collected immediately pre and post intervention to assess program impact. As self-reported by participants there were mostly significant improvements over time for questions relating to knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy regarding leadership, chronic disease and risk factors within the intervention group. There were also significant changes within the intervention group regarding breakfast frequency (P = 0.002), physical activity frequency (P ≤ 0.001), fruit (P = 0.004) and vegetable (P ≤ 0.001) intake. Overall, there were few significant differences between the control and intervention groups regarding health attitudes and behaviours; however, there were considerably more improvements relating to self-efficacy and knowledge of chronic disease and associated risk factors between groups. The program also facilitated 30 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health checks for participants. Deadly Choices is an innovative and comprehensive school-based program which has great potential to improve the health outcomes of Indigenous young people in urban areas by providing education in leadership and chronic disease prevention; engaging students in physical activity participation; and collaborating with health services to facilitate health checks.
Health-related productivity losses increase when the health condition is co-morbid with psychological distress: findings from a large cross-sectional sample of working Australians
Libby Holden, Paul A Scuffham, Michael F Hilton, Robert S Ware, Nerina Vecchio, Harvey A Whiteford
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-417
Abstract: We used the cross-sectional data set from the Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC) study to explore the impacts of health conditions with and without co-morbid psychological distress, compared to those with neither condition, in a sample of approximately 78,000 working Australians. The World Health Organisation Health and Performance Questionnaire was used which provided data on demographic characteristics, health condition and working conditions. Data were analysed using negative binomial logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models for absenteeism and presenteeism respectively.For both absenteeism and presenteeism productivity measures there was a greater risk of productivity loss associated when health conditions were co-morbid with psychological distress. For some conditions this risk was much greater for those with co-morbid psychological distress compared to those without.Co-morbid psychological distress demonstrates an increased risk of productivity loss for a range of health conditions. These findings highlight the need for further research to determine whether co-morbid psychological distress potentially exacerbates lost productivity.Health related productivity loss is a concern to researchers, policy makers and industry. There is a growing body of evidence regarding the impact of health conditions on work performance [1-9]. It has been repeatedly found that health conditions increase work-related absences (absenteeism) and/or decrease productivity while at work (presenteeism), creating a substantial economic burden on industry [1-11]. Studies that have considered presenteeism have found it accounts for a greater proportion of the productivity loss than absenteeism [11,12]. For example the associated absenteeism by chronic condition ranged from 0.9 to 5.9 hours in a 4-week period, whereas on-the-job work impairment ranged from a 17.8% to 36.4% decrement in ability to function at work. The total cost of chronic conditions w
Evaluating a team-based approach to research capacity building using a matched-pairs study design
Libby Holden, Susan Pager, Xanthe Golenko, Robert S Ware, Robyn Weare
BMC Family Practice , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-13-16
Abstract: A non-randomised matched-pairs trial design was used to evaluate the impact of a multi-strategy research capacity building intervention. Four intervention teams recruited from one health service district were compared with four control teams from outside the district, matched on service role and approximate size. All were multi-disciplinary allied health teams with a primary health care role. Random-effects mixed models, adjusting for the potential clustering effect of teams, were used to determine the significance of changes in mean scores from pre- to post-intervention. Comparisons of intervention versus control groups were made for each of the three domains: individual, team and organisation. The Individual Domain measures the research skills of the individual, whereas Team and Organisation Domains measure the team/organisation's capacity to support and foster research, including research culture.In all three domains (individual, team and organisation) there were no occasions where improvements were significantly greater for the control group (comprising the four control teams, n = 32) compared to the intervention group (comprising the four intervention teams, n = 37) either in total domain score or domain item scores. However, the intervention group had a significantly greater improvement in adjusted scores for the Individual Domain total score and for six of the fifteen Individual Domain items, and to a lesser extent with Team and Organisation Domains (two items in the Team and one in the Organisation domains).A team-based approach to RCB resulted in considerable improvements in research skills held by individuals for the intervention group compared to controls; and some improvements in the team and organisation's capacity to support research. More strategies targeted at team and organisation research-related policies and procedures may have resulted in increased improvements in these domains.Research capacity building (RCB) develops individuals and institution
Protocol and baseline data from The Inala Chronic Disease Management Service evaluation study: a health services intervention study for diabetes care
Deborah A Askew, Claire L Jackson, Robert S Ware, Anthony Russell
BMC Health Services Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-10-134
Abstract: Using a geographical control, this evaluation study tests the impact of this model of diabetes care provided by the service on patient outcomes compared to usual care provided at the specialist diabetes outpatient clinic. Data collection at baseline, 6 and 12-months will compare the primary outcome (glycaemic control) and secondary outcomes (serum lipid profile, blood pressure, physical activity, smoking status, quality of life, diabetes self-efficacy and cost-effectiveness).This model of diabetes care combines the patient focus and holistic care valued by the primary care sector with the specialised knowledge and skills of hospital diabetes care. Our study will provide empirical evidence about the clinical effectiveness of this model of care.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000010392.Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most disabling chronic conditions worldwide, resulting in significant human, social and economic costs and placing huge demands on health care systems[1]. It affects more than 880,000 Australians 25 years or older[2], and the prevalence is increasing as more people develop the condition, the detection of the condition improves, and people with the condition live longer[3]. People with T2DM are at risk of acute and chronic micro- and macro-vascular complications including retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, coronary heart disease and stroke; as well as mental health problems associated with living with a chronic disease. The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study has demonstrated that rigorous glycaemic control can significantly reduce diabetic complications[4], underscoring the need for, and benefits of, early diagnosis and appropriate management.In Australia, most people with T2DM receive the majority of their diabetes care from their general practitioner (GP)[5]. In 2006/07, it was the second most frequently managed chronic problem in Australian general practice, and was the reaso
Efficacy of a children’s procedural preparation and distraction device on healing in acute burn wound care procedures: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Brown Nadia J,Rodger Sylvia,Ware Robert S,Kimble Roy M
Trials , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6215-13-238
Abstract: Background The intense pain and anxiety triggered by burns and their associated wound care procedures are well established in the literature. Non-pharmacological intervention is a critical component of total pain management protocols and is used as an adjunct to pharmacological analgesia. An example is virtual reality, which has been used effectively to dampen pain intensity and unpleasantness. Possible links or causal relationships between pain/anxiety/stress and burn wound healing have previously not been investigated. The purpose of this study is to investigate these relationships, specifically by determining if a newly developed multi-modal procedural preparation and distraction device (Ditto ) used during acute burn wound care procedures will reduce the pain and anxiety of a child and increase the rate of re-epithelialization. Methods/design Children (4 to 12 years) with acute burn injuries presenting for their first dressing change will be randomly assigned to either the (1) Control group (standard distraction) or (2) Ditto intervention group (receiving Ditto , procedural preparation and Ditto distraction). It is intended that a minimum of 29 participants will be recruited for each treatment group. Repeated measures of pain intensity, anxiety, stress and healing will be taken at every dressing change until complete wound re-epithelialization. Further data collection will aid in determining patient satisfaction and cost effectiveness of the Ditto intervention, as well as its effect on speed of wound re-epithelialization. Discussion Results of this study will provide data on whether the disease process can be altered by reducing stress, pain and anxiety in the context of acute burn wounds. Trial registration ACTRN12611000913976
A Systematic Review of the Clinimetric Properties of Habitual Physical Activity Measures in Young Children with a Motor Disability
Stina Oftedal,Kristie L. Bell,Louise E. Mitchell,Peter S. W. Davies,Robert S. Ware,Roslyn N. Boyd
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/976425
Abstract: Aim. To identify and systematically review the clinimetric properties of habitual physical activity (HPA) measures in young children with a motor disability. Method. Five databases were searched for measures of HPA including: children aged <6.0 years with a neuromuscular disorder, physical activity defined as “bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles causing caloric expenditure”, reported HPA as duration, frequency, intensity, mode or energy expenditure, and evaluated clinimetric properties. The quality of papers was assessed using the COSMIN-checklist. A targeted search of identified measures found additional studies of typically developing young children (TDC). Results. Seven papers assessing four activity monitors met inclusion criteria. Four studies were of good methodological quality. The Minimod had good ability to measure continuous walking but the demonstrated poor ability to measure steps during free-living activities. The Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity and Ambulatory Monitoring Pod showed poor ability to measure activity during both continuous walking and free-living activities. The StepWatch showed good ability to measure steps during continuous walking in TDC. Interpretation. Studies assessing the clinimetric properties of measures of HPA in this population are urgently needed to allow assessment of the relationship between HPA and health outcomes in this group.
A Systematic Review of the Clinimetric Properties of Habitual Physical Activity Measures in Young Children with a Motor Disability
Stina Oftedal,Kristie L. Bell,Louise E. Mitchell,Peter S. W. Davies,Robert S. Ware,Roslyn N. Boyd
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/976425
Abstract: Aim. To identify and systematically review the clinimetric properties of habitual physical activity (HPA) measures in young children with a motor disability. Method. Five databases were searched for measures of HPA including: children aged <6.0 years with a neuromuscular disorder, physical activity defined as “bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles causing caloric expenditure”, reported HPA as duration, frequency, intensity, mode or energy expenditure, and evaluated clinimetric properties. The quality of papers was assessed using the COSMIN-checklist. A targeted search of identified measures found additional studies of typically developing young children (TDC). Results. Seven papers assessing four activity monitors met inclusion criteria. Four studies were of good methodological quality. The Minimod had good ability to measure continuous walking but the demonstrated poor ability to measure steps during free-living activities. The Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity and Ambulatory Monitoring Pod showed poor ability to measure activity during both continuous walking and free-living activities. The StepWatch showed good ability to measure steps during continuous walking in TDC. Interpretation. Studies assessing the clinimetric properties of measures of HPA in this population are urgently needed to allow assessment of the relationship between HPA and health outcomes in this group. 1. Introduction Habitual physical activity (HPA) is an established determinant of health in children and is required for healthy development, including the growth of bone and muscle mass, improved balance and motor skills, maintaining a healthy weight and improved psychological wellbeing [1, 2]. Limited evidence suggests young children with motor disorders are less physically active than their typically developing peers [3]. Consequently they may be at risk of suboptimal growth and development in addition to the development of secondary conditions such as chronic pain, fatigue, and low bone density which can lead to diminished bone health [4, 5]. Australian physical activity guidelines state children aged from one to five years should be physically active for three hours throughout the day and should not be sedentary, restrained, or kept inactive, for more than one hour at a time, with the exception of sleeping [2]. Studies investigating the link between HPA and health outcomes for children with motor impairments have not been conducted. These studies are urgently needed to (i) determine the HPA patterns and intensities of children with motor disabilities,
Airway sizes and proportions in children quantified by a video-bronchoscopic technique
Ian B Masters, Robert S Ware, Paul V Zimmerman, Brian Lovell, Richard Wootton, Paul V Francis, Anne B Chang
BMC Pulmonary Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2466-6-5
Abstract: A validated videobronchoscope technique was used to measure in-vivo airway cross-sectional areas (cricoid, right (RMS) and left (LMS) main stem and major lobar bronchi) of 125 children. Airway proportions were calculated as ratios of airways to cricoid areas and to endotracheal tube (ETT) areas. Mann Whitney U, T-tests, and one-way ANOVA were used for comparisons and standard univariate and backwards, stepwise multivariate regression analyses were used to define factors that influence airway size.Airways size increased progressively with increasing age but proportions remained constant. The LMS was 21% smaller than the RMS. Gender differences in airways' size were not significant in any age group or airway site. Cricoid area related best to body length (BL): cricoid area (mm2) = 26.782 + 0.254* BL (cm) while the RMS and LMS area related best to weight: RMS area (mm2) = 23.938 + 0.394*Wt (kg) and LMS area (mm2) = 20.055 + 0.263*Wt (kg) respectively. Airways to cricoid ratios were larger than airway to ETT ratios (p = 0.0001).The large airways progressively increase in cross sectional area size, maintain constant proportional relationships to the cricoid and are gender independent across childhood. Anthropometric factors (body length and weight) are significantly related to but only have weakly predictive influences on major airway size. The cricoid is the most suitable comparator for other airway site measurements. These data provide for quantitative comparisons of airway lesions.In pediatric respiratory medicine airway malacia disorders and disorders of size and shape are common [1] yet there are no in-vivo quantitative measurement studies of these disorders. The semi-quantitative photogrammetric techniques that have been published regarding these disorders [2,3] are limited by a number of factors [4], and at best, have tended to underestimate the change being measured. Some of these limitations have now been overcome by our new quantitative technique for measuremen
PEER FEEDBACK ON LANGUAGE FORM IN TELECOLLABORATION
Paige Ware,Robert O'Dowd
Language Learning and Technology , 2008,
Abstract: We performed a two-phase, year-long research project that explored the impact of peer feedback on language development. We investigated specifically how and when post-secondary learners of English and Spanish provide corrective feedback on their partners' use of the target language in weekly asynchronous discussions by assigning them to one of two conditions: e-tutoring, in which students were asked to provide peer feedback on any linguistic form they perceived as incorrect; and e-partnering, in which students were not required to provide peer feedback but could do so on their own initiative. We examined the frequency and type of language use by coding the feedback for language-related episodes (Swain & Lapkin, 1998) and for feedback strategies (Ros i Solé & Truman, 2005). The findings indicate that students in both conditions preferred an inclusion of feedback on form as part of their exchange, but such feedback only occurred when explicitly required in the e-tutoring condition. Pedagogical implications include the need to situate peer feedback on form within current models of telecollaboration and to assist students in using feedback strategies such as reformulations, which do not rely on a deep understanding of the target or native language grammar.
The Eat Smart Study: A randomised controlled trial of a reduced carbohydrate versus a low fat diet for weight loss in obese adolescents
Helen Truby, Kimberley A Baxter, Paula Barrett, Robert S Ware, John C Cardinal, Peter SW Davies, Lynne A Daniels, Jennifer A Batch
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-464
Abstract: Eat Smart is a randomised controlled trial and aims to recruit 100 adolescents over a 2 1/2 year period. Families will be invited to participate following referral by their health professional who has recommended weight management. Participants will be overweight as defined by a body mass index (BMI) greater than the 90th percentile, using CDC 2000 growth charts. An accredited 6-week psychological life skills program 'FRIENDS for Life', which is designed to provide behaviour change and coping skills will be undertaken prior to volunteers being randomised to group. The intervention arms include a structured reduced carbohydrate or a structured low fat dietary program based on an individualised energy prescription. The intervention will involve a series of dietetic appointments over 24 weeks. The control group will commence the dietary program of their choice after a 12 week period. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, week 12 and week 24. The primary outcome measure will be change in BMI z-score. A range of secondary outcome measures including body composition, lipid fractions, inflammatory markers, social and psychological measures will be measured.The chronic and difficult nature of treating the obese adolescent is increasingly recognised by clinicians and has highlighted the need for research aimed at providing effective intervention strategies, particularly for use in the tertiary setting. A structured reduced carbohydrate approach may provide a dietary pattern that some families will find more sustainable and effective than the conventional low fat dietary approach currently advocated. This study aims to investigate the acceptability and effectiveness of a structured reduced dietary carbohydrate intervention and will compare the outcomes of this approach with a structured low fat eating plan.The protocol for this study is registered with the International Clinical Trials Registry (ISRCTN49438757).Obesity is being increasingly recognised as a major chro
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