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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 423567 matches for " Robert M. Starke "
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Cigarette Smoke and Inflammation: Role in Cerebral Aneurysm Formation and Rupture
Nohra Chalouhi,Muhammad S. Ali,Robert M. Starke,Pascal M. Jabbour
Mediators of Inflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/271582
Chromosome 1p and 11q Deletions and Outcome in Neuroblastoma – A Critical Review
Ricardo J. Komotar,Marc L. Otten,Robert M. Starke,Richard C. E. Anderson
Clinical Medicine : Oncology , 2008,
Cigarette Smoke Modulates Vascular Smooth Muscle Phenotype: Implications for Carotid and Cerebrovascular Disease
Robert M. Starke, Muhammad S. Ali, Pascal M. Jabbour, Stavropoula I. Tjoumakaris, Fernando Gonzalez, David M. Hasan, Robert H. Rosenwasser, Gary K. Owens, Walter J. Koch, Aaron S. Dumont
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071954
Abstract: Background The role of smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotypic modulation in the cerebral circulation and pathogenesis of stroke has not been determined. Cigarette smoke is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis, but potential mechanisms are unclear, and its role in SMC phenotypic modulation has not been established. Methods and Results In cultured cerebral vascular SMCs, exposure to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) resulted in decreased promoter activity and mRNA expression of key SMC contractile genes (SM-α-actin, SM-22α, SM-MHC) and the transcription factor myocardin in a dose-dependent manner. CSE also induced pro-inflammatory/matrix remodeling genes (MCP-1, MMPs, TNF-α, IL-1β, NF-κB). CSE increased expression of KLF4, a known regulator of SMC differentiation, and siKLF4 inhibited CSE induced suppression of SMC contractile genes and myocardin and activation of inflammatory genes. These mechanisms were confirmed in vivo following exposure of rat carotid arteries to CSE. Chromatin immune-precipitation assays in vivo and in vitro demonstrated that CSE promotes epigenetic changes with binding of KLF4 to the promoter regions of myocardin and SMC marker genes and alterations in promoter acetylation and methylation. Conclusion CSE exposure results in phenotypic modulation of cerebral SMC through myocardin and KLF4 dependent mechanisms. These results provides a mechanism by which cigarette smoke induces a pro-inflammatory/matrix remodeling phenotype in SMC and an important pathway for cigarette smoke to contribute to atherosclerosis and stroke.
The Influence of DNA Extraction Procedure and Primer Set on the Bacterial Community Analysis by Pyrosequencing of Barcoded 16S rRNA Gene Amplicons
Ingo C. Starke,Wilfried Vahjen,Robert Pieper,Jürgen Zentek
Molecular Biology International , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/548683
Abstract: In this study, the effect of different DNA extraction procedures and primer sets on pyrosequencing results regarding the composition of bacterial communities in the ileum of piglets was investigated. Ileal chyme from piglets fed a diet containing different amounts of zinc oxide was used to evaluate a pyrosequencing study with barcoded 16S rRNA PCR products. Two DNA extraction methods (bead beating versus silica gel columns) and two primer sets targeting variable regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes (8f-534r versus 968f-1401r) were considered. The SEED viewer software of the MG-RAST server was used for automated sequence analysis. A total of 5 sequences were used for analysis after processing for read length (150?bp), minimum sequence occurrence (5), and exclusion of eukaryotic and unclassified/uncultured sequences. DNA extraction procedures and primer sets differed significantly in total sequence yield. The distribution of bacterial order and main bacterial genera was influenced significantly by both parameters. However, this study has shown that the results of pyrosequencing studies using barcoded PCR amplicons of bacterial 16S rRNA genes depend on DNA extraction and primer choice, as well as on the manner of downstream sequence analysis. 1. Introduction Molecular tools such as the recently introduced method of massively parallel sequencing (deep sequencing) [1, 2] greatly facilitate the study of complex bacterial communities and provide deep insights into their compositions [3–5]. Combined with the technique of barcoded PCR amplicons, deep sequencing methods are able to process many samples at a relatively low cost per sequence [6, 7]. Deep sequencing is, therefore, a promising tool for examining the influence of nutritional and other factors on intestinal microbial communities and functionalities. However, as with any new technology, pitfalls exist. For barcoded PCR amplicon sequencing studies, nucleic acids must be extracted and the resulting DNA extract should ideally represent the entire bacterial diversity in a given habitat. Furthermore, barcoding requires a PCR step, which depends on primers that should ideally cover the complete bacterial diversity. Finally, the evaluation of sequence reads is based on databases, most of which are not yet suited for massive sequence inputs [8] and sequence quality is often found to be suboptimal [9, 10]. In regard to DNA extraction from complex samples, a multitude of studies have reported that any given nucleic acid extraction method is biased towards certain bacterial groups [11–13]. Complex samples such as
Shotgun sequencing of Yersinia enterocolitica strain W22703 (biotype 2, serotype O:9): genomic evidence for oscillation between invertebrates and mammals
Thilo M Fuchs, Katharina Brandt, Mandy Starke, Thomas Rattei
BMC Genomics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-12-168
Abstract: We used whole-genome shotgun data to assemble, annotate and analyse the sequence of strain W22703. Numerous factors assumed to contribute to enteric survival and pathogenesis, among them osmoregulated periplasmic glucan, hydrogenases, cobalamin-dependent pathways, iron uptake systems and the Yersinia genome island 1 (YGI-1) involved in tight adherence were identified to be common to the 8081 and W22703 genomes. However, sets of ~550 genes revealed to be specific for each of them in comparison to the other strain. The plasticity zone (PZ) of 142 kb in the W22703 genome carries an ancient flagellar cluster Flg-2 of ~40 kb, but it lacks the pathogenicity island YAPIYe, the secretion system ysa and yts1, and other virulence determinants of the 8081 PZ. Its composition underlines the prominent variability of this genome region and demonstrates its contribution to the higher pathogenicity of biotype 1B strains with respect to W22703. A novel type three secretion system of mosaic structure was found in the genome of W22703 that is absent in the sequenced strains of the human pathogenic Yersinia species, but conserved in the genomes of the apathogenic species. We identified several regions of differences in W22703 that mainly code for transporters, regulators, metabolic pathways, and defence factors.The W22703 sequence analysis revealed a genome composition distinct from other pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strains, thus contributing novel data to the Y. enterocolitica pan-genome. This study also sheds further light on the strategies of this pathogen to cope with its environments.The genus Yersinia currently comprises three human pathogens (Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. enterocolitica), and at least 14 species considered harmless for humans, namely Y. aldovae, Y. bercovieri, Y. frederiksenii, Y. intermedia, Y. kristensenii, Y. mollaretii, Y. rohdei, Y. ruckeri [1], Y. aleksiciae [2], Y. similis [3], Y. massiliensis [4], Y. entomophaga [5], Y. nurmii [6] and Y
Nanosyntax: A short primer to a new approach to language
Michal Starke
Nordlyd : Troms? University Working Papers on Language & Linguistics / Institutt for Spr?k og Litteratur, Universitetet i Troms? , 2009,
Abstract: Nanosyntax is a new approach to the architecture of language, designed to make (better) sense of the new empirical picture emerging from recent years of syntactic research. It is a large-scale project, addressing a wide array of issues, ranging from big issues such as the modularity of language, to ne details, such as the derivation of allomorphy in irregular patterns of given languages and its interaction with syntactic structures.
Sexualit t von M nnern bei chronischer Erkrankung
Starke K
Blickpunkt der Mann , 2007,
Abstract: Dem sexuellen Verhalten von chronisch erkrankten M nnern ist bislang weder theoretisch noch empirisch gr ere Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt worden, und für die Praxis sind kaum wissenschaftlich gesicherte Entscheidungshilfen vorhanden. Im Beitrag werden 13 Aspekte hervorgehoben, die für eine Ann herung an das Thema wichtig sind. Dazu geh ren die Bedeutung der Sexualit t für die Gesamtvitalit t des Menschen, der soziokulturelle Kontext von Sexualit t und Krankheit und insbesondere die Paarbeziehung als wichtigster Bezug des Sexualverhaltens. Inwieweit Sexuelles im Denken und in der Realit t chronisch Kranker pr sent ist und wie Paare damit umgehen, wird in einem empirisch akzentuierten Teil des Beitrags berührt. Dabei wird auf die mannigfaltigen Funktionen der Sexualit t hingewiesen und die Formel "Lust mal Lusterfüllung im Quadrat gleich sexuelle Zufriedenheit" angeboten. Abschlie end werden zwei Strategien im Umgang mit Sexualit t reflektiert, eine des Aufgebens und eine des Aufhebens.
Ian Starke
Educación Médica , 2006,
Temperature-induced reversal of magnetic interlayer exchange coupling
K. M. Doebrich,M. Wietstruk,J. E. Prieto,F. Heigl,O. Krupin,K. Starke,G. Kaindl
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.227203
Abstract: For epitaxial trilayers of the magnetic rare-earth metals Gd and Tb, exchange coupled through a non-magnetic Y spacer layer, element-specific hysteresis loops were recorded by the x-ray magneto-optical Kerr effect at the rare-earth $M_5$ thresholds. This allowed us to quantitatively determine the strength of interlayer exchange coupling (IEC). In addition to the expected oscillatory behavior as a function of spacer-layer thickness $d_Y$, a temperature-induced sign reversal of IEC was observed for constant $d_Y$, arising from magnetization-dependent electron reflectivities at the magnetic interfaces.
Influence of the degree of decoupling of graphene on the properties of transition metal adatoms
T. Eelbo,M. Wa?niowska,M. Gyamfi,S. Forti,U. Starke,R. Wiesendanger
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.87.205443
Abstract: We investigate the adsorption sites of $3d$ transition metal (TM) adatoms by means of low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. Co and Ni adatoms were adsorbed on two types of graphene on SiC(0001), i.e. pristine epitaxial monolayer graphene (MLG) and quasi-free-standing monolayer graphene (QFMLG). In the case of QFMLG, two stable adsorption sites are identified, while in the case of MLG, only one adsorption site is observed. Our experimental results reveal the decoupling efficiency as a crucial parameter for determining the adsorption site as well as the electronic properties of $3d$ transition metal atoms on graphene. Furthermore, we show that Co atoms adsorbed on QFMLG are strong scattering potentials for Dirac fermions and cause intervalley scattering in their vicinity.
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