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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 423680 matches for " Robert M. Kurland "
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Attachment and Academic Classroom Behavior: Self-Efficacy and Procrastination as Moderators on the Influence of Attachment on Academic Success  [PDF]
Robert M. Kurland, Harold I. Siegel
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.78107
Abstract: Attachment, self-efficacy, and procrastination were measured in 161 college students enrolled in an Introductory Psychology class. Class grades and overall academic records were also obtained. Students who had higher levels of attachment anxiety had lower final grades in the class, higher levels of procrastination, and lower self-efficacy. Students with higher levels of attachment avoidance had lower grades within the class and a lower overall Grade Point Average (GPA). Regression analysis showed that self-efficacy moderated the relationship between attachment and class grade as well as overall GPA. Procrastination also moderated the relationship between both attachment anxiety and GPA and attachment avoidance and GPA.
Feasibility study of FDG PET as an indicator of early response to aromatase inhibitors and trastuzumab in a heterogeneous group of breast cancer patients
Brenda F Kurland, Vijayakrishna K Gadi, Jennifer M Specht, Kimberly H Allison, Robert B Livingston, Eve T Rodler, Lanell M Peterson, Erin K Schubert, Xiaoyu Chai, David A Mankoff, Hannah M Linden
EJNMMI Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2191-219x-2-34
Abstract: Patients with any stage of newly diagnosed or recurrent breast cancer were eligible and enrolled prior to initiation (or resumption) of AI or T therapy. FDG PET and tissue biopsy were planned before and after 2 weeks of AI or T therapy, with pretreatment archival tissue permitted. Cutoffs of ≥20% decline in standardized uptake value (SUV) as FDG PET early response and ≤5% post-treatment expression as Ki-67 early response were defined prior to analysis.Forty-two patients enrolled, and 40 (28 AI, 12 T) completed serial FDG-PET imaging. Twenty-two patients (17 AI, 5 T) had newly diagnosed disease, and 23 (14 AI, 9 T) had metastatic disease (5 newly diagnosed). Post-treatment biopsy was performed in 25 patients (63%) and was either refused or not feasible in 15. Post-treatment biopsy yielded tumor in only 17/25 cases (14 AI, 3 T). Eleven of 14 AI patients with post-therapy tissue showed FDG PET early response, and there was 100% concordance of PET and post-therapy Ki-67 early response. For the T group, 6/12 showed an FDG PET early response, including 2/3 patients with post-therapy biopsy, all with Ki-67 >5%.Substantial changes in FDG PET SUV occurred over 2 weeks of AI therapy and were associated with low post-therapy proliferation. SUV decline was seen in response to T, but few tissue samples were available to test association with Ki-67. Our results support further investigation of FDG PET as a biomarker for early response to AI therapy.Breast cancer is a common, life-threatening malignancy [1]; its biology may be driven by estrogen receptor (ER) expression and/or by overexpression or amplification of the epidermal growth factor family receptor HER2. Endocrine therapies such as aromatase inhibitors (AI) and targeted monoclonal antibodies such as trastuzumab (T; Herceptin?, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA, USA) have dramatically improved breast cancer outcomes for patients with tumors bearing the appropriate marker for response: ER for AIs and HER2 for T. However, n
Respect My Authority! HITS Without Hyperlinks, Utilizing Cluster-Based Language Models
Oren Kurland,Lillian Lee
Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract: We present an approach to improving the precision of an initial document ranking wherein we utilize cluster information within a graph-based framework. The main idea is to perform re-ranking based on centrality within bipartite graphs of documents (on one side) and clusters (on the other side), on the premise that these are mutually reinforcing entities. Links between entities are created via consideration of language models induced from them. We find that our cluster-document graphs give rise to much better retrieval performance than previously proposed document-only graphs do. For example, authority-based re-ranking of documents via a HITS-style cluster-based approach outperforms a previously-proposed PageRank-inspired algorithm applied to solely-document graphs. Moreover, we also show that computing authority scores for clusters constitutes an effective method for identifying clusters containing a large percentage of relevant documents.
Corpus structure, language models, and ad hoc information retrieval
Oren Kurland,Lillian Lee
Computer Science , 2004,
Abstract: Most previous work on the recently developed language-modeling approach to information retrieval focuses on document-specific characteristics, and therefore does not take into account the structure of the surrounding corpus. We propose a novel algorithmic framework in which information provided by document-based language models is enhanced by the incorporation of information drawn from clusters of similar documents. Using this framework, we develop a suite of new algorithms. Even the simplest typically outperforms the standard language-modeling approach in precision and recall, and our new interpolation algorithm posts statistically significant improvements for both metrics over all three corpora tested.
The Opposite of Smoothing: A Language Model Approach to Ranking Query-Specific Document Clusters
Oren Kurland,Eyal Krikon
Computer Science , 2014, DOI: 10.1613/jair.3327
Abstract: Exploiting information induced from (query-specific) clustering of top-retrieved documents has long been proposed as a means for improving precision at the very top ranks of the returned results. We present a novel language model approach to ranking query-specific clusters by the presumed percentage of relevant documents that they contain. While most previous cluster ranking approaches focus on the cluster as a whole, our model utilizes also information induced from documents associated with the cluster. Our model substantially outperforms previous approaches for identifying clusters containing a high relevant-document percentage. Furthermore, using the model to produce document ranking yields precision-at-top-ranks performance that is consistently better than that of the initial ranking upon which clustering is performed. The performance also favorably compares with that of a state-of-the-art pseudo-feedback-based retrieval method.
PageRank without hyperlinks: Structural re-ranking using links induced by language models
Oren Kurland,Lillian Lee
Computer Science , 2006,
Abstract: Inspired by the PageRank and HITS (hubs and authorities) algorithms for Web search, we propose a structural re-ranking approach to ad hoc information retrieval: we reorder the documents in an initially retrieved set by exploiting asymmetric relationships between them. Specifically, we consider generation links, which indicate that the language model induced from one document assigns high probability to the text of another; in doing so, we take care to prevent bias against long documents. We study a number of re-ranking criteria based on measures of centrality in the graphs formed by generation links, and show that integrating centrality into standard language-model-based retrieval is quite effective at improving precision at top ranks.
Automated patient and medication payment method for clinical trials
Yawn BP, Madison S, Bertram S, Pace WD, Fuhlbrigge A, Israel E, Littlefield D, Kurland M, Wechsler ME
Open Access Journal of Clinical Trials , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAJCT.S38489
Abstract: utomated patient and medication payment method for clinical trials Original Research (413) Total Article Views Authors: Yawn BP, Madison S, Bertram S, Pace WD, Fuhlbrigge A, Israel E, Littlefield D, Kurland M, Wechsler ME Published Date January 2013 Volume 2013:5 Pages 23 - 31 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAJCT.S38489 Received: 25 September 2012 Accepted: 09 November 2012 Published: 29 January 2013 Barbara P Yawn,1 Suzanne Madison,1 Susan Bertram,1 Wilson D Pace,2 Anne Fuhlbrigge,3 Elliot Israel,3 Dawn Littlefield,1 Margary Kurland,1 Michael E Wechsler4 1Olmsted Medical Center, Department of Research, Rochester, MN, 2UCDHSC, Department of Family Medicine, University of Colorado Health Science Centre, Aurora, CO, 3Brigham and Women's Hospital, Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Boston, MA, 4National Jewish Medical Center, Division of Pulmonology, Denver, CO, USA Background: Published reports and studies related to patient compensation for clinical trials focus primarily on the ethical issues related to appropriate amounts to reimburse for patient's time and risk burden. Little has been published regarding the method of payment for patient participation. As clinical trials move into widely dispersed community practices and more complex designs, the method of payment also becomes more complex. Here we review the decision process and payment method selected for a primary care-based randomized clinical trial of asthma management in Black Americans. Methods: The method selected is a credit card system designed specifically for clinical trials that allows both fixed and variable real-time payments. We operationalized the study design by providing each patient with two cards, one for reimbursement for study visits and one for payment of medication costs directly to the pharmacies. Results: Of the 1015 patients enrolled, only two refused use of the ClinCard, requesting cash payments for visits and only rarely a weekend or fill-in pharmacist refused to use the card system for payment directly to the pharmacy. Overall, the system has been well accepted by patients and local study teams. The ClinCard administrative system facilitates the fiscal accounting and medication adherence record-keeping by the central teams. Monthly fees are modest, and all 12 study institutional review boards approved use of the system without concern for patient confidentiality after reviewing all regulatory documents provided by ClinCard. Conclusion: This system works well for studies that recruit patients from widely dispersed practices and for studies that require flexibility in the amount of payments required, eg, the cost of eight different study medications across varying insurance and pharmacy systems.
Glibenclamide for the Treatment of Acute CNS Injury
David B. Kurland,Cigdem Tosun,Adam Pampori,Jason K. Karimy,Nicholas M. Caffes,Volodymyr Gerzanich,J. Marc Simard
Pharmaceuticals , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ph6101287
Abstract: First introduced into clinical practice in 1969, glibenclamide (US adopted name, glyburide) is known best for its use in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2, where it is used to promote the release of insulin by blocking pancreatic K ATP [sulfonylurea receptor 1 (Sur1)-Kir6.2] channels. During the last decade, glibenclamide has received renewed attention due to its pleiotropic protective effects in acute CNS injury. Acting via inhibition of the recently characterized Sur1-Trpm4 channel (formerly, the Sur1-regulated NC Ca-ATP channel) and, in some cases, via brain K ATP channels, glibenclamide has been shown to be beneficial in several clinically relevant rodent models of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, neonatal encephalopathy of prematurity, and metastatic brain tumor. Glibenclamide acts on microvessels to reduce edema formation and secondary hemorrhage, it inhibits necrotic cell death, it exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects and it promotes neurogenesis—all via inhibition of Sur1. Two clinical trials, one in TBI and one in stroke, currently are underway. These recent findings, which implicate Sur1 in a number of acute pathological conditions involving the CNS, present new opportunities to use glibenclamide, a well-known, safe pharmaceutical agent, for medical conditions that heretofore had few or no treatment options.
Ground state spin and Coulomb blockade peak motion in chaotic quantum dots
J. A. Folk,C. M. Marcus,R. Berkovits,I. L. Kurland,I. L. Aleiner,B. L. Altshuler
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1238/Physica.Topical.090a00026
Abstract: We investigate experimentally and theoretically the behavior of Coulomb blockade (CB) peaks in a magnetic field that couples principally to the ground-state spin (rather than the orbital moment) of a chaotic quantum dot. In the first part, we discuss numerically observed features in the magnetic field dependence of CB peak and spacings that unambiguously identify changes in spin S of each ground state for successive numbers of electrons on the dot, N. We next evaluate the probability that the ground state of the dot has a particular spin S, as a function of the exchange strength, J, and external magnetic field, B. In the second part, we describe recent experiments on gate-defined GaAs quantum dots in which Coulomb peak motion and spacing are measured as a function of in-plane magnetic field, allowing changes in spin between N and N+1 electron ground states to be inferred.
A Three-Marker FISH Panel Detects More Genetic Aberrations of AR, PTEN and TMPRSS2/ERG in Castration-Resistant or Metastatic Prostate Cancers than in Primary Prostate Tumors
Xiaoyu Qu, Grace Randhawa, Cynthia Friedman, Brenda F. Kurland, Lena Glaskova, Ilsa Coleman, Elahe Mostaghel, Celestia S. Higano, Christopher Porter, Robert Vessella, Peter S. Nelson, Min Fang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074671
Abstract: TMPRSS2/ERG rearrangement, PTEN gene deletion, and androgen receptor (AR) gene amplification have been observed in various stages of human prostate cancer. We hypothesized that using these markers as a combined panel would allow better differentiation between low-risk and high-risk prostate cancer. We analyzed 110 primary prostate cancer samples, 70 metastatic tumor samples from 11 patients, and 27 xenograft tissues derived from 22 advanced prostate cancer patients using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with probes targeting the TMPRSS2/ERG, PTEN, and AR gene loci. Heterogeneity of the aberrations detected was evaluated. Genetic patterns were also correlated with transcript levels. Among samples with complete data available, the three-marker FISH panel detected chromosomal abnormalities in 53% of primary prostate cancers and 87% of metastatic (Met) or castration-resistant (CRPC) tumors. The number of markers with abnormal FISH result had a different distribution between the two groups (P<0.001). At the patient level, Met/CRPC tumors are 4.5 times more likely to show abnormalities than primary cancer patients (P<0.05). Heterogeneity among Met/CRPC tumors is mostly inter-patient. Intra-patient heterogeneity is primarily due to differences between the primary prostate tumor and the metastases while multiple metastatic sites show consistent abnormalities. Intra-tumor variability is most prominent with the AR copy number in primary tumors. AR copy number correlated well with the AR mRNA expression (rho = 0.52, P<0.001). Especially among TMPRSS2:ERG fusion-positive CRPC tumors, AR mRNA and ERG mRNA levels are strongly correlated (rho = 0.64, P<0.001). Overall, the three-marker FISH panel may represent a useful tool for risk stratification of prostate cancer patients.
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