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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 547876 matches for " Robert M. D. Little "
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Flexibility Training and Functional Ability in Older Adults: A Systematic Review
Liza Stathokostas,Robert M. D. Little,A. A. Vandervoort,Donald H. Paterson
Journal of Aging Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/306818
Abstract: Background. As indicated in a recent systematic review relating to Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines for Older Adults, exercise interventions in older adults can maintain or improve functional abilities. Less is known about the role of flexibility in the maintenance or improvement of functional abilities, and there currently does not exist a synthesis of the literature supporting a consensus on flexibility training prescription. Purpose. To systematically review the effects of flexibility-specific training interventions on measures of functional outcomes in healthy older adults over the age of 65 years. Methods. Five electronic databases were searched for intervention studies involving concepts related to aging, flexibility, functional outcomes, and training interventions. After evaluating the articles for relevance, 22 studies were considered. Results. The results suggested that while flexibility-specific interventions may have effects on range of motion (ROM) outcomes, there is conflicting information regarding both the relationship between flexibility interventions and functional outcomes or daily functioning. Conclusions. Due to the wide range of intervention protocols, body parts studied, and functional measurements, conclusive recommendations regarding flexibility training for older adults or the validity of flexibility training interventions as supplements to other forms of exercise, or as significant positive influences on functional ability, require further investigation. 1. Introduction As indicated in a recent systematic review relating to Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines for Older Adults, exercise interventions (comprised of aerobic and strength training) in older adults can maintain or improve functional abilities [1]. Less is known about the role of flexibility in the maintenance or improvement of functional abilities. While joint flexibility may decrease with age, with the potential to affect normal daily function, older adults do maintain the ability to improve flexibility through stretching exercises [1]. The 2009 American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) position statement “Exercise and Physical Activity for Older Adults” [2] noted there is a lack of studies of the effects of range of motion exercises on flexibility outcomes in older populations and a lack of consensus regarding the prescription of stretching exercises for older adults. Despite the lack of a synthesis of the literature to support the recommendation of the inclusion of a flexibility component to older adult exercise programs, many older adult activity programs
Flexibility of Older Adults Aged 55–86 Years and the Influence of Physical Activity
Liza Stathokostas,Matthew W. McDonald,Robert M. D. Little,Donald H. Paterson
Journal of Aging Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/743843
Abstract: Cross-sectional age-related differences in flexibility of older adults aged 55–86 years of varying activity levels were examined. Shoulder abduction and hip flexion flexibility measurements were obtained from 436 individuals (205 men, years; 231 women, years). Total physical activity was assessed using the Minnesota Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Shoulder abduction showed a significant decline averaging 5?degrees/decade in men and 6?degrees/decade in women. Piecewise linear regression showed an accelerated decline in men starting at the age of 71 years of 0.80?degrees/year, whereas in women the onset of decline (0.74?degrees/year) was 63 years. Men and women showed a significant decline in hip flexion (men: 6?degrees/decade; women: 7?degrees/decade). Piecewise linear regression revealed a rate of decline of 1.16?degrees/year beginning at 71 years in men and in women a single linear decline of 0.66?degrees/year. Multiple regression analysis showed that age and physical activity accounted for only 9% of the variance in hip flexion in women and 10% in men, with age but not physical activity remaining significant. Similarly for shoulder abduction, age was significant but not physical activity, in a model that described 8% of the variance for both sexes. 1. Introduction As indicated in a recent systematic review by our group [1], there is conflicting information regarding both the relationship between flexibility training interventions and functional outcomes and the relationship between improved flexibility and daily functioning; health benefits have not yet been established. The comparison of studies in this area to provide a prescription of the flexibility is complicated by the variety of limb ranges of motion studied, testing procedures utilized, and methods of assessing physical activity levels. Furthermore, this component of physical health has been somewhat neglected or forgotten in the current literature despite the lack of evidence for recommendations of the amount and type of flexibility needed for health in older adults. Further, despite this lack of a synthesis of the literature to support the recommendation of the inclusion of a flexibility component to older adult exercise programs, many older adult activity programs place a considerable emphasis on flexibility. The present study attempts to add additional insight to this area by presenting the relationship between declines in flexibility across age and functional outcomes in a large sample of individuals representing the older adult age range. Joint flexibility may decrease
Systematic Association Mapping Identifies NELL1 as a Novel IBD Disease Gene
Andre Franke, Jochen Hampe, Philip Rosenstiel, Christian Becker, Florian Wagner, Robert H?sler, Randall D. Little, Klaus Huse, Andreas Ruether, Tobias Balschun, Michael Wittig, Abdou ElSharawy, Gabriele Mayr, Mario Albrecht, Natalie J. Prescott, Clive M. Onnie, Hélène Fournier, Tim Keith, Uwe Radelof, Matthias Platzer, Christopher G. Mathew, Monika Stoll, Michael Krawczak, Peter Nürnberg, Stefan Schreiber
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000691
Abstract: Crohn disease (CD), a sub-entity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is a complex polygenic disorder. Although recent studies have successfully identified CD-associated genetic variants, these susceptibility loci explain only a fraction of the heritability of the disease. Here, we report on a multi-stage genome-wide scan of 393 German CD cases and 399 controls. Among the 116,161 single-nucleotide polymorphisms tested, an association with the known CD susceptibility gene NOD2, the 5q31 haplotype, and the recently reported CD locus at 5p13.1 was confirmed. In addition, SNP rs1793004 in the gene encoding nel-like 1 precursor (NELL1, chromosome 11p15.1) showed a consistent disease-association in independent German population- and family-based samples (942 cases, 1082 controls, 375 trios). Subsequent fine mapping and replication in an independent sample of 454 French/Canadian CD trios supported the authenticity of the NELL1 association. Further confirmation in a large German ulcerative colitis (UC) sample indicated that NELL1 is a ubiquitous IBD susceptibility locus (combined p<10?6; OR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.30–2.11). The novel 5p13.1 locus was also replicated in the French/Canadian sample and in an independent UK CD patient panel (453 cases, 521 controls, combined p<10?6 for SNP rs1992660). Several associations were replicated in at least one independent sample, point to an involvement of ITGB6 (upstream), GRM8 (downstream), OR5V1 (downstream), PPP3R2 (downstream), NM_152575 (upstream) and HNF4G (intron).
Rigorous semiclassical results for the magnetic response of an electron gas
M. Combescure,D. Robert
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1142/S0129055X01000971
Abstract: Consider a free electron gas in a confining potential and a magnetic field in arbitrary dimensions. If this gas is in thermal equilibrium with a reservoir at temperature $T >0$, one can study its orbital magnetic response (omitting the spin). One defines a conveniently ``smeared out'' magnetization $M$, and the corresponding magnetic susceptibility $\chi$, which will be analyzed from a semiclassical point of view, namely when $\hbar$ (the Planck constant) is small compared to classical actions characterizing the system. Then various regimes of temperature $T$ are studied where $M$ and $\chi$ can be obtained in the form of suitable asymptotic $\hbar$-expansions. In particular when $T$ is of the order of $\hbar$, oscillations ``\`a la de Haas-van Alphen'' appear, that can be linked to the classical periodic orbits of the electronic motion.
A phase-space study of the quantum Loschmidt Echo in the semiclassical limit
M. Combescure,D. Robert
Mathematics , 2005, DOI: 10.1007/s00023-006-0301-9
Abstract: The notion of Loschmidt echo (also called "quantum fidelity") has been introduced in order to study the (in)-stability of the quantum dynamics under perturbations of the Hamiltonian. It has been extensively studied in the past few years in the physics literature, in connection with the problems of "quantum chaos", quantum computation and decoherence. In this paper, we study this quantity semiclassically (as $\hbar \to 0$), taking as reference quantum states the usual coherent states. The latter are known to be well adapted to a semiclassical analysis, in particular with respect to semiclassical estimates of their time evolution. For times not larger than the so-called "Ehrenfest time" $C | \log \hbar |$, we are able to estimate semiclassically the Loschmidt Echo as a function of $t$ (time), $\hbar$ (Planck constant), and $\delta$ (the size of the perturbation). The way two classical trajectories merging from the same point in classical phase-space, fly apart or come close together along the evolutions governed by the perturbed and unperturbed Hamiltonians play a major role in this estimate. We also give estimates of the "return probability" (again on reference states being the coherent states) by the same method, as a function of $t$ and $\hbar$.
A prospective evaluation of treatment with Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIR-spheres) in patients with unresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer previously treated with 5-FU based chemotherapy
L Lim, P Gibbs, D Yip, JD Shapiro, R Dowling, D Smith, A Little, W Bailey, M Liechtenstein
BMC Cancer , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-5-132
Abstract: Patients were prospectively enrolled at three Australian centres. All patients had previously received 5-FU based chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer. Patients were ECOG 0–2 and had liver dominant or liver only disease. Concurrent 5-FU was given at investigator discretion.Thirty patients were treated between January 2002 and March 2004. As of July 2004 the median follow-up is 18.3 months. Median patient age was 61.7 years (range 36 – 77). Twenty-nine patients are evaluable for toxicity and response. There were 10 partial responses (33%), with the median duration of response being 8.3 months (range 2–18) and median time to progression of 5.3 mths. Response rates were lower (21%) and progression free survival shorter (3.9 mths) in patients that had received all standard chemotherapy options (n = 14). No responses were seen in patients with a poor performance status (n = 3) or extrahepatic disease (n = 6). Overall treatment related toxicity was acceptable, however significant late toxicity included 4 cases of gastric ulceration.In patients with metastatic colorectal cancer that have previously received treatment with 5-FU based chemotherapy, treatment with SIR-spheres has demonstrated encouraging activity. Further studies are required to better define the subsets of patients most likely to respond.Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common GI malignancy accounting for 4718 deaths in Australia [1] and almost 437,000 deaths worldwide annually making it the most third most common malignancy in the developed world [2]. Around fifty to sixty percent of these patients will develop liver metastases, and in approximately 20% of cases the liver is the only site of disease at death[3]. Surgical resection of all apparent disease is possible in selected patients, however for the majority of patients with metastatic CRC the standard approach remains systemic chemotherapy.Selective Internal Radiation (SIR) spheres (Sirtex Medical, Sydney, Australia) are a new radiotherapeu
Curvularin and Dehydrocurvularin as Phytotoxic Constituents from Curvularia intermedia Infecting Pandanus amaryllifolius  [PDF]
Kumudini M. Meepagala, Robert D. Johnson, Stephen O. Duke
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2016.51002
Abstract: Microbes are good sources of biologically active compounds that can be used as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. As part of our continuous efforts in search for biopesticides from natural sources, a fungus is isolated from leaves of Pandanus amaryllifolius that shows severe necrosis. This fungus is cultured in potato dextrose agar and identified as Curvularia intermedia. The ethyl acetate extract of the liquid culture medium is phytotoxic. Identification and bioassay of αβ-dehydrocurvularin (1) and curvularin (2) from this fungus are described. Monoacetyldehydrocurvularin (3), and diacetyldehydrocurvularin (4) are synthesized from 1. Phytoxicity rankings in a variety of bioassays are 1 > 2 > 4 > 3.
Deterministically driven random walks on a finite state space
Colin M. W. Little
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: We introduce the concept of a deterministic walk. Confining our attention to the finite state case, we establish hypotheses that ensure that the deterministic walk is transitive, and show that this property is in some sense robust. We also establish conditions that ensure the existence of asymptotic occupation times.
Deterministically driven random walks in a random environment on Z
Colin M. W. Little
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: We introduce the concept of a deterministic walk in a deterministic environment on a countable state space (DWDE). For the deterministic walk in a fixed environment we establish properties analogous to those found in Markov chain theory, but for systems that do not in general have the Markov property. In particular, we establish hypotheses ensuring that a DWDE on $\Z$ is either recurrent or transient. An immediate consequence of this result is that a symmetric DWDE on $\Z$ is recurrent. Moreover, in the transient case, we show that the probability that the DWDE diverges to $+ \infty$ is either 0 or 1. In certain cases we compute the direction of divergence in the transient case.
Monocyte and T-lymphocyte trans-endothelial migration in relation to cardiovascular disease: some alternative boundary conditions in a model recently proposed by Little et al. (PLoS Comput Biol 2009 5(10) e1000539)
M. P. Little
Quantitative Biology , 2010,
Abstract: We consider a slight modification to the monocyte and T-lymphocyte boundary conditions of Little et al. (PLoS Comput Biol 2009 5(10) e1000539) and derive alternative parameter estimates. No changes to the results and conclusions of the paper of Little et al. (PLoS Comput Biol 2009 5(10) e1000539) are implied.
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