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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 164531 matches for " Robert K. McNamara "
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Membrane Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency as a Preventable Risk Factor for Comorbid Coronary Heart Disease in Major Depressive Disorder
Robert K. McNamara
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/362795
Abstract: Major depression disorder (MDD) significantly increases the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) which is a leading cause of mortality in patients with MDD. Moreover, depression is frequently observed in a subset of patients following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and increases risk for mortality. Here evidence implicating omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid deficiency in the pathoaetiology of CHD and MDD is reviewed, and the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acid deficiency is a preventable risk factor for CHD comorbidity in MDD patients is evaluated. This hypothesis is supported by cross-national and cross-sectional epidemiological surveys finding an inverse correlation between n-3 fatty acid status and prevalence rates of both CHD and MDD, prospective studies finding that lower dietary or membrane EPA
Adult Medication-Free Schizophrenic Patients Exhibit Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease Risk
Robert K. McNamara,Ronald Jandacek,Therese Rider,Patrick Tso
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/796462
Abstract:
The short-term safety and efficacy of fluoxetine in depressed adolescents with alcohol and cannabis use disorders: a pilot randomized placebo-controlled trial
Findling Robert L,Pagano Maria E,McNamara Nora K,Stansbrey Robert J
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1753-2000-3-11
Abstract: Background The objective of this study was to examine whether fluoxetine was superior to placebo in the acute amelioration of depressive symptomatology in adolescents with depressive illness and a comorbid substance use disorder. Methods Eligible subjects ages 12–17 years with either a current major depressive disorder (MDD) or a depressive disorder that were also suffering from a comorbid substance-related disorder were randomized to receive either fluoxetine or placebo in this single site, 8-week double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The primary outcome analysis was a random effects mixed model for repeated measurements of Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) scores compared between treatment groups across time. Results An interim analysis was performed after 34 patients were randomized. Based on the results of a futility analysis, study enrollment was halted. Twenty-nine males and 5 females were randomized to receive fluoxetine (n = 18) or placebo (n = 16). Their mean age was 16.5 (1.1) years. Overall, patients who received fluoxetine and placebo had a reduction in CDRS-R scores. However, there was no significant difference in mean change in CDRS-R total score in those subjects treated with fluoxetine and those who received placebo (treatment difference = 0.19, S.E. = 0.58, F = 0.14, p = .74). Furthermore, there was not a significant difference in rates of positive urine drug toxicology results between treatment groups at any post-randomization visit (F = 0.22, df = 1, p = 0.65). The main limitation of this study is its modest sample size and resulting low statistical power. Other significant limitations to this study include, but are not limited to, the brevity of the trial, high placebo response rate, limited dose range of fluoxetine, and the inclusion of youth who met criteria for depressive disorders other than MDD. Conclusion Fluoxetine was not superior to placebo in alleviating depressive symptoms or in decreasing rates of positive drug screens in the acute treatment of adolescents with depression and a concomitant substance use disorder.
Adult Medication-Free Schizophrenic Patients Exhibit Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease Risk
Robert K. McNamara,Ronald Jandacek,Therese Rider,Patrick Tso,Yogesh Dwivedi,Ghanshyam N. Pandey
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/796462
Abstract: Deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn ? 3) fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n ? 3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n ? 3), has been implicated in the pathoetiology of cardiovascular disease, a primary cause of excess premature mortality in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). In the present study, we determined erythrocyte EPA + DHA levels in adult medication-free patients SZ ( ) and age-matched healthy controls ( ). Erythrocyte EPA + DHA composition exhibited by SZ patients (3.5%) was significantly lower than healthy controls (4.5%, ?22%, ). The majority of SZ patients (72%) exhibited EPA+DHA levels ≤4.0% compared with 37% of controls (Chi-square, ). In contrast, the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4 ) (+9%, ) and the AA:EPA + DHA ratio (+28%, ) were significantly greater in SZ patients. Linoleic acid (18:2 ) was significantly lower (?12%, ) and the erythrocyte 20:3/18:2 ratio (an index of delta6-desaturase activity) was significantly elevated in SZ patients. Compared with same-gender controls, EPA + DHA composition was significantly lower in male (?19%, ) but not female (?13%, ) SZ patients, whereas the 20:3/18:2 ratio was significantly elevated in both male (+22%, ) and female (+22%, ) SZ patients. These results suggest that the majority of SZ patients exhibit low LCn ? 3 fatty acid levels which may place them at increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. 1. Introduction Patients with schizophrenia (SZ) have two- to three-fold higher mortality rates compared with the general population, corresponding to an average 15-year reduction in life expectancy, and cross-sectional epidemiological studies have found that cardiovascular disease is a primary cause of excess premature mortality in SZ patients [1–6]. The etiology of elevated cardiovascular risk in SZ is likely multifactorial, potentially involving excessive smoking and alcohol use, lack of exercise, and poor diets [7, 8]. Moreover, second generation antipsychotic (SGA) medications are associated with cardiovascular risk factors including dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, and weight gain [9–13], though these risk factors have also been reported in SGA-na?ve first-episode SZ patients [14–16]. Together, these data highlight an urgent need to identify risk and resilience factors associated with elevated cardiovascular disease risk in SZ. An emerging body of evidence suggests that low levels of long-chain omega-3 (LCn ? 3) fatty acids, principally eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n ? 3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n ? 3), are a modifiable risk factor for
Supporting Children with Learning Disabilities
John K. McNamara
Brock Education : a Journal of Educational Research and Practice , 2004,
Abstract: This paper presents a prevention model for supporting children with learning disabilities. The model holds that children can be identified as at-risk for learning disabilities by identifying and supporting potential academic failure early in their elementary years. A prevention model includes two elements, identification and instruction. Identification entails recognizing those children at-risk for poor achievement in the early primary grades. The second component of the model is to implement a program of effective instruction that focuses on the explicit teaching of phonological processing skills and eventually, teaching these skills in context. Early effective instruction will create an environment that enables children with learning disabilities to experience success. Early success for children who may be at-risk for many years of struggle and frustration cannot be underestimated. Enabling success at an early age creates a positive cycle where efficacy and motivation is fostered in turn alleviating the academic and psychosocial stresses and challenges often associated with learning disabilities.
The roles of community pharmacists in cardiovascular disease prevention and management
George J,McNamara K,Stewart K
Australasian Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: There is ample evidence in the international literature forpharmacist involvement in the prevention and managementof cardiovascular disease (CVD) conditions in primary care.Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have confirmed thesignificant clinical benefits of pharmacist interventions for arange of CVD conditions and risk factors. Evidence generatedin research studies of Australian community pharmacistinvolvement in CVD prevention and management issummarised in this article.Commonwealth funding through the Community PharmacyAgreements has facilitated research to establish the feasibilityand effectiveness of new models of primary care involvingcommunity pharmacists. Australian community pharmacistshave been shown to effect positive clinical, humanistic andeconomic outcomes in patients with CVD conditions.Improvements in blood pressure, lipid levels, medicationadherence and CVD risk have been demonstrated usingdifferent study designs. Satisfaction for GPs, pharmacists andconsumers has also been reported. Perceived ‘turf’encroachment, expertise of the pharmacist, space, time andremuneration are challenges to the implementation of diseasemanagement services involving community pharmacists.
AGN Feedback, Host Halo Mass and Central Cooling Time: Implications for Galaxy Formation Efficiency and $M_{BH} - σ$
Robert Main,Brian McNamara,Paul Nulsen,Helen Russell,Adrian Vantyghem
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We derive X-ray mass, luminosity, and temperature profiles for 45 galaxy clusters to explore relationships between halo mass, AGN feedback, and central cooling time. We find that radio--mechanical feedback power (referred to here as "AGN power") in central cluster galaxies correlates with halo mass, but only in halos with central atmospheric cooling times shorter than 1 Gyr. This timescale corresponds approximately to the cooling time (entropy) threshold for the onset of cooling instabilities and star formation in central galaxies (Rafferty et al. 2008). No correlation is found in systems with central cooling times greater than 1 Gyr. The trend with halo mass is consistent with self-similar scaling relations assuming cooling is regulated by feedback. The trend is also consistent with galaxy and central black hole co-evolution along the $M_{BH} - \sigma $ relation. AGN power further correlates with X-ray gas mass and the host galaxy's K-band luminosity. AGN power in clusters with central atmospheric cooling times longer than ~1 Gyr typically lies two orders of magnitude below those with shorter central cooling times. Galaxies centred in clusters with long central cooling times nevertheless experience ongoing and occasionally powerful AGN outbursts. We further investigate the impact of feedback on cluster scaling relations. We find L-T, and M-T relations, excluding regions directly affected by AGN, that are consistent with the cluster population as a whole. While the gas mass rises, the stellar mass remains nearly constant with rising total mass, consistent with earlier studies. This trend is found regardless of central cooling time, implying tight regulation of star formation in central galaxies as their halos grew, and long-term balance between AGN heating and atmospheric cooling. Our scaling relations are presented in forms that can be incorporated easily into galaxy evolution models.
Ulanowicz’s Process Ecology, Duality and Emergent Deism  [PDF]
Robert K. Logan
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.33062
Abstract:

The different forms of duality in Robert Ulanowicz’s (2009) book A Third Window are compared to the notion of neo-duality found in Logan and Schumann (2005). The influence of Heraclitus on the formulation Ulanowicz’ duality is described. It is argued that the origin of language, which led to conceptualization and emotional intelligence, also gave rise to human spirituality, cooperation and altruism all of which contributed to human survival. The four mysteries of the existence of 1) matter/energy, 2) life, 3) human intelligence, and 4) human spirituality are identified. It is suggested that physics and chemistry deal with mystery number one; that Ulanowicz’s process ecology describes mystery number two and the relation of life to energy/matter. Mystery number three entails process ecology and consideration of the effects of language. The emergence of the fourth mystery of spirituality and/or a belief in God is shown to have emerged from two uniquely human attributes, namely the abstract form of language-based intelligence and altruism. It is suggested rather than as an agent that influences events in the universe God, an idea that arises in the minds of humankind as a metaphor of all that is good in humankind.

International Law, NATO’s Campaign to Kill Gaddafi and the Need for a New Jus Cogens  [PDF]
Timothy S. McNamara
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2018.94030
Abstract: This essay surveys general and topical literature to place the NATO campaign against Gaddafi in a historical context. The history of war as a legal idea is examined, along with the practical limitations to applying “international law” as currently espoused. The essay finds both serious practical and philosophical shortcomings inherent in modern approaches and advocates the development of a new jus cogens based on the Right to be Protected (R2BP) to address these flaws. If successfully implemented, the R2BP would represent a fundamental shift in sovereignty away from States and towards citizens, albeit vested in a professionalized United Nations office.
The China-Canada BIT, Its Shortcomings, and the Risks for Chinese Investors  [PDF]
Timothy S. McNamara
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2019.102018
Abstract: Given the pre-existing political constraints and the inadequacy of legal tools, some risks, such as inflation, are difficult for the BIT to insure against. Other risks, such as those stemming from changing demographics, may be even less understood or are difficult to discuss. Yet, as the nationalisations of white-owned farmland in Africa remind us, Chinese property investors in Canada need to understand not only the safety mechanisms contained in the BIT but also the longer-term demographic, political and cultural trends which will shape the investment landscape. Ultimately, if demographics are destiny, then Canada shows many features which suggest it is slowly evolving into a new South Africa. This essay explores some of the seldom discussed risks associated with investing in Canada.
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