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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 27419 matches for " Robert Hilbrich "
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Deploying Safety-Critical Applications on Complex Avionics Hardware Architectures  [PDF]
Robert Hilbrich, Laurent Dieudonné
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2013.65028

Aviation electronics (avionics) are sophisticated and distributed systems aboard an airplane. The complexity of these systems is constantly growing as an increasing amount of functionalities is realized in software. Thanks to the performance increase, a hardware unit must no longer be dedicated to a single system function. Multicore processors for example facilitate this trend as they are offering an increased system performance in a small power envelope. In avionics, several system functions could now be integrated on a single hardware unit, if all safety requirements are still satisfied. This approach allows for further optimizations of the system architecture and substantial reductions of the space, weight and power (SWaP) footprint, and thus increases the transportation capacity. However, the complexity found in current safety-critical systems requires an automated software deployment process in order to tap this potential for further SWaP reductions. This article used a realistic flight control system as an example to present a new model-based methodology to automate the software deployment process. This methodology is based on the correctness-by-construction principle and is implemented as part of a systems engineering toolset. Furthermore, metrics and optimization criteria are presented which further help in the automatic assessment and refinement of a generated deployment. A discussion regarding a tighter integration of this approach in the entire avionics systems engineering workflow concludes this article.

How to Safely Integrate Multiple Applications on Embedded Many-Core Systems by Applying the “Correctness by Construction” Principle
Robert Hilbrich
Advances in Software Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/354274
Abstract: Software-intensive embedded systems, especially cyber-physical systems, benefit from the additional performance and the small power envelope offered by many-core processors. Nevertheless, the adoption of a massively parallel processor architecture in the embedded domain is still challenging. The integration of multiple and potentially parallel functions on a chip—instead of just a single function—makes best use of the resources offered. However, this multifunction approach leads to new technical and nontechnical challenges during the integration. This is especially the case for a distributed system architecture, which is subject to specific safety considerations. In this paper, it is argued that these challenges cannot be effectively addressed with traditional engineering approaches. Instead, the application of the “correctness by construction” principle is proposed to improve the integration process. 1. Introduction Multicore processors have put an end to the era of the “free lunch” [1] in terms of computer power being available for applications to use. The “end of endless scalability” [2] of single-core processor performance appears to have been reached. Still, the currently available Multicore processors with two, four, or eight execution units—“cores”—indicate just the beginning of a new era in which parallel computing stops being a niche for scientist and starts becoming mainstream. Multicore processors are just the beginning. With the amount of cores increasing further, Multicores become many-cores. The distinction between these two classes of parallel processors is not precisely defined. Multicore processors typically feature up to 32 powerful cores. Their memory architecture allows the usage of traditional shared memory programming model without suffering from significant performance penalties. Many-core processors on the other hand comprise more than 64 rather simple and less powerful cores. With a increasing number of cores, a scalable on-chip interconnect between cores on the chip becomes a necessity. Memory access, especially to off-chip memory, constitutes a bottleneck and becomes very expensive. Therefore, traditional shared memory architectures and corresponding programming models suffer from significant performance penalties—unless they are specifically optimized. Comparing their raw performance figures, the approach of having many, but less powerful cores, outperforms processor architectures with less, but more powerful cores [2, 3]. Of course in reality, this comparison is not as clear cut. It largely depends on the software, which has
Management, Organization, Structure. Theoretical Considerations and Empirical Evidence on Changes in the Management of Educational Organizations Gestión, organización, estructura. Consideraciones teóricas y evidencias empíricas de los cambios en la gestión de las organizaciones educativas Management, Organisation, Struktur. Theoretische überlegungen und empirische Ergebnisse zur Transformation des Managements von Bildungsorganisationen
Thorsten Peetz,Karin Lohr,Romy Hilbrich
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2010,
Abstract: Based on a critique of rather narrow, economy-centered concepts of management, this article develops an alternative conceptualization that focuses on function-specific solutions to the problem of coordination in organizations. Drawing on Niklas LUHMANN's theory of organization we describe management in structural terms as related to organizational programs, channels of communication, persons and positions. We conclude by analyzing transformations of management in educational organizations and demonstrate how our re-conceptualization of management can be applied in empirical research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1003252 Basado en una crítica de los estrechos conceptos de gestión centrados en la economía, este artículo desarrolla una conceptualización alternativa que se enfoca en las soluciones de función específica al problema de la coordinación en organizaciones. A partir de la teoría de organización de Niklas LUHMANN, describimos la gestión en términos estructurales en tanto relacionados a programas organizacionales, canales de comunicación, personas y posiciones. Concluimos analizando las transformaciones de la gestión en las organizaciones educativas y demostrando cómo puede aplicarse nuestra reconceptualización del riesgo en la investigación empírica. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1003252 Der Beitrag kritisiert die Verengung des Managementbegriffs auf "wirtschaftliches" Management. Es wird vorgeschlagen, Management als funktionssystemspezifische L sung des Koordinationsproblems in Organisationen zu verstehen. Hierfür wird Management im Kontext der Organisationstheorie Niklas LUHMANNs in den Strukturdimensionen Programme, Kommunikationswege, Personen und Stellen konzeptualisiert. Am Beispiel des sich wandelnden Managements der Bildungsorganisation Schule wird gezeigt, wie eine derartige Neubeschreibung des Managementbegriffs in der Praxis der empirischen Forschung angewandt werden kann. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1003252
Introduction to a Requirements Engineering Framework for Aeronautics  [PDF]
Robert Abo
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.39105
Abstract: This paper introduces a framework to produce and to manage quality requirements of embedded aeronautical systems, called the ‘Requirements Engineering Framework’ (REF). It aims at making the management of the requirement lifecycle easier, from the specification of the purchaser’s needs, to their implementation in the final products, and also their verification, while controlling costs. REF is based on the main standards of aeronautics, in particular RTCA DO-254, and RTCA DO-178B standards. An implementation of REF, using the IBM Rational DOORS and IBM Rational Change tools, is also presented in this paper.
Pricing Options in Jump Diffusion Models Using Mellin Transforms  [PDF]
Robert Frontczak
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2013.33037

This paper is concerned with the valuation of options in jump diffusion models. The partial integro-differential equation (PIDE) inherent in the pricing problem is solved by using the Mellin integral transform. The solution is a single integral expression independent of the distribution of the jump size. We also derive analytical expressions for the Greeks. The results are implemented and compared to other approaches.

Australia’s Out-Dated Concern over Fishing Threatens Wise Marine Conservation and Ecologically Sustainable Seafood Supply  [PDF]
Robert Kearney
Open Journal of Marine Science (OJMS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2013.32006

Seafood plays an important role in human nutrition and its increased consumption is actively recommended for sustenance and health benefits in both developing and developed countries. In parallel to this, the public receives confusing advice as to what seafood is sustainably produced and is frequently misled about the environmental impacts of fishing, especially in locations such as Australia where contemporary fishery management has a conservation and sustainability focus. It is recognised globally that Australia’s traditional fishery management driven by strict sustainability and biodiversity regulations, has achieved impressive results in managing both fish stocks and the effects of fishing on marine environments. Despite this, continued pressure from non-government organisations (NGOs) and a perpetuation of the misuse of management terms such as overfished is used to promote the misguided need for ever increasing fishing restrictions, most obviously in protected areas. This paper questions the motives of some NGOs and governments in Australia in pursuing additional restrictions on fishing which are mostly unnecessary and disproportionate to the sustainability requirements of other sources of food. This is done within the context of the global need for sustainable seafood supply and the need for effective marine conservation that addresses all threats to marine ecosystems in proportion to the magnitude of each threat.

Wearable and wireless accelerometer systems for monitoring Parkinson’s disease patients—A perspective review  [PDF]
Robert LeMoyne
Advances in Parkinson's Disease (APD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/apd.2013.24021
Abstract: Parkinson’s disease is a growing medical concern as societies, such as the United States of America, become progressively aged. Therapy strategies exist for the amelioration of Parkinson’s disease symptoms, and the quantification of attributes, such as hand tremor, can provide valuable feedback. Wearable and wireless accelerometer systems for monitoring Parkinson’s disease patients have been progressively advanced over the course of the past half-decade. In particular, wireless accelerometer nodes and smartphones, such as the iPhone, hold promise for optimizing therapy strategy by providing convenient quantified feedback. This perspective review addresses the current advances in wearable and wireless accelerometer systems for monitoring Parkinson’s disease patients and forecasts for the near future.
A Study of Lateralized Cognitive Processes in Upper-Division Electrical Engineering Students’: Correlating Written Language Functions with Analytical Reasoning in Microelectronics  [PDF]
Robert Melendy
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2014.22008
Abstract: The human brain is asymmetrical in function, with each of its two hemispheres being somewhat responsible for distinct cognitive and motor tasks, to include writing. It stands to reason that engineering students who have established entrance into their upper-division programs will have demonstrated cognitive proficiency in math and logical operations, abstract and analytical reasoning and language usage, to include writing. In this study the question was asked: is there a correlation between an upper-division electrical engineering students’ analytical reasoning ability and their descriptive writing ability? Descriptive writing is taken here to mean a students’ ability to identify key physical aspects of a mathematical model and to express—in words—a concise and well-balanced description that demonstrates a deep conceptual understanding of the model. This includes more than a description of the variables or the particular application to an engineering problem; it includes a demonstrated recognition of the basic physics that govern the model, certain limitations (idealizations) inherent in the model, and an understanding of how to make practical experimental measurements to verify the governing physics in the model. A student at this level may demonstrate proficiency in their analytical reasoning skills and hence be capable of correctly solving a given problem. However, this does not guarantee that the same student is skilled in associating equations with their physical meaning on a deep conceptual level or in understanding physical limitations of the equation. Consequently, such a student may demonstrate difficulty in mapping their comprehension of the model into written language that demonstrates a sound conceptual understanding of the governing physics. The findings represent a sample of two independent class sections of Electrical and Computer Engineering junior’s first course in Microe-lectronic Devices and Circuits during fall semesters 2012 and 2013 at a private mid-size university in NW Oregon. A total of three exams were administered to each of the 2012/2013 groups. Correlations between exam scores that students achieved on their descriptive writing of microelectronics phenomena and their analytical problem-solving abilities were examined and found to be quite significant.
Foilized pouches can prevent the transmission of HIV from mother to child using multi-drug therapies  [PDF]
Robert Malkin
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2014.71007
Abstract: Children can become HIV positive (HIV+) from their mother during home birth. If the infant ingests antiretroviral (ARV), medications immediately after birth, the risk of transmission can be dramatically reduced. We have previously proposed the use of foilized, polyethylene-lined pouches to store ARV’s. Using the pouch, the mother receives the medication at an antenatal care visit, months before delivery, and if she delivers at home, tears open the pouch and drips the medication into her child’s mouth. In this work, we extend the use of the pouch to store a modern ARV, Lamivudine (3TC), often used in multi-drug regimens. Under laboratory conditions, pouches were filled with 3TC and stored at 25?C/60% relative humidity (RH) for twelve months. We found that the 3TC was stable throughout the year (maximum 5.6% of labeled concentration change). The preservatives were somewhat degraded by the act of repackaging the medicine, but sufficient preservatives remained to maintain the medication. The same impurities were identified in the 3TC stored in the pouches and the samples removed from the bottles indicating that the pouches do not introduce new impurities (impurities that are not already introduced by the bottle). We conclude that the pouch can preserve this modern ARV for up to twelve months.
Valuation of Mineral Resources in Selected Financial and Accounting Systems  [PDF]
Robert Uberman
Natural Resources (NR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2014.59045
The paper presents reviews of fundamental issues regarding valuation methodologies of mineral deposits: 1) recommended by mineral industry standards; 2) used for disclosures in financial statements and 3) adopted in national statistics. A discussion of historical developments of various regulations is supplemented by characteristics of key valuation methods. Differences and similarities are analysed and compared to current practices. A special attention is given to certain distinctive issues which are not shared by most of other types of assets like inclusion of decommissioning and rehabilitation costs or consequences of long duration of investment phase.
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