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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 174590 matches for " Robert H. Lupton "
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Determining the Lensing Fraction of SDSS Quasars: Methods and Results from the EDR
Bart Pindor,Edwin L. Turner,Robert H. Lupton,J. Brinkmann
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/374233
Abstract: We present an algorithm for selecting gravitational lens candidates from amongst Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars. In median Early Data Release (EDR) conditions, the algorithm allows for the recovery of pairs of equal flux point sources down to separations of $\sim 0{\farcs}7$ or with flux ratios up to $\sim$ 10:1 at a separation of $1\farcs5$. The algorithm also recovers a wide variety of plausible quad geometries. We also present a method for determining the selection function of this algorithm through the use of simulated SDSS images and introduce a method for calibrating our simulated images through truth-testing with real SDSS data. Finally, we apply our algorithm and selection function to SDSS quasars from the EDR to get an upper bound on the lensing fraction. We find 13 candidates among 5120 z $>$ 0.6 SDSS quasars, implying an observed lensing fraction of not more than 4 $\times 10^{-3}$. There is one likely lens system in our final sample, implying an observed lensing fraction of not less than $3 \times 10^{-5}$ (95% confidence levels).
First Results from the Swarms Survey. SDSS 1257+5428: A Nearby, Massive White Dwarf Binary with a Likely Neutron Star or Black Hole Companion
Carles Badenes,Fergal Mullally,Susan E. Thompson,Robert H. Lupton
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/707/2/971
Abstract: We present the first results from SWARMS (Sloan White dwArf Radial velocity data Mining Survey), an ongoing project to identify compact white dwarf (WD) binaries in the spectroscopic catalog of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The first object identified by SWARMS, SDSS 1257+5428, is a single-lined spectroscopic binary in a circular orbit with a period of 4.56 hr and a semiamplitude of 322.7+-6.3 km/s. From the spectrum and photometry, we estimate a WD mass of 0.92(+0.28,-0.32) Msun. Together with the orbital parameters of the binary, this implies that the unseen companion must be more massive than 1.62(+0.20,-0.25) Msun, and is in all likelihood either a neutron star or a black hole. At an estimated distance of 48(+10,-19) pc, this would be the closest known stellar remnant of a supernova explosion.
Spectroscopic Target Selection in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: The Main Galaxy Sample
Michael A. Strauss,David H. Weinberg,Robert H. Lupton,Vijay K. Narayanan
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/342343
Abstract: We describe the algorithm that selects the main sample of galaxies for spectroscopy in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey from the photometric data obtained by the imaging survey. Galaxy photometric properties are measured using the Petrosian magnitude system, which measures flux in apertures determined by the shape of the surface brightness profile. The metric aperture used is essentially independent of cosmological surface brightness dimming, foreground extinction, sky brightness, and the galaxy central surface brightness. The main galaxy sample consists of galaxies with r-band Petrosian magnitude r < 17.77 and r-band Petrosian half-light surface brightness < 24.5 magnitudes per square arcsec. These cuts select about 90 galaxy targets per square degree, with a median redshift of 0.104. We carry out a number of tests to show that (a) our star-galaxy separation criterion is effective at eliminating nearly all stellar contamination while removing almost no genuine galaxies, (b) the fraction of galaxies eliminated by our surface brightness cut is very small (0.1%), (c) the completeness of the sample is high, exceeding 99%, and (d) the reproducibility of target selection based on repeated imaging scans is consistent with the expected random photometric errors. (abridged)
Seeing in the dark -- I. Multi-epoch alchemy
Eric M. Huff,Christopher M. Hirata,Rachel Mandelbaum,David Schlegel,Uros Seljak,Robert H. Lupton
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu144
Abstract: Weak lensing by large-scale structure is an invaluable cosmological tool given that most of the energy density of the concordance cosmology is invisible. Several large ground-based imaging surveys will attempt to measure this effect over the coming decade, but reliable control of the spurious lensing signal introduced by atmospheric turbulence and telescope optics remains a challenging problem. We address this challenge with a demonstration that point-spread function (PSF) effects on measured galaxy shapes in current ground-based surveys can be corrected with existing analysis techniques. In this work, we co-add existing Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging on the equatorial stripe in order to build a data set with the statistical power to measure cosmic shear, while using a rounding kernel method to null out the effects of the anisotropic PSF. We build a galaxy catalogue from the combined imaging, characterise its photometric properties, and show that the spurious shear remaining in this catalogue after the PSF correction is negligible compared to the expected cosmic shear signal. We identify a new source of systematic error in the shear-shear auto-correlations arising from selection biases related to masking. Finally, we discuss the circumstances in which this method is expected to be useful for upcoming ground-based surveys that have lensing as one of the science goals, and identify the systematic errors that can reduce its efficacy.
Astrometric Calibration of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey
Jeffrey R. Pier,Jeffrey A. Munn,Robert B. Hindsley,G. S. Hennessy,Stephen M. Kent,Robert H. Lupton,Zeljko Ivezic
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/346138
Abstract: The astrometric calibration of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey is described. For point sources brighter than r ~ 20 the astrometric accuracy is 45 milliarcseconds (mas) rms per coordinate when reduced against the USNO CCD Astrograph Catalog, and 75 mas rms when reduced against Tycho-2, with an additional 20 - 30 mas systematic error in both cases. The rms errors are dominated by anomalous refraction and random errors in the primary reference catalogs. The relative astrometric accuracy between the r filter and each of the other filters (u g i z) is 25 - 35 mas rms. At the survey limit (r ~ 22), the astrometric accuracy is limited by photon statistics to approximately 100 mas rms for typical seeing. Anomalous refraction is shown to contain components correlated over two or more degrees on the sky.
An Algorithm for Precise Aperture Photometry of Critically Sampled Images
Steven Bickerton,Robert Lupton
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt244
Abstract: We present an algorithm for performing precise aperture photometry on critically sampled astrophysical images. The method is intended to overcome the small-aperture limitations imposed by point-sampling. Aperture fluxes are numerically integrated over the desired aperture, with sinc-interpolation used to reconstruct values between pixel centers. Direct integration over the aperture is computationally intensive, but the integrals in question are shown to be convolution integrals and can be computed ~10000x faster as products in the wave-number domain. The method works equally well for annular and elliptical apertures and could be adapted for any geometry. A sample of code is provided to demonstrate the method.
Finding Clusters of Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey using Voronoi Tessellation
Rita S. J. Kim,Michael A. Strauss,Neta A. Bahcall,James E. Gunn,Robert H. Lupton,Wolfgang Voges,Michael S. Vogeley,David Schlegel,for the SDSS collaboration
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has obtained 450 square degrees of photometric scan data, in five bands (u',g',r',i',z'), which we use to identify clusters of galaxies. We illustrate how we do star-galaxy separation, and present a simple and elegant method of detecting overdensities in the galaxy distribution, using the Voronoi Tessellation.
The Alignment Effect of Brightest Cluster Galaxies in the SDSS
Rita S. J. Kim,Jim Annis,Michael A. Strauss,Robert H. Lupton,Neta A. Bahcall,James E. Gunn,Jeremy V. Kepner,Marc Postman,for the SDSS collaboration
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: One of the most vital observational clues for unraveling the origin of Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCG) is the observed alignment of the BCGs with their host cluster and its surroundings. We have examined the BCG-cluster alignment effect, using clusters of galaxies detected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We find that the BCGs are preferentially aligned with the principal axis of their hosts, to a much higher redshift (z >~ 0.3) than probed by previous studies (z <~ 0.1). The alignment effect strongly depends on the magnitude difference of the BCG and the second and third brightest cluster members: we find a strong alignment effect for the dominant BCGs, while less dominant BCGs do not show any departure from random alignment with respect to the cluster. We therefore claim that the alignment process originates from the same process that makes the BCG grow dominant, be it direct mergers in the early stage of cluster formation, or a later process that resembles the galactic cannibalism scenario. We do not find strong evidence for (or against) redshift evolution between 0
A Survey of z>5.8 Quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey I: Discovery of Three New Quasars and the Spatial Density of Luminous Quasars at z~6
Xiaohui Fan,Vijay K. Narayanan,Robert H. Lupton,Michael A. Strauss,Gillian R. Knapp,Robert H. Becker,Richard L. White,Laura Pentericci,S. K. Leggett,Zoltan Haiman,James E. Gunn,Zeljko Ivezic,Donald P. Schneider
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/324111
Abstract: We present the results from a survey of i-dropout objects selected from ~1550 deg^2 of multicolor imaging data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, to search for luminous quasars at z>5.8. Objects with i*-z*>2.2 and z*<20.2 are selected, and follow-up J band photometry is used to separate L and T type cool dwarfs from high-redshift quasars. We describe the discovery of three new quasars, at z=5.82, 5.99 and 6.28, respectively. Their spectra show strong and broad Ly alpha+NV emission lines, and very strong Ly alpha absorption, with a mean continuum decrement D_A > 0.90. The ARC 3.5m spectrum of the z=6.28 quasar shows that over a range of 300 A immediately blueward of the Ly alpha emission, the average transmitted flux is only 0.003 +/-0.020 times that of the continuum level, consistent with zero flux, and suggesting a tentative detection of the complete Gunn-Peterson trough. The existence of strong metal lines suggests early chemical enrichment in the quasar enviornment. The three new objects, together with the previously published z=5.8 quasar form a complete color-selected flux-limited sample at z>5.8. We estimate that at $z=6$, the comoving density of luminous quasars at M_1450 < -26.89 (h=0.5, Omega=1)is 1.1x10^-9 Mpc^-3. This is a factor of ~2 lower than that at z~5, and is consistent with an extrapolation of the observed quasar evolution at low-z. We discuss the contribution of quasars to the ionizing background at z~6. The luminous quasars discussed in the paper have central black hole masses of several times 10^9 M_sun by the Eddington argument. Their observed space density provides a sensitive test of models of quasar and galaxy formation at high redshift. (Abridged)
A method for optimal image subtraction
C. Alard,R. H. Lupton
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1086/305984
Abstract: We present a new method designed for optimal subtraction of two images with different seeing. Using image subtraction appears to be essential for the full analysis of the microlensing survey images, however a perfect subtraction of two images is not easy as it requires the derivation of an extremely accurate convolution kernel. Some empirical attempts to find the kernel have used the Fourier transform of bright stars, but solving the statistical problem of finding the best kernel solution has never really been tackled. We demonstrate that it is possible to derive an optimal kernel solution from a simple least square analysis using all the pixels of both images, and also show that it is possible to fit the differential background variation at the same time. We also show that PSF variations can also be easily handled by the method. To demonstrate the practical efficiency of the method, we analyzed some images from a Galactic Bulge field monitored by the OGLE II project. We find that the residuals in the subtracted images are very close to the photon noise expectations. We also present some light curves of variable stars, and show that, despite high crowding levels, we get an error distribution close to that expected from photon noise alone. We thus demonstrate that nearly optimal differential photometry can be achieved even in very crowded fields. We suggest that this algorithm might be particularly important for microlensing surveys, where the photometric accuracy and completeness levels could be very significantly improved by using this method.
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