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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 215405 matches for " Robert D Oades "
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Neuropsychological measures of attention and memory function in schizophrenia: relationships with symptom dimensions and serum monoamine activity
Robert D Oades, Bernd R?pcke, Uwe Henning, Ansgard Klimke
Behavioral and Brain Functions , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1744-9081-1-14
Abstract: Serum measures of dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin turnover were examined by regression analyses for the prediction of performance on 10 neuropsychological measures reflecting left- and right-hemispheric and frontal-, parietal- and temporal-lobe function in 108 patients with schizophrenia and 63 matched controls. The neuropsychological battery included tests of verbal fluency, Stroop interference, trail-making, block-design, Mooney faces recognition, picture-completion, immediate and delayed visual and verbal recall. Paranoid and nonparanoid subgroups were based on ratings from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Groups with high and low ratings of ideas-of-reference and thought-disorder were formed from a median split on the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS).Verbal-fluency and Stroop-interference (left frontal and fronto-cingulate function) were negatively associated with noradrenergic turnover in nonparanoid and thought-disordered patients. High dopamine turnover related to speeded trail-making (frontal modulation of set switching) in those with many ideas-of-reference. In contrast, low dopamine turnover predicted poor recall in nonparanoid patients and those with little thought disorder. Serotonin metabolism did not independently contribute to the prediction any measure of cognitive performance. But, with regard to the relative activity between monoaminergic systems, increased HVA/5-HIAA ratios predicted visual-reproduction and Mooney's face-recognition performance (right-hemisphere functions) in highly symptomatic patients. Decreased HVA/MHPG predicted non-verbal recall.Clinical state and function are differentially sensitive to overall levels of monoamine activity. In particular, right-lateralised cerebral function was sensitive to the relative activities of the monoamines. Increased noradrenergic activity was associated with enhanced frontal but impaired temporal lobe function in nonparanoid syndromes. Low dopaminergic activit
Does the cortisol response to stress mediate the link between expressed emotion and oppositional behavior in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity-Disorder (ADHD)?
Hanna Christiansen, Robert D Oades, Lamprini Psychogiou, Berthold P Hauffa, Edmund J Sonuga-Barke
Behavioral and Brain Functions , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1744-9081-6-45
Abstract: Two groups of children (with/without ADHD) and their respective parents were randomly assigned to two different conditions with/without negative emotion and participated in an emotion provocation task. Parents' EE, their ratings of their children's OPB and their children's salivary cortisol levels were measured.Low parental warmth was associated with OPB in ADHD. High levels of parental EE elicited a larger cortisol response. Stress-related cortisol reactivity mediated the EE-OPB link for all children. This highlights the general importance of parent-child interactions on externalizing behavior problems.High EE is a salient stressor for ADHD children that leads to increased levels of cortisol and OPB. The development of OPB might be mediated by the stress-response to high EE.Expressed Emotion (EE; i.e., hostility, criticism, low warmth) directed by a caregiver towards a psychiatric patient, predicts relapse [1,2] and is associated with psychosis, depression [3,4], bipolar affective disorder [5] and a range of child and adolescent disorders [6,7]. For childhood and adolescence, there is a specific association between EE and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a chronic disorder with childhood onset marked by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness [8]. In cross-sectional as well as longitudinal studies, parents of ADHD children were more hostile, critical, and less warm [6,9-11]. Parental warmth on the other hand seems to be a protective factor. A decreased risk for the development of ADHD in low birth weight children was found when mothers showed high levels of warmth [12]. Taylor et al. [13] found that high EE increases the risk for the development of comorbid oppositional behaviour problems (OPB) in children with ADHD. Consistent with this view comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) in ADHD children is significantly predicted by mothers' and fathers' negative EE [14] with effects generalizing across national and c
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and glial integrity: an exploration of associations of cytokines and kynurenine metabolites with symptoms and attention
Robert D Oades, Aye-Mu Myint, Maria R Dauvermann, Benno G Schimmelmann, Markus J Schwarz
Behavioral and Brain Functions , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1744-9081-6-32
Abstract: We explored systematically associations of 8 cytokines (indicators of pro/anti-inflammatory function) and 5 tryptophan metabolites with symptom ratings (e.g. anxiety, opposition, inattention) and continuous performance test (CPT) measures (e.g. movement, response time (RT), variability) in 35 ADHD (14 on medication) and 21 control children. Predictions from linear regressions (controlled by the false discovery rate) confirmed or disconfirmed partial correlations accounting for age, body mass and socio-economic status.(1) Total symptom ratings were associated with increases of the interleukins IL-16 and IL-13, where relations of IL-16 (along with decreased S100B) with hyperactivity, and IL-13 with inattention were notable. Opposition ratings were predicted by increased IL-2 in ADHD and IL-6 in control children. (2) In the CPT, IL-16 related to motor measures and errors of commission, while IL-13 was associated with errors of omission. Increased RT variability related to lower TNF-α, but to higher IFN-γ levels. (3) Tryptophan metabolites were not significantly related to symptoms. But increased tryptophan predicted errors of omission, its breakdown predicted errors of commission and kynurenine levels related to faster RTs.Many associations were found across diagnostic groups even though they were more marked in one group. This confirms the quantitative trait nature of these features. Conceptually the relationships of the pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines distinguished between behaviours associated more with cognitive or more with motor control respectively. Further study should extend the number of immunological and metabolic markers to confirm or refute the trends reported here and examine their stability from childhood to adolescence in a longitudinal design.Essential components of the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of the combined type (ADHD) are clinical impairments of attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity.Further, the variability of th
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and glial integrity: S100B, cytokines and kynurenine metabolism - effects of medication
Robert D Oades, Maria R Dauvermann, Benno G Schimmelmann, Markus J Schwarz, Aye-Mu Myint
Behavioral and Brain Functions , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1744-9081-6-29
Abstract: We pursued one test of the idea with measures of a neurotrophin reflecting glial integrity (S100B) and the influences of 8 cytokines on the metabolism of amino-acids, and of tryptophan/kynurenine to neuroprotective or potentially toxic products that could modulate glial function. Serum samples from 21 medication-na?ve children with ADHD, 21 typically-developing controls, 14 medicated children with ADHD and 7 healthy siblings were analysed in this preliminary exploration of group differences and associations.There were no marked group differences in levels of S100B, no major imbalance in the ratios of pro- to anti-inflammatory interleukins nor in the metabolism of kynurenine to toxic metabolites in ADHD. However, four trends are described that may be worthy of closer examination in a more extensive study. First, S100B levels tended to be lower in ADHD children that did not show oppositional/conduct problems. Second, in medicated children raised interleukin levels showed a trend to normalisation. Third, while across all children the sensitivity to allergy reflected increased levels of IL-16 and IL-10, the latter showed a significant inverse relationship to measures of S100B in the ADHD group. Fourthly, against expectations healthy controls tended to show higher levels of toxic 3-hydroxykynurenine (3 HK) than those with ADHD.Thus, there were no clear signs (S100B) that the glial functions were compromised in ADHD. However, other markers of glial function require examination. Nonetheless there is preliminary evidence that a minor imbalance of the immunological system was improved on medication. Finally, if lower levels of the potentially toxic 3 HK in ADHD children were confirmed this could reflect a reduction of normal pruning processes in the brain that would be consistent with delayed maturation (supported here by associations with amino-acid metabolism) and a reduced metabolic source of energy.Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterise
Auditory change detection in schizophrenia: sources of activity, related neuropsychological function and symptoms in patients with a first episode in adolescence, and patients 14 years after an adolescent illness-onset
Robert D Oades, Nele Wild-Wall, Stephanie A Juran, Jan Sachsse, Ljubov B Oknina, Bernd R?pcke
BMC Psychiatry , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-6-7
Abstract: MMN, a measure of auditory change-detection, was elicited by short deviant tones in a 3-tone oddball-presentation and recorded from 32 scalp electrodes. Four dipole sources were placed following hypothesis-led calculations using brain electrical source analysis on brain atlas and MR-images. A short neuropsychological test battery was administered. We compared 28 adolescent patients with a first episode of schizophrenia and 18 patients 14 years after diagnosis in adolescence with two age-matched control groups from the community (n = 22 and 18, respectively).MMN peaked earlier in the younger than the older subjects. The amplitude was reduced in patients, especially the younger group, and was here associated with negative symptoms and slow set-shifting. In first-episode patients the temporal lobe sources were more ventral than in controls, while the left cingular and right inferior-mid frontal sources were more caudal. In the older patients the left temporal locus remained ventral (developmental stasis), the right temporal locus extended more antero-laterally (illness progression), and the right frontal source moved antero-laterally (normalised).From the start of the illness there were differences in the dipole-model between healthy and patient groups. Separate characteristics of the sources of the activity differences showed an improvement, stasis or deterioration with illness-duration. The precise nature of the changes in the sources of MMN activity and their relationship to selective information processing and storage depend on the specific psychopathology and heterogeneous course of the illness.The detection of a change in ongoing ambient auditory stimulation is an important preliminary requirement for the conscious organisation of an adaptive response to a significant event. The unusual sound could be an unexpected tone in a well-known piece of music, or the telephone ringing during a conversation. The change is detected automatically, but the altered behaviour r
Response variability in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a neuronal and glial energetics hypothesis
Vivienne A Russell, Robert D Oades, Rosemary Tannock, Peter R Killeen, Judith G Auerbach, Espen B Johansen, Terje Sagvolden
Behavioral and Brain Functions , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1744-9081-2-30
Abstract: We propose that in ADHD, astrocyte function is insufficient, particularly in terms of its formation and supply of lactate. This insufficiency has implications both for performance and development: H1) In rapidly firing neurons there is deficient ATP production, slow restoration of ionic gradients across neuronal membranes and delayed neuronal firing; H2) In oligodendrocytes insufficient lactate supply impairs fatty acid synthesis and myelination of axons during development. These effects occur over vastly different time scales: those due to deficient ATP (H1) occur over milliseconds, whereas those due to deficient myelination (H2) occur over months and years. Collectively the neural outcomes of impaired astrocytic release of lactate manifest behaviourally as inefficient and inconsistent performance (variable response times across the lifespan, especially during activities that require sustained speeded responses and complex information processing).Multi-level and multi-method approaches are required. These include: 1) Use of dynamic strategies to evaluate cognitive performance under conditions that vary in duration, complexity, speed, and reinforcement; 2) Use of sensitive neuroimaging techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, electroencephalography or magnetoencephalopathy to quantify developmental changes in myelination in ADHD as a potential basis for the delayed maturation of brain function and coordination, and 3) Investigation of the prevalence of genetic markers for factors that regulate energy metabolism (lactate, glutamate, glucose transporters, glycogen synthase, glycogen phosphorylase, glycolytic enzymes), release of glutamate from synaptic terminals and glutamate-stimulated lactate production (SNAP25, glutamate receptors, adenosine receptors, neurexins, intracellular Ca2+), as well as astrocyte function (α1, α2 and β-adrenoceptors, dopamine D1 receptors) and myelin synthesis (lactate transporter, Lingo-1, Quaking homol
The impact of study design and diagnostic approach in a large multi-centre ADHD study: Part 2: Dimensional measures of psychopathology and intelligence
Ueli C Müller, Philip Asherson, Tobias Banaschewski, Jan K Buitelaar, Richard P Ebstein, Jaques Eisenberg, Michael Gill, Iris Manor, Ana Miranda, Robert D Oades, Herbert Roeyers, Aribert Rothenberger, Joseph A Sergeant, Edmund JS Sonuga-Barke, Margaret Thompson, Stephen V Faraone, Hans-Christoph Steinhausen
BMC Psychiatry , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-11-55
Abstract: Conners' Questionnaires, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires, and Wechsler Intelligence Scores were used to describe the phenotype of the sample. Data were analysed by use of robust statistical multi-way procedures.Besides main effects of age, gender, informant, and centre, there were considerable interaction effects on questionnaire data. The larger differences between probands and siblings at home than at school may reflect contrast effects in the parents. Furthermore, there were marked gender by status effects on the ADHD symptom ratings with girls scoring one standard deviation higher than boys in the proband sample but lower than boys in the siblings sample. The multi-centre design is another important source of heterogeneity, particularly in the interaction with the family status. To a large extent the centres differed from each other with regard to differences between proband and sibling scores.When ADHD probands are diagnosed by use of fixed symptom counts, the severity of the disorder in the proband sample may markedly differ between boys and girls and across age, particularly in samples with a large age range. A multi-centre design carries the risk of considerable phenotypic differences between centres and, consequently, of additional heterogeneity of the sample even if standardized diagnostic procedures are used. These possible sources of variance should be counteracted in genetic analyses either by using age and gender adjusted diagnostic procedures and regional normative data or by adjusting for design artefacts by use of covariate statistics, by eliminating outliers, or by other methods suitable for reducing heterogeneity.Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), one of the most prevalent disorders in childhood and adolescence, is characterized by problems in allocating attention, regulating motor activity, and controlling behavioural impulses [1]. In many subjects, the disorder is accompanied by comorbid conditions including conduct disor
The impact of study design and diagnostic approach in a large multi-centre ADHD study. Part 1: ADHD symptom patterns
Ueli C Müller, Philip Asherson, Tobias Banaschewski, Jan K Buitelaar, Richard P Ebstein, Jaques Eisenberg, Michael Gill, Iris Manor, Ana Miranda, Robert D Oades, Herbert Roeyers, Aribert Rothenberger, Joseph A Sergeant, Edmund JS Sonuga-Barke, Margaret Thompson, Stephen V Faraone, Hans-Christoph Steinhausen
BMC Psychiatry , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-11-54
Abstract: Diagnosis was based on the Parental Account of Childhood Symptoms (PACS) interview and the DSM-IV items of the Conners' teacher questionnaire. Demographics of the full sample and the homogeneity of a subsample (all probands) were analysed by using robust statistical procedures which were adjusted for unequal sample sizes and skewed distributions. These procedures included multi-way analyses based on trimmed means and winsorised variances as well as bootstrapping.Age and proband/sibling ratios differed between participating centres. There was no significant difference in the distribution of gender between centres. There was a significant interaction between age and centre for number of inattentive, but not number of hyperactive symptoms. Higher ADHD symptom frequencies were reported by parents than teachers. The diagnostic symptoms differed from each other in their frequencies. The face-to-face interview was more sensitive than the questionnaire. The differentiation between ADHD-CT probands and unaffected siblings was mainly due to differences in hyperactive/impulsive symptoms.Despite a symptom-based standardized inclusion procedure according to DSM-IV criteria with defined symptom thresholds, centres may differ markedly in probands' ADHD symptom frequencies. Both the diagnostic procedure and the multi-centre design influence the behavioural characteristics of a sample and, thus, may bias statistical analyses, particularly in genetic or neurobehavioral studies.Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD is characterized by problems in allocating attention, regulating motor activity, and controlling behavioural impulses. Depending on diagnostic procedures, around 3 to 8 percent of the children worldwide are affected by ADHD [1,2]. According to dominant symptom clusters, three diagnostic subtypes of ADHD are distinguished: inattentive type (ADHD-IT), hyperactive/impulsive type (ADHD-HT), and combined type (ADHD-CT) [3].At least half of the children with ADHD suffer f
The influence of serotonin- and other genes on impulsive behavioral aggression and cognitive impulsivity in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Findings from a family-based association test (FBAT) analysis
Robert D Oades, Jessica Lasky-Su, Hanna Christiansen, Stephen V Faraone, Edmund JS Sonuga-Barke, Tobias Banaschewski, Wai Chen, Richard JL Anney, Jan K Buitelaar, Richard P Ebstein, Barbara Franke, Michael Gill, Ana Miranda, Herbert Roeyers, Aribert Rothenberger, Joseph A Sergeant, Hans-Christoph Steinhausen, Eric A Taylor, Margaret Thompson, Philip Asherson
Behavioral and Brain Functions , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1744-9081-4-48
Abstract: Our sample consisted of 1180 offspring from 607 families from the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) study. Impulsive symptoms were assessed using the long forms of the Conners and the Strengths and Difficulties parent and teacher questionnaires. Factor analysis showed that the symptoms aggregated into parent- and teacher-rated behavioral and cognitive impulsivity. We then selected 582 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 14 genes directly or indirectly related to 5-HT function. Associations between these SNPs and the behavioral/cognitive groupings of impulsive symptoms were evaluated using the FBAT-PC approach.In the FBAT-PC analysis for cognitive impulsivity 2 SNPs from the gene encoding phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT, the rate-limiting enzyme for adrenalin synthesis) attained corrected gene-wide significance. Nominal significance was shown for 12 SNPs from BDNF, DRD1, HTR1E, HTR2A, HTR3B, DAT1/SLC6A3, and TPH2 genes replicating reported associations with ADHD. For overt aggressive impulsivity nominal significance was shown for 6 SNPs from BDNF, DRD4, HTR1E, PNMT, and TPH2 genes that have also been reported to be associated with ADHD. Associations for cognitive impulsivity with a SERT/SLC6A4 variant (STin2: 12 repeats) and aggressive behavioral impulsivity with a DRD4 variant (exon 3: 3 repeats) are also described.A genetic influence on monoaminergic involvement in impulsivity shown by children with ADHD was found. There were trends for separate and overlapping influences on impulsive-aggressive behavior and cognitive impulsivity, where an association with PNMT (and arousal mechanisms affected by its activity) was more clearly involved in the latter. Serotonergic and dopaminergic mechanisms were implicated in both forms of impulsivity with a wider range of serotonergic mechanisms (each with a small effect) potentially influencing cognitive impulsivity. These preliminary results should be followed up with an examination of environm
YeaNay: An Open Source Tool to Rate the Votes of Members of the United States House of Representatives and Senate  [PDF]
Eric Venlet, D. Robert Adams
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2015.54029
Abstract: Government transparency is typically regarded as the most viable way to strengthen its accountability to the public (Shkabatur, 2012). Even on the international stage, the right to access government information is regarded as fundamental to democracy (Bertot, Jaeger, & Grimes, 2011). In order to improve transparency, the US government made data, like bills and votes, available online (Brito, 2008b). One popular way to organize the data available to the public is through the creation of voter guides. The method an organization used for developing a voter guide was analyzed for this project. In response to the method, a web application (YeaNay) was developed to take the largely manual process and make a highly automated solution. YeaNay utilizes HTML, CSS, and JavaScript to build the user interface and ColdFusion and PL/SQL to query the data necessary for the development of a voter guide. The data are queried either from the database or from Congress API v3 (provided by the Sunlight Foundation). One user, with minimal training, is able to use YeaNay to find and score legislation within minutes for use in a voter guide. YeaNay focuses the firehose of congressional information that is now available and presents it in a manageable and usable environment.
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