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Water and Wastewater Pipe Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring: A Review
Piervincenzo Rizzo
Advances in Civil Engineering , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/818597
Abstract: Civil infrastructures such as bridges, buildings, and pipelines ensure society's economic and industrial prosperity. Specifically, pipe networks assure the transportation of primary commodities such as water, oil, and natural gas. The quantitative and early detection of defects in pipes is critical in order to avoid severe consequences. As a result of high-profile accidents and economic downturn, research and development in the area of pipeline inspection has focused mainly on gas and oil pipelines. Due to the low cost of water, the development of nondestructive inspection (NDI) and structural health monitoring (SHM) technologies for fresh water mains and sewers has received the least attention. Moreover, the technical challenges associated with the practical deployment of monitoring system demand synergistic interaction across several disciplines, which may limit the transition from laboratory to real structures. This paper presents an overview of the most used NDI/SHM technologies for freshwater pipes and sewers. The challenges that said infrastructures pose with respect to oil and natural gas pipeline networks will be discussed. Finally, the methodologies that can be translated into SHM approaches are highlighted. 1. Introduction The soundness of engineering systems such as pipelines, railroads, highways, off-shore platforms, and other structural elements is essential to avoiding (or in order to avoid) catastrophic failures that may be accompanied by severe consequences for the environment, lead to the loss of human life, and produce tonnage of demolition waste. To design structures that are safe for public use, standardized building codes and design methodologies have been created. Unfortunately, structures are often subjected to harsh loading scenarios and severe environmental conditions not anticipated during the design process that will result in long-term structural deterioration [1]. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques aim to assess the soundness of existing infrastructure. By preventing failures and detecting damage at an early stage, it may be indirectly inferred that the lifetime of these infrastructures can be expanded. NDE is usually conducted on a time basis by qualified personnel using commercially available technology. Conversely, SHM systems collect data from sensors, ideally mounted permanently on a given structure. The data are processed according to one of the many damage detection methods that have been proposed in the last two decades, as reported in [2, 3]. In general, SHM can be
Geschlecht und Migration: Sinn und Wirkungen der Migrationserfahrung in den Biografien lateinamerikanischen Frauen in Deutschland Gender and Migration: Meanings and Impacts of the Migratory Experience on the Biographies of Latin American Women in Germany Género y migración: sentidos e impactos de la experiencia migratoria en las biografías de mujeres latinas en Alemania
Nadia Rizzo
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2007,
Abstract: Indem die Geschlechtskategorie als ein relevanter theoretischer Bestandteil in der Analyse der Migration betrachtet wird, untersucht die folgende Arbeit den Sinn und die Wirkungen weiblicher Migrationserfahrung. Der erste Teil der Untersuchung bezieht sich auf die Sinnkonstruktion der Migrationserfahrung und versucht, die Diversifikation und Komplexit t weiblichen Agency nachzuvollziehen. Der zweite Teil behandelt die biographische Relevanz von Migration, wobei insbesondere famili re, berufliche und sozio konomische Aspekte Beachtung finden. Dabei werden die Handlungs- und (Er-) Leidensprozesse, die in der Migration gegenw rtig sind, identifiziert. Als empirischer Bezugspunkt dient der Migrationsverlauf von achtzehn lateinamerikanischen Frauen, die in Frankfurt/Main und Mainz ans ssig sind, und es wird eine qualitative Analyse ihrer Biographien durchgeführt. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0703138 Considering the category of gender as a relevant theoretical element in the analysis of migration, this study focuses on the meanings and effects of the female migration experience. The initial analysis focuses on the construction of meaning of the migratory experience and tries to recover the diversity and complexity of female agency. The subsequent analysis focuses on the biographical impact that migration can produce, considering specifically the family, work and socioeconomic field. Action and suffering processes are identified. Eighteen migratory trajectories of Latin American women are considered as empirical referents, and a qualitative analysis of the biographies is carried out. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0703138 Considerando a la categoría de género un elemento teórico relevante en el análisis de la migración, el trabajo indaga sobre los sentidos e impactos de la experiencia migratoria femenina. El primer momento del análisis refiere a la construcción de sentido sobre la experiencia migratoria e intenta recuperar la diversidad y la complejidad de la agencia femenina. El segundo momento se vincula al impacto biográfico que puede producir la migración, abordando específicamente el campo familiar, laboral y socioeconómico. Se identifican, en tal sentido, procesos de acción y procesos de sufrimiento presentes en la migración. Se toma como referente empírico las trayectorias migratorias de dieciocho mujeres latinoamericanas residentes en Frankfurt/M y Mainz, y se lleva a cabo un análisis cualitativo de las biografías. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0703138
Editoriale
Antonio Rizzo
[email protected] : Open Journal per la Formazione in Rete , 2013,
Abstract:
Giovani migranti si raccontano: una ricerca all’interno di un Centro di Aggregazione Giovanile
Caterina Rizzo
[email protected]@ , 2012,
Abstract: Analizzare i destini delle cosiddette seconde generazioni costituisce un punto centrale per comprendere le caratteristiche della società odierna, in primo luogo perché il grado di integrazione dei giovani figli della migrazione costituisce la cartina tornasole dei più ampi processi di inclusione messi in atto dalla società, e in secondo luogo per la centralità che le traiettorie di vita di questi giovani rivestono all'interno dei processi di socializzazione delle nuove generazioni nel loro complesso. In un'epoca caratterizzata da un eccezionale pluralismo culturale come quella in cui viviamo è evidente come i due ambienti tradizionalmente deputati ai processi di socializzazione, quali la famiglia e la scuola, vengano affiancati da molte altre istanze: basti pensare ai luoghi educativi extra-scolastici, alle associazioni di vario tipo, ai vecchi e nuovi media, ma anche al gruppo dei pari, agli adulti di riferimento e a tutta quella pluralità di legami, relazioni e appartenenze che nell'odierna società globale è possibile intrecciare. All'interno di un frame sociale così multiforme cosa avviene dunque nelle già complesse biografie dei giovani migranti? E quali sono le narrazioni che ne svelano il senso? Come vengono gestite le eventuali contraddizioni tra messaggi provenienti dai differenti ambienti culturali? E infine, quali elementi rendono peculiari le storie di vita, i progetti, le percezioni del Sé e i processi di socializzazione di questo gruppo sociale? Sono queste le principali questioni approfondite nella ricerca qui presentata: una ricerca condotta nel 2009 che ha individuato come campo d'indagine un Centro di Aggregazione Giovanile della città di Bergamo.
Editorial
Rizzo Fernando
Materials Research , 2004,
Abstract:
La valutazione del Capitale umano
F. Rizzo
Aestimum , 1981,
Abstract:
Il mercato e la valutazione dei quadri
F. Rizzo
Aestimum , 1977,
Abstract:
La dinamica economica nell'attribuzione del valore al capitale d'impresa (o dell'impresa)
F. Rizzo
Aestimum , 1983,
Abstract:
Le valutazioni nella programmazione economica
F. Rizzo
Aestimum , 1982,
Abstract:
Rese a "Méthodes quantitatives pour l' historien" de Claire Lemercier and Claire Zarc
Natalia Rizzo
Utopia y Praxis Latinoamericana , 2010,
Abstract:
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