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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 569381 matches for " Rita S. J. Kim "
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Optical Spectroscopy Of The X-Ray Transient XTE J1118+480 In Outburst
Guillaume Dubus,Rita S. J. Kim,Kristen Menou,Paula Szkody,David V. Bowen
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/320648
Abstract: We report on optical spectroscopic observations of the X-ray Transient XTE J1118+480 covering the period from April 7, 2000 to July 4, 2000. The spectrum is characterized by weak, broad, double-peaked Balmer and He lines on top of a blue continuum of slope p ~ 1/3, as expected for an optically-thick accretion disk. The weak Bowen blend seen in our spectra may indicate a low intrinsic metallicity for the source. The presence of a partial S-wave pattern in the HeII lambda-4686 line appears consistent with the reported photometric orbital period Porb = 4.1 hr for XTE J1118+480. By using a combination of Doppler mapping and various theoretical arguments, we constrain plausible orbital parameters for the system: a mass ratio 0.02 <~ q <~ 0.1, an inclination i >~ 70 deg for a neutron star primary, or 30 deg <~ i <~ 50 deg for a black hole primary with a mass between 4 and 10 Msun. CaII absorption features observed at very high resolution constrain the interstellar hydrogen absorption column log[N_HI (cm^{-2})] ~ 20.45 +/- 0.2 and the identification of three absorbing clouds indicate a distance to the source <~ 1 kpc, assuming the line-of-sight to XTE J1118+480 has average high-latitude properties. These results are discussed in the context of previous multiwavelength observations of this unusual system.
Finding Clusters of Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey using Voronoi Tessellation
Rita S. J. Kim,Michael A. Strauss,Neta A. Bahcall,James E. Gunn,Robert H. Lupton,Wolfgang Voges,Michael S. Vogeley,David Schlegel,for the SDSS collaboration
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has obtained 450 square degrees of photometric scan data, in five bands (u',g',r',i',z'), which we use to identify clusters of galaxies. We illustrate how we do star-galaxy separation, and present a simple and elegant method of detecting overdensities in the galaxy distribution, using the Voronoi Tessellation.
The Alignment Effect of Brightest Cluster Galaxies in the SDSS
Rita S. J. Kim,Jim Annis,Michael A. Strauss,Robert H. Lupton,Neta A. Bahcall,James E. Gunn,Jeremy V. Kepner,Marc Postman,for the SDSS collaboration
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: One of the most vital observational clues for unraveling the origin of Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCG) is the observed alignment of the BCGs with their host cluster and its surroundings. We have examined the BCG-cluster alignment effect, using clusters of galaxies detected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We find that the BCGs are preferentially aligned with the principal axis of their hosts, to a much higher redshift (z >~ 0.3) than probed by previous studies (z <~ 0.1). The alignment effect strongly depends on the magnitude difference of the BCG and the second and third brightest cluster members: we find a strong alignment effect for the dominant BCGs, while less dominant BCGs do not show any departure from random alignment with respect to the cluster. We therefore claim that the alignment process originates from the same process that makes the BCG grow dominant, be it direct mergers in the early stage of cluster formation, or a later process that resembles the galactic cannibalism scenario. We do not find strong evidence for (or against) redshift evolution between 0
The Cut & Enhance method : selecting clusters of galaxies from the SDSS commissioning data
Tomotsugu Goto,Maki Sekiguchi,Robert C. Nichol,Neta A. Bahcall,Rita S. J. Kim,James Annis,Zeljko Ivezic,J. Brinkmann,Gregory S. Hennessy,Gyula P. Szokoly,Douglas L. Tucker,for the SDSS collaboration
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/339303
Abstract: We describe an automated method, the Cut & Enhance method (CE) for detecting clusters of galaxies in multi-color optical imaging surveys. This method uses simple color cuts, combined with a density enhancement algorithm, to up-weight pairs of galaxies that are close in both angular separation and color. The method is semi-parametric since it uses minimal assumptions about cluster properties in order to minimize possible biases. No assumptions are made about the shape of clusters, their radial profile or their luminosity function. The method is successful in finding systems ranging from poor to rich clusters of galaxies, of both regular and irregular shape. We determine the selection function of the CE method via extensive Monte Carlo simulations which use both the real, observed background of galaxies and a randomized background of galaxies. We use position shuffled and color shuffled data to perform the false positive test. We have also visually checked all the clusters detected by the CE method. We apply the CE method to the 350 deg^2 of the SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) commissioning data and construct a SDSS CE galaxy cluster catalog with an estimated redshift and richness for each cluster. The CE method is compared with other cluster selection methods used on SDSS data such as the Matched Filter (Postman et al. 1996, Kim et al. 2001), maxBCG technique (Annis et al. 2001) and Voronoi Tessellation (Kim et al. 2001). The CE method can be adopted for cluster selection in any multi-color imaging surveys.
Composite Luminosity Functions Based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey "Cut & Enhance" Galaxy Cluster Catalog
Tomotsugu Goto,Sadanori Okamura,Timothy A. Mckay,James Annis,Neta A. Bahcall,Mariangela Bernardi,J. Brinkmann,Percy L. Gomez,Sarah Hansen,Rita S. J. Kim,Maki Sekiguchi,Ravi K. Sheth
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1093/pasj/54.4.515
Abstract: We present here results on the composite luminosity functions of galaxies in the clusters of galaxies selected from the SDSS Cut and Enhance cluster catalog (CE; Goto et al. 2001). We construct the composite luminosity function in the five SDSS bands, u,g,r,i and z, using 204 CE clusters ranging from z=0.02 to z=0.25. We use photometric redshifts to construct composite luminosity functions. The robustness of the weighting scheme was tested using Monte Carlo simulation. We find the slope of composite LFs become flatter toward redder color band. Comparing with field LFs of SDSS (Blanton et al. 2001), cluster LFs have brighter characteristic magnitude and flatter slopes in g, r, i and z bands. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the cluster LF has two distinct underlying populations i.e. the bright end of the LF is dominated by bright early types that follow a gaussian--like luminosity distribution, while the faint--end of the cluster LF is a steep power--law like function dominated by star--forming (bluer) galaxies. We also study the composite luminosity functions for early--type and late--type galaxies using profile fits, a concentration parameter and u-r color to classify galaxy morphology. The strong dependence of LF on galaxy morphology is found.The faint end slope of the LF is always flatter for early--type galaxies than late--type regardless of passband and methodology. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the cluster region are dominated by bright elliptical galaxies.
Galaxy Number Counts from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Commissioning Data
Naoki Yasuda,Masataka Fukugita,Vijay K. Narayanan,Robert H. Lupton,Iskra Strateva,Michael A. Strauss,Zeljko Ivezic,Rita S. J. Kim,David W. Hogg,David H. Weinberg,Kazuhiro Shimasaku,Jon Loveday,SDSS collaboration
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/322093
Abstract: We present bright galaxy number counts in five broad bands ($u', g', r', i', z'$) from imaging data taken during the commissioning phase of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The counts are derived from two independent stripes of imaging scans along the Celestial Equator, one each toward the North and the South Galactic cap, covering about 230 and 210 square degrees, respectively. A careful study is made to verify the reliability of the photometric catalog. For galaxies brighter than $r^* = 16$, the catalog produced by automated software is examined against eye inspection of all objects. Statistically meaningful results on the galaxy counts are obtained in the magnitude range $12 \le r^* \le 21$, using a sample of 900,000 galaxies. The counts from the two stripes differ by about 30% at magnitudes brighter than $r^*= 15.5$, consistent with a local $2\sigma$ fluctuation due to large scale structure in the galaxy distribution. The shape of the number counts-magnitude relation brighter than $r^* = 16$ is well characterized by $N \propto 10^{0.6m}$, the relation expected for a homogeneous galaxy distribution in a ``Euclidean'' universe. In the magnitude range $ 16 < r^* < 21$, the galaxy counts from both stripes agree very well, and follow the prediction of the no-evolution model, although the data do not exclude a small amount of evolution. We use empirically determined color transformations to derive the galaxy number counts in the $B$ and $I_{814}$ bands. We compute the luminosity density of the universe at zero redshift in the five SDSS bands and in the $B$ band. We find ${\cal L}_{B} = 2.4 \pm 0.4 \times 10^8L_\odot h $Mpc$^{-3}$, for a reasonably wide range of parameters of the Schechter luminosity function in the $B$ band.
Organic carbon efflux from a deciduous forest catchment in Korea
S. J. Kim, J. Kim,K. Kim
Biogeosciences (BG) & Discussions (BGD) , 2010,
Abstract: Soil infiltration and surface discharge of precipitation are critical processes that affect the efflux of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) and Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) in forested catchments. Concentrations of DOC and POC can be very high in the soil surface in most forest ecosystems and their efflux may not be negligible particularly under the monsoon climate. In East Asia, however, there are little data available to evaluate the role of such processes in forest carbon budget. In this paper, we address two basic questions: (1) how does stream discharge respond to storm events in a forest catchment? and (2) how much DOC and POC are exported from the catchment particularly during the summer monsoon period? To answer these questions, we collected hydrological data (e.g., precipitation, soil moisture, runoff discharge, groundwater level) and conducted hydrochemical analyses (including DOC, POC, and six tracers) in a deciduous forest catchment in Gwangneung National Arboretum in west-central Korea. Based on the end-member mixing analysis of the six storm events during the summer monsoon in 2005, the surface discharge was estimated as 30 to 80% of the total runoff discharge. The stream discharge responded to precipitation within 12 h during these storm events. The annual efflux of DOC and POC from the catchment was estimated as 0.04 and 0.05 t C ha 1 yr 1, respectively. Approximately 70% of the annual organic carbon efflux occurred during the summer monsoon period. Overall, the annual efflux of organic carbon was estimated to be about 10% of the Net Ecosystem carbon Exchange (NEE) obtained by eddy covariance measurement at the same site. Considering the current trends of increasing intensity and amount of summer rainfall and the large interannual variability in NEE, ignoring the organic carbon efflux from forest catchments would result in an inaccurate estimation of the carbon sink strength of forest ecosystems in the monsoon East Asia.
Organic carbon sequestration and discharge from a deciduous forest catchment in Korea
S. J. Kim,J. Kim,K. Kim
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: Soil infiltration and surface discharge of precipitation are critical processes that affect the sequestration and discharge of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) in forested catchments. Both DOC and POC are highly concentrated in the soil surface in most forest ecosystems and their discharge may not be negligible particularly under the monsoon climate. In East Asia, however, there are little data available to evaluate the role of such processes in forest carbon budget. In this paper, we address two basic questions: 1) how does stream discharge respond to storm events in a forest catchment? and 2) how much DOC and POC are discharged from the catchment particularly during the summer monsoon period? To answer these questions, we collected hydrological data (e.g., precipitation, soil moisture, runoff discharge, groundwater level) and conducted hydrochemical analyses (including DOC, POC, and six tracers) for a deciduous forest catchment in Gwangneung National Arboretum in west-central Korea. Based on the end-member mixing analysis of the six storm events during the summer monsoon in 2005, the surface discharge was estimated as 30 to 80% of the total runoff discharge. The stream discharge responded to precipitation within 12 h during these storm events. The annual discharge of DOC and POC from the catchment was estimated as 0.04 and 0.05 t C ha 1 yr 1, respectively. Approximately 70% of the annual organic carbon efflux occurred during the summer monsoon period. Overall, the annual discharge of organic carbon was estimated to be 4 to 14% of the net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) obtained by eddy covariance technique at the same site. Considering the current trends of increasing intensity and amount of summer rainfall and the large interannual variability in NEE, ignoring the organic carbon discharge from forest ecosystems would result in an overestimation (underestimation) of the strength of forests as a carbon sink (source) in the monsoon East Asia.
Evaluation of Accuracy and Precision of IRMS by Using Standard Materials and Applications  [PDF]
J. Y. Hwang, B. K. Kim, M. S. Kim, J. W. Choi, T. S. Kim, W. S. Lee
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2016.54022
Abstract: The isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) is an instrument that measures both of the elemental contents and isotope ratios of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen and sulfur in environmental samples at the same time. In this study, we want to try to get two main goals; first, to make up for setting the analytical conditions such as accuracy and precision, second, to apply for comparing of the carbon and nitrogen isotope ratio of sediments in the abandoned mine located in middle province of Korea. For the first goal, a recently introduced IRMS was used to analyze CRM (certified reference materials), which helped to make up the analytical conditions of carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. So, the accuracy and precision of isotope ratios and elemental contents were also assessed simultaneously, and also the results were very satisfactory. The analytical results of carbon reference materials (EMA-P2) showed an accuracy of -2.801 × 10‰ ± 0.01‰ (2σ) and a precision of 0.009‰ in the mass range from 0.008 μg - 0.162 μg. For nitrogen reference materials (EMA-P2), an accuracy of -1.632‰ ± 0.72‰ (2σ) was obtained in the mass range from 0.082 - 0.162 mg. These values of accuracy and precision are higher than those reported by other studies. For the second goal, carbon and nitrogen isotopes in river sediment near abandoned mines were analyzed based on the established analytical conditions. The result suggested that carbon isotope ratios ranged from -22.5‰ - -7.5‰ and nitrogen isotope ratios from -1.9‰ - 7.9‰. By comparing the isotope ratios and sampling sites of sediment, we know that the nitrogen isotope values in samples of entrance area of mine are greater than those of the farm house area, which is indicating the effects of organic materials. So, we could guess that the newly accumulated organic materials were much more in the farm house area than mine entrance area. And a result of this study, the accuracy and precision tests of IRMS using certified reference materials were very satisfactory and optimum analytical conditions were established well. And also, it was found that the applications of isotopic analysis for environmental samples by using the IRMS could be very useful for the studies on tracing pollution sources.
Detecting Clusters of Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey I : Monte Carlo Comparison of Cluster Detection Algorithms
Rita S. J. Kim,Jeremy V. Kepner,Marc Postman,Michael A. Strauss,Neta A. Bahcall,James E. Gunn,Robert H. Lupton,James Annis,Robert C. Nichol,Francisco J. Castander,J. Brinkmann,Robert J. Brunner,Andrew Connolly,Istvan Csabai,Robert B. Hindsley,Zeljko Ivezic,Michael S. Vogeley,Donald G. York
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/324727
Abstract: We present a comparison of three cluster finding algorithms from imaging data using Monte Carlo simulations of clusters embedded in a 25 deg^2 region of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging data: the Matched Filter (MF; Postman et al. 1996), the Adaptive Matched Filter (AMF; Kepner et al. 1999) and a color-magnitude filtered Voronoi Tessellation Technique (VTT). Among the two matched filters, we find that the MF is more efficient in detecting faint clusters, whereas the AMF evaluates the redshifts and richnesses more accurately, therefore suggesting a hybrid method (HMF) that combines the two. The HMF outperforms the VTT when using a background that is uniform, but it is more sensitive to the presence of a non-uniform galaxy background than is the VTT; this is due to the assumption of a uniform background in the HMF model. We thus find that for the detection thresholds we determine to be appropriate for the SDSS data, the performance of both algorithms are similar; we present the selection function for each method evaluated with these thresholds as a function of redshift and richness. For simulated clusters generated with a Schechter luminosity function (M_r^* = -21.5 and alpha = -1.1) both algorithms are complete for Abell richness >= 1 clusters up to z ~ 0.4 for a sample magnitude limited to r = 21. While the cluster parameter evaluation shows a mild correlation with the local background density, the detection efficiency is not significantly affected by the background fluctuations, unlike previous shallower surveys.
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