Abstract:
In Japanese high school English classes, students are often left to have interactions or perform communicative activities not with a teacher but with other students due to a large class size. In the situation, students are ideally notice their own insufficient utterances in order to carry out self-initiated self-repair. This study investigated self-initiated self-repair attempts and their effects on Japanese high school learners. Thirty-two Japanese high school students with low-intermediate English ability and a native speaker of English participated in the study, with the native speaker interviewing the students. The students’ utterances were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed, and it was found that: self-initiated self-repair occurred frequently and, in general, successfully; error repair was most frequently recorded; the success rate of lexical repair was the lowest. Findings observed during the students’ self-initiated self-repair attempts are discussed, followed by discussion of their possible effects. Finally, suggestions are given based on the pedagogical implications from the study.

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to study certain family of elliptic curves $\{\mathscr{X}_H\}_H$ defined over a number field $F$ arising from hyperplane sections of some cubic surface $\mathscr{X}/F$ associated to a cyclic cubic extension $K/F$. We show that each $\mathscr{X}_H$ admits a 3-isogeny $\phi$ over $F$ and the dual Selmer group $S^{(\hat{\phi})}(\hat{\mathscr{X}_H}/F)$ is bounded by a kind of unit/class groups attached to $K/F$. This is proven via certain rational function on the elliptic curve $\mathscr{X}_H$ with nice property. We also prove that the Shafarevich-Tate group $\text{\cyr X} (\hat{\mathscr{X}_H}/\rat)[\hat{\phi}]$ coincides with a class group of $K$ as a special case.

Abstract:
P. Br\"and\'en recently proved a conjecture due to S. Fisk, R. P. Stanley, P. R. W. McNamara and B. E. Sagan. In addition, P. Br\"and\'en gave a partial answer to a question posed by S. Fisk regarding the distribution of zeros of polynomials under the action of certain non-linear operators. In this paper, we give an extension to a result of P. Br\"and\'en, and we also answer a question posed by S. Fisk.

Abstract:
Here, we introduce a combinatorial approach for prediction of protein complexes focusing not only on determining member proteins in complexes but also on the DDI/PPI organization of the complexes. Our method analyzes complex candidates predicted by the existing methods. It searches for optimal combinations of domain-domain interactions in the candidates based on an assumption that the proteins in a candidate can form a true protein complex if each of the domains is used by a single protein interaction. This optimization problem was mathematically formulated and solved using binary integer linear programming. By using publicly available sets of yeast protein-protein interactions and domain-domain interactions, we succeeded in extracting protein complex candidates with an accuracy that is twice the average accuracy of the existing methods, MCL, MCODE, or clustering coefficient. Although the configuring parameters for each algorithm resulted in slightly improved precisions, our method always showed better precision for most values of the parameters.Our combinatorial approach can provide better accuracy for prediction of protein complexes and also enables to identify both direct PPIs and DDIs that mediate them in complexes.Recently developed high-throughput methods such as yeast two-hybrid or mass spectrometry to obtain protein-protein interactions (PPIs) have provided a global view of the interaction network [1-5]. As a PPI network grows, it becomes increasingly important to detect functional modules for understanding cellular organization and its dynamics [6]. Protein complexes are clusters of multiple proteins, and they often play a crucial part in basal cellular mechanism. Therefore, computational methods to predict protein complexes are becoming important.There are four steps in characterizing a protein complex [7]. The first step is to identify its member proteins. The second step is to determine its topology by identifying pairs of proteins which have direct inte

Abstract:
In this note, we discuss the coefficient regions of analytic self-maps of the unit disk with a prescribed fixed point. As an application, we solve the Fekete-Szeg\H{o} problem for normalized concave functions with a prescribed pole in the unit disk.

Abstract:
In the present paper, we will discuss the Hankel determinants $H(f) =a_2a_4-a_3^2$ of order 2 for normalized concave functions $f(z)=z+a_2z^2+a_3z^3+\dots$ with a pole at $p\in(0,1).$ Here, a meromorphic function is called concave if it maps the unit disk conformally onto a domain whose complement is convex. To this end, we will characterize the coefficient body of order 2 for the class of analytic functions $\varphi(z)$ on $|z|<1$ with $|\varphi|<1$ and $\varphi(p)=p.$ We believe that this is helpful for other extremal problems concerning $a_2, a_3, a_4$ for normalized concave functions with a pole at $p.$

In several countries in monsoon Asia, soybean crops are cultivated in upland fields converted from paddies. In such fields, excess soil water often induces extensive damage followed by lower nutrient uptake by this crop. In this study, the effects of flooding during the early growth stage of pot-grown soybeans on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and root nodule formation were investigated. Twenty days after sowing cv. Fukuyutaka, half of the pots were flooded (flooding) and the other half were left unflooded (irrigation). The plants were sampled after 39 days of flooding. Typical morphological alterations to flooding were found, including an enlarged hypocotyl diameter and partial cracking of the surface tissues, and adventitious roots developed on the soil surface. The primary and lateral roots were shorter and the adventitious roots were longer in flooding than in irrigation. In flooding, the ratio of the aerenchyma area to the stele area was 82.5% in adventitious roots. The AM colonization ratio in flooding was significantly lower than in irrigation. The ratio in flooding was markedly low in the primary and lateral roots, but it was not necessarily low in the adventitious roots. Root nodules were formed on the adventitious roots but not on the primary and lateral roots, especially in flooding. These results showing different rates of AM colonization and root nodule formation between the two different types of roots improve the understanding of responses of soybeans grown in paddy-rotated upland fields.

Abstract:
The polysaccharide was isolated from Hypnea pannosa which was grown in Okinawa, Japan. The yield of the polysaccharide was 17.2%, and the total carbohydrates, pyruvic acid, sulfuric acid and ash contents were 55.2%, 3.8%, 35.2% and 24.3%, respectively. 3,6-Anhydro-α-D-galactose, β-D-galactose, α-D-galactose and D-glucose were identified by liquid and thin-layer chromatography. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the polysaccharide resembled that of ι-carrageenan. From the ^{1}H- and ^{13}C-NMR spectra, 1,3-linked β-D-galactose, 1,4-linked anhydro-α-D-galactose, 1,4-linked α-D-galactose, 1,4-linked β-D-glucose and pyruvic acid (carboxyl acetal, methyl proton and methyl carbon) were assigned. Methylation analysis revealed terminal D-galactose 0.1 mol), 1,4-linked D-glucose (1.0 mol) and 1,2,3,4,6-linked D-galactose (3.7 mol) for native polysaccharide, and terminal D-galactose, 1,4-linked D-galactose (1.9 mol), 1,4-linked D-glucose (1.0 mol), 1,3- linked D-galactose (1.7 mol), and 1,3,4,6-linked D-galactose (0.3 mol) which substituted with pyruvate group at 4 and 6 positions for desulfated polysaccharide. The polysaccharide was the novel pyruvated glucogalactan sulfate, the structure of which was proposed.

Abstract:
Large-scale data sets of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are a valuable resource for mapping and analysis of the topological and dynamic features of interactome networks. The currently available large-scale PPI data sets only contain information on interaction partners. The data presented in this study also include the sequences involved in the interactions (i.e., the interacting regions, IRs) suggested to correspond to functional and structural domains. Here we present the first large-scale IR data set obtained using mRNA display for 50 human transcription factors (TFs), including 12 transcription-related proteins. The core data set (966 IRs; 943 PPIs) displays a verification rate of 70%. Analysis of the IR data set revealed the existence of IRs that interact with multiple partners. Furthermore, these IRs were preferentially associated with intrinsic disorder. This finding supports the hypothesis that intrinsically disordered regions play a major role in the dynamics and diversity of TF networks through their ability to structurally adapt to and bind with multiple partners. Accordingly, this domain-based interaction resource represents an important step in refining protein interactions and networks at the domain level and in associating network analysis with biological structure and function.

Abstract:
We examine a natural supersymmetric extension of the bosonic covariant 3-algebra model for M-theory proposed in [1]. It possesses manifest SO(1,10) symmetry and is constructed based on the Lorentzian Lie 3-algebra associated with the U(N) Lie algebra. There is no ghost related to the Lorentzian signature in this model. It is invariant under 64 supersymmetry transformations although the supersymmetry algebra does not close. From the model, we derive the BFSS matrix theory and the IIB matrix model in a large N limit by taking appropriate vacua.