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Maternal Serologic Screening to Prevent Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Decision-Analytic Economic Model
Eileen Stillwaggon ,Christopher S. Carrier,Mari Sautter,Rima McLeod
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001333
Abstract: Objective To determine a cost-minimizing option for congenital toxoplasmosis in the United States. Methodology/Principal Findings A decision-analytic and cost-minimization model was constructed to compare monthly maternal serological screening, prenatal treatment, and post-natal follow-up and treatment according to the current French (Paris) protocol, versus no systematic screening or perinatal treatment. Costs are based on published estimates of lifetime societal costs of developmental disabilities and current diagnostic and treatment costs. Probabilities are based on published results and clinical practice in the United States and France. One- and two-way sensitivity analyses are used to evaluate robustness of results. Universal monthly maternal screening for congenital toxoplasmosis with follow-up and treatment, following the French protocol, is found to be cost-saving, with savings of $620 per child screened. Results are robust to changes in test costs, value of statistical life, seroprevalence in women of childbearing age, fetal loss due to amniocentesis, and to bivariate analysis of test costs and incidence of primary T. gondii infection in pregnancy. Given the parameters in this model and a maternal screening test cost of $12, screening is cost-saving for rates of congenital infection above 1 per 10,000 live births. If universal testing generates economies of scale in diagnostic tools—lowering test costs to about $2 per test—universal screening is cost-saving at rates of congenital infection well below the lowest reported rates in the United States of 1 per 10,000 live births. Conclusion/Significance Universal screening according to the French protocol is cost saving for the US population within broad parameters for costs and probabilities.
Why prevent, diagnose and treat congenital toxoplasmosis?
McLeod, Rima;Kieffer, Francois;Sautter, Mari;Hosten, Tiffany;Pelloux, Herve;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762009000200029
Abstract: evidence that prevention, diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis is beneficial developed as follows: anti-parasitic agents abrogate toxoplasma gondiitachyzoite growth, preventing destruction of infected, cultured, mammalian cells and cure active infections in experimental animals, including primates. they treat active infections in persons who are immune-compromised, limit destruction of retina by replicating parasites and thereby treat ocular toxoplasmosis and treat active infection in the fetus and infant. outcomes of untreated congenital toxoplasmosis include adverse ocular and neurologic sequelae described in different countries and decades. better outcomes are associated with treatment of infected infants throughout their first year of life. shorter intervals between diagnosis and treatment in utero improve outcomes. a french approach for diagnosis and treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis in the fetus and infant can prevent toxoplasmosis and limit adverse sequelae. in addition, new data demonstrate that this french approach results in favorable outcomes with some early gestation infections. a standardized approach to diagnosis and treatment during gestation has not yet been applied generally in the usa. nonetheless, a small, similar experience confirms that this french approach is feasible, safe, and results in favorable outcomes in the national collaborative chicago-based congenital toxoplasmosis study cohort. prompt diagnosis, prevention and treatment reduce adverse sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis.
Host genetic and epigenetic factors in toxoplasmosis
Jamieson, Sarra E;Cordell, Heather;Petersen, Eskild;McLeod, Rima;Gilbert, Ruth E;Blackwell, Jenefer M;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762009000200006
Abstract: analysing human genetic variation provides a powerful tool in understanding risk factors for disease. toxoplasma gondii acquired by the mother can be transmitted to the fetus. infants with the most severe clinical signs in brain and eye are those infected early in pregnancy when fetal immunity is least well developed. genetic analysis could provide unique insight into events in utero that are otherwise difficult to determine. we tested the hypothesis that propensity for t. gondii to cause eye disease is associated with genes previously implicated in congenital or juvenile onset ocular disease. using mother-child pairs from europe (emscot) and child/parent trios from north america (ncccts), we demonstrated that ocular and brain disease in congenital toxoplasmosis associate with polymorphisms in abca4 encoding atp-binding cassette transporter, subfamily a, member 4 previously associated with juvenile onset retinal dystrophies including stargardt's disease. polymorphisms at col2a1 encoding type ii collagen, previously associated with stickler syndrome, associated only with ocular disease in congenital toxoplasmosis. experimental studies showed that both abca4 and col2a1 show isoform-specific epigenetic modifications consistent with imprinting, which provided an explanation for the patterns of inheritance observed. these genetic and epigenetic risk factors provide unique insight into molecular pathways in the pathogenesis of disease.
Hyperbolic Coxeter Pyramids  [PDF]
John Mcleod
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2013.31010

Hyperbolic Coxeter polytopes are defined precisely by combinatorial type. Polytopes in hyperbolic n-space with n + p faces that have the combinatorial type of a pyramid over a product of simplices were classified by Tumarkin for small p. In this article we generalise Tumarkins methods and find the remaining hyperbolic Coxeter pyramids.

Application of Cross-Plotting Techniques for Delineation of Coal and Non-Coal Litho-Units from Well Logs  [PDF]
Rima Chatterjee, Suman Paul
Geomaterials (GM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/gm.2012.24014
Abstract: Well log responses can be used to delineate coal and carbonaceous shale from other non-potential litho-units by cross-plotting technique. The cross-plotting between gamma ray and density had been carried out for 15 wells of Jharia coalfield, India. Through these different cross-plots across the study area, different litho-units like; coal, shaly coal, carbonaceous shale, shale, sand/sandstone, shaly sand, jhama and igneous intrusion (mica peridotite) have been identified. Clustering of points for different lithologies in the above cross-plots indicate that the different trends with marginal overlap between carbonaceous shale/shaly coal and shale as well as shaly sand and shale. The coal horizons are mostly overlain and underlain by shale or sandstone. Cross-plot analysis indicates the various coal lithologies which will play important role in CBM exploration and exploitation strategy.
Improvement of Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Atrazine in Contaminated Water by Inducing of Mannich Reaction
Karine Rima,Jamil Rima
Journal of Food Research (JFR) , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jfr.v1n4p17
Abstract: The objective of this study is to develop a simple and economic spectrophotometric method for the quantitative determination of atrazine. This method is based on the complexation of atrazine derivatization (dechlorinated atrazine [DA]) with a mixture of formaldehyde and ketone compound, as described by Mannich reaction. The complex was determined by UV-Vis absorption measurement and the ketone compound used was the uranine due to its high coefficient absorption. The UV spectrum of the complex shows maxima of absorption at 207 nm and at 227 nm. An internal standard was used to quantify the atrazine. There is a good linearity between the absorbance and the concentration in the range of 0.1 - 10 ug.mL-1 of atrazine. The recovery value was 97 % and the limit of detection was 0.01 ug.mL-1. Real samples collected from irrigation local area were analyzed using this method and the estimated concentration of atrazine found in the mentioned river is 0.29 ± 0.011 ug.mL-1.
Toxicity of Pyrifluquinazon against Greenhouse Whitefly on Tomato Produced in Greenhouses  [PDF]
Paul McLeod, Tahir Rashid
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2014.23018
Abstract: The greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), is a major pest of tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L. Management in both the field and greenhouse is often based on foliar applications of insecticides. A lack of control along with resistance development requires development of alternatives to currently available insecticides. Pyrifluquinazon is a recently developed insecticide by Nichino/Nihon Nohyaku Co., Japan and is marketed in the US by Nichino America. The insecticide inhibits feeding by aphids, thrips, mealybugs and scale insects resulting in death. Because limited information exists on pyrifluquinazon effectiveness against whiteflies, tests were initiated to establish its toxicity against the greenhouse whitefly on greenhouse produced tomato. Data reported herein indicate that pyrifluquinazon was highly effective against adult greenhouse whiteflies. When adults were transferred to tomato shortly after the application had dried, mortality counts taken after 48 h produced LC50 and LC95 values of 0.2469 and 2.4826 μg·g-1, respectively. Although few adults were observed on tomato foliage 24 h post-exposure, little mortality was observed until the 48 h observation. When adult whiteflies were placed on tomato 3 d after pyrifluquinazon application, the LC50 value was 0.3343 μg·g-1 which did not significantly differ from the 0 h LC50 value. A significant increase in LC50 value was observed when adults were placed on tomato 5 d after pyrifluquinazon application. In a greenhouse efficacy trial, both the recommended pyrifluquinazon rate (46.8 g active ingredient [AI] ha-1) and a reduced rate (11.7 g·AI·ha-1) significantly reduced numbers of whitefly adults when compared to the non-treated control for 10 days. The 46.8 g·AI
Determinants of Banks’ Profitability: Panel Data from Qatar  [PDF]
Rima Charbaji El-Kassem
Open Journal of Accounting (OJAcct) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojacct.2017.64009
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate the main determinants of banks’ profitability and answer the question “what is the effect of liquidity and risk variables on the explained variation of banks’ performance in Qatar?” Design/methodology/approach: A sample of six major lender banks for the period 2008-2015 is retrieved from the worldwide bankscope database. The dependent variable “Return on Average Assets (ROAA)” is taken as a function of independent variables that are basically liquidity and risk variables. Findings: Findings of this study show that variation in the independent variable “Total Capital Ratio %” positively and significantly affects the explained variation in performance of banks in Qatar measured by “ROAA”, while variation in “Cost to Income Ratio”, negatively and significantly impacts the variation in performance of banks in Qatar. At the same time, variation in “Reserves for impaired Loans/A nonperforming loan (NPL)” and variation in “Loan to Assets Ratio” significantly and negatively affect ROAA of banks in Qatar. Practical implications: It is recommended to replicate the findings of this study in each of the other GCC country before building an econometric model to cluster the GCC banks into homogeneous segments. Originality: The research problem is based on review of literature and investigation in a novel way using EViews 9 and Panel Data.
Prevalence of recurrent aphthous ulceration in Jordanian dental patients
Rima Safadi
BMC Oral Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-9-31
Abstract: A total of 684 dental patients who attended Jordan University of Science and Technology interviewed and administered to fill questionnaires related to history, size, shape, and duration of recurrent aphthous ulceration. Other related questions were also asked.About 78% of subjects experienced recurrent aphthous ulceration. Approximately 85% of ulcers were less than one cm in diameter, 66% were circular in shape, 92% were painful, 82% interfered with eating, and 55% located in lips and buccal mucosa. Only 50%of participants related ulcers to stress. Sixty eight percent reported no association with tiredness and 85% no association with types of food ingested. Of the 39% who had blood tests carried out, 7% had vitamin B12 and 4% hemoglobin deficiency.Recurrent aphthous ulceration is a common problem in Jordanian adults.Recurrent aphthous ulceration was reported as the most common inflammatory ulcerative condition of the oral mucosa. [1,2] Aphthous ulcers are classified on the basis of ulcer size into major, minor or herpetiform. [3] Minor aphthous ulcers are small (less than one cm in diameter), well defined, shallow, and heal within two weeks without scars. Major ulcers, however, are bigger, deeper, and take up to six weeks to heal leaving a scar behind. Herpetiform ulceration is also characterized by small (3-6 mm), shallow ulcers which takes weeks to heal, but with many numerous ulcers at once. [3]The etiology of recurrent aphthous ulceration is not understood. [4] No principal cause has been discovered, however attacks may be precipitated by, or associated with, local trauma, stress, food hypersensitivity, hormonal changes, microorganisms, and vitamin and trace element deficiencies. [5] Systemic conditions including genetic predisposition, immune dysregulation, and family history might play a role in recurrent aphthous ulceration in some patients. [6]A diagnosis of recurrent aphthous ulceration depends mainly on history and clinical examination. Patients with mild
Rima Nurasmi
Jurnal Informatika , 2012,
Abstract: Perkembangan teknologi informasi yang semakin cepat, semakin berat pula kemampuan komputer dalam membantu menyelesaikan permasalahan di berbagai bidang di antaranya adalah sistem pendukung keputusan berbasis komputer, seperti pada pengambilan keputusan dalam penanganan dini pada kecelakaan dalam lingkup rumah tangga. Perlu penanganan atau pertolongan segera agar terhindar dari kondisi yang lebih parah, dalam penanganan ini dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan tanaman herbal. Kebanyakan masyarakat tidak tahu akan kegunaan dari tanaman herbal tersebut terutama untuk penanganan dini pada kecelakaan, untuk itu diperlukan suatu sistem pendukung keputusan untuk penanganan dini pada kecelakaan dengan metode herbal. Model yang digunakan dalam pengambilan keputusan adalah Case Base Reasoning, yang menitikberatkan pemecahan masalah dengan didasarkan pada knowledge dari kasus-kasus sebelumnya. Langkah pengembangan aplikasi diawali dengan analisis kebutuhan sistem yaitu analisis input, proses, dan output, kemudian dilakukan perancangan sistem yang berupa desain pemodelan data dan pemodelan proses. Perancangan sistem diimplementasikan ke dalam bahasa pemrograman Visual Basic 6.0 dan menggunakan Access. Hasil penelitian ini adalah aplikasi pendukung keputusan untuk penanganan dini pada kecelakaan dalam lingkup rumah tangga dengan metode herbal. Aplikasi ini telah diuji dengan menggunakan black box test dan alpha test, dan diperoleh kesimpulan bahwa aplikasi ini dinyatakan baik dan layak digunakan.
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