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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 69446 matches for " Richard Y. Schauffler "
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Judicial accountability in the US State Courts Measuring court performance
Richard Y. Schauffler
Utrecht Law Review , 2007,
Abstract: Current efforts at performance measurement in the state courts are described, situated in a global and historical context, using the framework of Pollitt and Bouckaert (2000). The structure of state courts in the US is described, with attention given to structural issues that affect implementation of performance measurement at the state and local levels. The history of prior attempts at court performance measurement is reviewed, along with current efforts in several states to implement performance measures based on the CourTools performance measures designed by the National Center for State Courts. General findings on the measurement of access and fairness and court employee satisfaction are presented. Challenges for ongoing court performance measurement are described.
Climate Change, Adaptive Strategies and Rural Livelihoods in Semiarid Tanzania  [PDF]
Richard Y. M. Kangalawe, James G. Lyimo
Natural Resources (NR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2013.43034

Climate change is a global challenge to both sustainable livelihoods and economic development. In Tanzania as in most African countries, farming depends almost entirely on rainfall, a situation that makes agriculture and thus rural livelihoods especially in semiarid environments particularly vulnerable to climate change. This study analyses the impacts of climate change and variability on rural livelihoods with particular focus on agricultural production, food security and adaptive capacities in semiarid areas of Tanzania. The methods used in this study included focus group discussions, key informant interviews, household surveys and field observations. Results from the study indicate that communities understood climate change in terms of variability in rainfall patterns and amount, temperature patterns, wind, water availability, increased incidences of drought and decreased agricultural productivity. Communities in the study area acknowledged that while rainfall amounts have decreased over the last thirty years, temperatures have increased; an experience is also supported by meteorological data. Such changes were claimed to have reduced agricultural productivity particularly due to prolonged drought, inadequate and uneven distribution of rainfall as well as unpredictable onset and ending of rains. Stressors such as
crop diseases and pests, low soil fertility and inadequate extension services were also reported to contribute to the decline in agricultural productivity and re-occurrence of food insecurity. In response, communities have developed multiple adaptation strategies
, including growing of drought tolerant and early maturing crop varieties, increasing wetlands cultivation, water harvesting for small-scale irrigation and livestock keeping. However, households with limited livelihood assets are more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and food insecurity. The study argues that diversification of adaptive strategies, such as water harvesting for small-scale irrigation, integration of livestock and crop production are crucial to ensuring sustainable livelihood in a

Impact of Crude Oil on Soil Nitrogen Dynamics and Uptake by Legumes Grown in Wetland Ultisol of the Niger Delta, Nigeria  [PDF]
Richard C. John, Emem S. Ntino, Alfred Y. Itah
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.74046

The effects of crude oil on soil nitrogen dynamics and cycling in plant-soil ecosystems and its effect on the growth of legumes (Calopogonium mucunoides, Centrosema pubescens and Pueraria phaseolodes) grown in wetland ultisols were investigated. The test plants species were grown on wetland soil simulated with 0.35, 10.8, 20.5, and 50 g.kg-1levels of crude oil contamination. The results showed time and species dependent variation in mineral N content of the treated soils. The variation is indicative of significant interaction between the hydrocarbon content and plant species. Variations in microbial N and microbial C were similar and correlation between the microbial N and the total C (Organic matter (C) + hydrocarbon content (C)) in soil was highly significant (r = 0.96, n = 12, P 0.01). The presence of hydrocarbon contaminant widens the C:N ratio in soil and leads to more available N being immobilized by soil microorganisms, which reduces available N for plant uptake. This result implies that crude oil contamination significantly reduces N uptake by plants but increases N accumulation in soil microbial biomass. The findings show that N dynamics, transformation and cycling in soil are influenced by hydrocarbons and that the interactions between hydrocarbon content and plant species in contaminated soil are remarkable. The use of plant Centrosema pubescens with poultry manure or NPK fertilizer for bioremediation is more effective than that of Calopogonium mucunoides and Pueraria phaseoloides. However, the selective attributes of the various treatment approaches adopted here may be exploited for enhanced remediation of contaminated wetlands in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

Percep??o de estudantes de medicina sobre aprendizagem da rela??o médico-paciente após mudan?a curricular
Stock, Fabíola Schauffler;Sisson, Maristela Chitto;Grosseman, Suely;
Revista Brasileira de Educa??o Médica , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-55022012000100002
Abstract: this qualitative study was conducted with the aim of assessing student perceptions regarding physician-patient relationship (ppr) learning, following the curricular reform of the medicine course at santa catarina federal university. the study was based on semi-structured interviews with 25 of the 46 twelfth-semester students of the course, selected randomly.the results show that all the interviewees value the ppr, pointing to empathy, respect, no judging, active listening and accessible language as fundamental elements.difficulty in interacting with carriers of serious, incurable and/or terminal diseases was reported, as well as in relation to emergency cases.the most cited resources for ppr learning were models, internships at local health units since the start of the course and family education.suggestions were made to broaden the approach to ppr with increased supervision and sharing of experiences during the course.in conclusion, the students' opinions on the need for ppr learning are under development and settings such as that for health service-learning integration are highly important for acquiring communication skills.
Application of Inversion to Integrated Stratigraphic Interpretation Application de l'inversion pour l'interprétation stratigraphique intégrée
Dequirez P. Y.,Richard V.
Oil & Gas Science and Technology , 2006, DOI: 10.2516/ogst:1990026
Abstract: The EAEG Inversion Workshop consisted of a calibrated stratigraphic study of a carbonate reservoir through different inversion techniques. Information was provided by one poststack seismic section and an impedance log from a well on the seismic line to calibrate the seismic data. From the interpreter's point of view, the objective was to pursue a hopefully oil productive zone in the carbonate reservoir through the lateral delineation of the estimated pseudo-impedances. The advanced integrated stratigraphic interpretation software INTERWELL has been developed to achieve calibration and integration of impedance well logs, seismic data and stratigraphic information. The complete procedure was demonstrated for the workshop test line to solve the well extrapolation problem. Firstly, an interpretive well-to-seismic tie procedure was applied for wavelet estimation and log editing. Then the available impedance well log and interpretive knowledge were integrated with the seismic data by using an inversion method with a priori information. The use of a priori information reduces the range of models to be consistent with the observed seismic data and ensures that the results are geologically meaningful. This advantage is best understood by considering three extreme approaches starting without constraints, then applying them more strongly. From our assumptions about the information content in the workshop dataset, we derived an optimal impedance section which facilitates the interpretation. The estimated pseudo-logs match those observed at three blind wells unavailable prior to the workshop. Le workshop sur l'inversion organisé à l'EAEG (European Association of Exploration Geophysicists) avait pour but l'étude stratigraphique comparative d'un réservoir carbonaté à l'aide de différentes techniques d'inversion. L'information fournie était composée d'une section sismique après sommation et d'un log d'impédance provenant d'un puits situé sur le profil, de fa on à pouvoir étalonner les données sismiques. Du point de vue de l'interprétation, l'objectif était de rechercher les variations latérales d'impédance dans un réservoir carbonaté avec l'espoir de déterminer une zone productrice d'huile. Le logiciel d'interprétation stratigraphique intégrée INTERWELL a été développé pour effectuer la calibration et l'intégration des logs d'impédance aux puits, des données sismiques et des informations stratigraphiques. La procédure complète a été appliquée sur la ligne test du workshop pour résoudre le problème d'extrapolation des données de puits. Dans une première étape nous metton
Zoon’s balanitis with mucinous metaplasia: A case report and review of literature  [PDF]
Jin-Ping Lai, Edward W. Cowen, Jere B. Stern, Leomar Y. Ballester, Emily Y. Chu, Rodolfo E. Chirinos, Richard W. Childs, Chyi-Chia Richard Lee
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics (OJCD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojcd.2013.32008

Mucinous metaplasia of the squamous epithelium of the glans penis is very rarely seen in the setting of Zoon’s balanitis. We report a case of 40 year old male with a past medical history of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, status-post allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation from an HLA-matched sibling 6 years prior to evaluation, complicated by oral and cutaneous chronic graft-versus-host disease. Mucinous metaplasia was confirmed by PAS and Mucin stains, and plasmacytosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry for CD138 and MUM1 markers. Kappa and Lambda immunostains revealed a polyclonal pattern. The etiology of zoon’s balanitis as well as the significance of mucinous metaplasia in these setting are unclear and need to be further investigated.

Low-Frequency Rotation of Surface Winds over Canada
Vladimir Y. Korolevych,Richard B. Richardson
Atmosphere , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/atmos3040522
Abstract: Hourly surface observations from the Canadian Weather Energy and Engineering Dataset were analyzed with respect to long-term wind direction drift or rotation. Most of the Canadian landmass, including the High Arctic, exhibits a spatially consistent and remarkably steady anticyclonic rotation of wind direction. The period of anticyclonic rotation recorded at 144 out of 149 Canadian meteostations directly correlated with latitude and ranged from 7 days at Medicine Hat (50°N, 110°W) to 25 days at Resolute (75°N, 95°W). Only five locations in the vicinity of the Rocky Mountains and Pacific Coast were found to obey a “negative” ( i.e., cyclonic) rotation. The observed anticyclonic rotation appears to be a deterministic, virtually ubiquitous, and highly persistent feature of continental surface wind. These findings are directly applicable to probabilistic assessments of airborne pollutants.
Effects of HIV-1 protease on cellular functions and their potential applications in antiretroviral therapy
Hailiu Yang, Joseph Nkeze, Richard Y Zhao
Cell & Bioscience , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2045-3701-2-32
Abstract: HIV/AIDS is one of the most devastating diseases in the world with approximately 34 million people living with HIV in 2010 and approximately 2.7 million new infections in the same year [1]. Use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) can successfully reduce Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) viral replication, of which HIV-1 protease (PR) inhibitors (PIs) are the most potent viral inhibitors. However, one of the major challenges in using ART is the emergence of viral drug resistance due to mutations in the PR gene. Resistant mutations that accumulated during multiple ARTs may lead to cross drug resistance to most or all PIs [2-4], raising a possibility that multi-drug resistant viruses may ultimately outgrow the number of PIs available. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new PIs that are active against those drug-resistant HIV-1 PRs (dr-PRs). This review looks at the mechanisms in which HIV-1 PR alters host cellular functions such as apoptosis in CD4+ T-lymphocytes, why PIs are such potent drugs, and how a eukaryotic cell-based high-throughput screening (HTS) system using the fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) as a model organism may accelerate the drug discovery process and prevent dr-PRs from developing.The life cycle of HIV-1 (Figure 1) comprises of the following distinct stages: 1) adsorption and fusion, 2) reverse transcription, 3) integration, 4) viral gene expression, 5) virus assembly and maturation, and 6) budding. The matured infections virion consists of two copies of genomic RNA and functional viral proteins: reverse transcriptase (RT), integrase (IN) and protease (PR). When the HIV ?1 virion is uncoated into the targeted host cell such as a CD4+ T-lymphocyte, RT catalyzes the conversion of one copy of the genomic viral RNA into a double-stranded viral DNA (dsDNA) [5]. IN catalyzes its integration into the host chromosome to form a proviral DNA [5-8]. Using the host cellular system, copies of HIV-1 genomic material as well as shorter s
Camera Control and Multimedia Interaction using Individual Object Recognition
Richard Y. D. Xu,Jesse S. Jin
Journal of Multimedia , 2007, DOI: 10.4304/jmm.2.3.77-85
Abstract: Currently, most of the automated, computer vision assisted camera control policies are based on human events, such as the speaker gesture and position changes. In addition to these events, in this paper, we introduce a set of natural camera control and multimedia synchronization schemes based on the individual object interaction. We describe in detail, how our unique method, in which the head-pose estimation are used to compute the region of interest (ROI) for recognizing the hand-held object. We explain, from our results, how our approach has achieved robustness, efficiency and unambiguous object interaction during real-time video shooting.
Renal Denervation for Treating Resistant Hypertension: Current Evidence and Future Insights from a Global Perspective
Y. Castro Torres,Richard E. Katholi
International Journal of Hypertension , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/513214
Abstract: Adequate blood pressure control represents an important goal for all physicians due to the complications of hypertension which reduce patients' quality of life. A new interventional strategy to reduce blood pressure has been developed for patients with resistant hypertension. Catheter-based renal denervation has demonstrated excellent results in recent investigations associated with few side effects. With the growing diffusion of this technique worldwide, some medical societies have published consensus statements to guide physicians how to best apply this procedure. Questions remain to be answered such as the long-term durability of renal denervation, the efficacy in patients with other sympathetically mediated diseases, and whether renal denervation would benefit patients with stage 1 hypertension. 1. Introduction Approximately 34% of adults worldwide have hypertension [1]. Hypertension is the leading cause of global mortality accounting for 13% of deaths [2]. In the United States, there is an estimated of 77.9 million adults ≥20 years of age with this condition [3]. Hypertension management utilizes the strategies of lifestyle modification and pharmacological treatment. However, in many patients, blood pressure (BP) control is not accomplished. Resistant hypertension (RH) is defined when a patient taking three or more antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic, at optimal tolerated doses, and still maintains BP values >140/90?mmHg [4, 5]. Prevalence of RH is not well established but some statistics reveal that it represents 13% of hypertensive patients [6]. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey among United States adults reveal the criteria for RH which were found in 8.9% of hypertensive patients [3]. The causes of RH are diverse and it may involve multiple mechanisms (see Table 1) [4, 5]. RH worsens the prognosis of hypertensive patients. The rate of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events in patients with RH is three to six times higher than that of controlled hypertensive individuals. RH increases the risk of left ventricular hypertrophy, microalbuminuria, kidney failure, endothelial dysfunction, carotid artery stiffness, and atherosclerosis [7]. Table 1: Causes of RH. Recently, a catheter-based technique using radiofrequency to destroy the renal nerves has opened a new novel approach to treat RH [8–11]. Clinical trials have shown a reduction in BP with minimal side effects [12, 13]. In this paper we propose to review the current evidence and status of catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) in the treatment of RH and its
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