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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 19274 matches for " Richard Okello "
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Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings in adolescents at Lacor hospital, Uganda
Tom Richard Okello
African Health Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Background and Objectives: Fiberoptic endoscopy is a highly efficient diagnostic tool, which is now being increasingly used, in the pediatric age group. This study has been carried out to demonstrate indications for and common findings of endoscopy in children. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records for endoscopy indication and result of children who had endoscopy between Jan 2000 to June 2005. Results: We analyzed 135 children who were referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. There were 38 boys and 97 girls. The mean age was 16 years (SD+/ 1.4293). The main indications comprised epigastric pain (67.4%), dyspepsia (11.9), hematemesis (8.9%), recurrent abdominal pain (3%) recurrent vomiting (3%), and miscellaneous (5.8%). Endoscopic diagnose included duodenal ulcer (14.8%) and gastritis (12.6%); duodenal scarring (5.2%), bile reflux (5.2%) duodenitis (4.4%) and miscellaneous 6.4%. Conclusion: In Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is a diagnostic procedure in children with gastrointestinal disorder. Gastritis and duodenal disease are commonly seen in children, hence must be included in differential diagnosis of children with digestive complaints and its management. African Health Sciences Vol. 6(1) 2006: 39-42
Exit, voice and loyalty in Kenya’s French bean industry: What lessons can we learn from smallholder farmers’ past response to international food safety standards?
JJ Okello
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2011,
Abstract: Kenya is one of the leading exporters of fresh vegetables to Europe. Kenyan exporters have since the 1990s targeted the leading European supermarkets with their produce. However, the food safety scandals of the 1980s and 1990s led these supermarkets to adopt stringent food safety protocols relating to pesticide use, hygiene, and traceability. These standards were then passed on to Kenyan exporters. In turn, many leading fresh export companies in Kenya developed their own stringent private protocols relating to food safety standards. Others adopted the European Retail Group’s Good Agricultural Practices or their European buyers’ private food safety standards. In both cases, Kenyan exporters required full compliance with the food safety standards in order to continue buying beans from their suppliers. This study examined how Kenyan smallholder growers responded to the standards and how their response affected their continued participation in the supermarket business. It applies Hirschman’s concept of exit, voice and loyalty to assess the strategies used by Kenyan smallholder French bean farmers in response to international food safety standards (IFSS). It then assesses the factors that influence the success or failure of such strategies. Data obtained in this study suggest that smallholder farmers used different strategies to respond to IFSS. The initial overwhelming response was to exit production. Other farmers resorted to voice strategy: complaints, petitions, threats,lobbying, in attempt to influence buyers/exporters to relax or change the standards. Such farmers largely failed. The rest of the farmers, however, proactively complied with the standards by using collective action and were able to stay in the fresh export business. This strategy of compliance with IFSS has since become the model in smallholder export horticulture in Kenya. This study, therefore, demonstrates role that collective action and proactive response to standards can play in maintaining their participation of smallholder in fresh vegetable export business and suggests the need for assisting the poor smallholder farmers to keep their share of market.
A Field Study in the Status and Threats of Cultivation in Kimana and Ilchalai Swamps in Amboseli Dispersal Area, Kenya  [PDF]
Moses Makonjio Okello, John M. Kioko
Natural Resources (NR) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2011.24026
Abstract: The scarcity of water and dependence of local communities on wetlands for resources and services is a common occurrence in dry rangelands such as Amboseli in Kenya. There are only a few swamps outside Amboseli National Park available to the Maasai, livestock and wildlife. Such swamps may disappear in the near future because of conversion to cultivation. This study established the current size and threats to Kimana and Ilchalai near Amboseli National Park. Swamps were regularly used by over 15 large mammal species among them elephants, buffalo, wildebeest, zebra, gazelles and hippopoatums. However, only 15.7% of Kimana Swamp and 36.1% of Ilchalai Swamp remained unconverted to cultivation, with the rest of the remaining swamp area converted to agriculture. Cultivation was mainly done by non–Maasai land leasers, and for mainly commercial purposes. Swamps were converted because of adequate and free water, cheap lease fee, and their fertile soils. Although concerned with swamp conversion, most cultivators were ready to expand cultivation in other swamps. These findings demonstrate how unsustainable resource use and swamp conversion can seriously threaten critical resources for local livelihoods and wildlife conservation.
Prioritization of Crop Residues for Improving Productivity on Smallholder Dairy Farming Households in the Lake Victoria Crescent, Uganda  [PDF]
Andrew Mwebaze Atuhaire, Swidiq Mugerwa, Samuel Okello, Kenneth Okello Lapenga, Fred Kabi, Jolly Mary Kabirizi
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2014.42014
Abstract: Poor nutrition has been identified as a major constraint to productivity in smallholder dairy farming households in Uganda, particularly in Lake Victoria Crescent Agroecological Zone (LVZ). Clarification on nutritional potential of crop residues is central to formulation of sustainable dairy cattle nutrition strategies. Data were collected from 126 randomly selected respondents using structured and semi-structured questionnaires. Farmers’ responses on crop residues utilization, handling, limitations, spatial and temporal variability were collected. Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant differences on utilization of available crop residues (X2 = 50.4, df = 4, p = 0.0001) among farmer’s rankings. It was established that maize stovers were major crop residues utilized and inadequate knowledge to process crop residues was ranked as a major limitation. The study provided basic information on the importance of crop residues. Further research studies should focus on improving the nutritive value of maize stover.
Learning and Teaching College Algebra at University level: Challenges and Opportunities: A Case Study of USIU
Nadezha Pavlovna Okello
Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa , 2010,
Abstract: This study sets out to establish the reasons why many students had difficulty in solving mathematical problems. Questionnaires distributed to six hundred and fifty students undertaking College Algebra over a period of three semesters of my teaching College Algebra at USIU in 2007 yielded responses which confirmed that indeed most of the students had difficulty in mathematics and gave varied reasons why this was the case. Lack of persistence, determination and confidence in oneself were some of the reasons established as the main obstacles that hinder most students from enjoying an otherwise exciting and interesting course. Further analysis of the performance of every student right from his/her final mathematics results at school upto his/her final mathematics examination results at the Fall 2007 in College Algebra gave additional reasons, stated else where in this study, for their poor performance in College Algebra.
Socioeconomic and Environmental Risk Factors among Rheumatic Heart Disease Patients in Uganda
Emmy Okello, Barbara Kakande, Elias Sebatta, James Kayima, Monica Kuteesa, Boniface Mutatina, Wilson Nyakoojo, Peter Lwabi, Charles K. Mondo, Richard Odoi-Adome, Freers Juergen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043917
Abstract: Background Although low socioeconomic status, and environmental factors are known risk factors for rheumatic heart disease in other societies, risk factors for rheumatic heart disease remain less well described in Uganda. Aims and Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the role of socio-economic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of rheumatic heart disease in Ugandan patients. Methods This was a case control study in which rheumatic heart disease cases and normal controls aged 5–60 years were recruited and investigated for socioeconomic and environmental risk factors such as income status, employment status, distance from the nearest health centre, number of people per house and space area per person. Results 486 participants (243 cases and 243 controls) took part in the study. Average age was 32.37+/?14.6 years for cases and 35.75+/?12.6 years for controls. At univariate level, Cases tended to be more overcrowded than controls; 8.0+/?3.0 versus 6.0+/?3.0 persons per house. Controls were better spaced at 25.2 square feet versus 16.9 for cases. More controls than cases were employed; 45.3% versus 21.1%. Controls lived closer to health centers than the cases; 4.8+/?3.8 versus 3.3+/?12.9 kilometers. At multivariate level, the odds of rheumatic heart disease was 1.7 times higher for unemployment status (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.05–8.19) and 1.3 times higher for overcrowding (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.1–1.56). There was interaction between overcrowding and longer distance from the nearest health centre (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.05–1.42). Conclusion The major findings of this study were that there was a trend towards increased risk of rheumatic heart disease in association with overcrowding and unemployment. There was interaction between overcrowding and distance from the nearest health center, suggesting that the effect of overcrowding on the risk of acquiring rheumatic heart disease increases with every kilometer increase from the nearest health center.
Clinical and Radiographic Factors Do Not Accurately Diagnose Smear-Negative Tuberculosis in HIV-infected Inpatients in Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Study
J. Lucian Davis,William Worodria,Harriet Kisembo,John Z. Metcalfe,Adithya Cattamanchi,Michael Kawooya,Rachel Kyeyune,Saskia den Boon,Krista Powell,Richard Okello,Samuel Yoo,Laurence Huang
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009859
Abstract: Although World Health Organization guidelines recommend clinical judgment and chest radiography for diagnosing tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults with unexplained cough and negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli, the diagnostic performance of this approach is unknown. Therefore, we sought to assess the accuracy of symptoms, physical signs, and radiographic findings for diagnosing tuberculosis in this population in a low-income country with a high incidence of tuberculosis.
Human-Carnivore Conflicts in Private Conservancy Lands of Elerai and Oltiyiani in Amboseli Area, Kenya  [PDF]
Moses Makonjio Okello, John Warui Kiringe, Fiesta Warinwa
Natural Resources (NR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2014.58036
Human-carnivore conflicts represent the most common negative form of interactions between humans and wildlife. Most carnivores involved in such conflicts are: lion, hyena, leopard and cheetah. Three strategies are normally used in Kenya to mitigate such conflicts; consolation for lost livestock and human life to increase tolerance to them, use of predator proof homesteads especially among pastoralists, use flicking lights at night to discourage approach of carnivores near homesteads, and awareness creation among communities on the ecological role of carnivores. This study examined human-carnivore interactions in privately owned conservancies near Amboseli National Park, Kenya. The conservancies were found to have almost similar human and livestock demography. However, homesteads in Elerai had more fence broken parts and relatively higher levels of livestock predation by lion and hyena. The higher the number of each livestock type was, the higher the specific predation to that livestock type was, implying density dependent effects of predation by carnivores on livestock. It seemed that the fence structure and level of maintenance (including carnivore strategies on specializing on specific livestock size and age consistent with optimizing their foraging strategies) influenced predation incidences. However, the presence of adult males and Maasai warriors (morans) in bomas did not seem to be related with the number of livestock killed by carnivores, implying that they didn’t add vigilance as an additional strategy to prevent livestock depredation. It is recommended that attention be paid on maintenance of homestead and livestock fences as well as vigilance to deter predation. We further recommend strategies to prevent livestock predation such as, installation of chain link predator proof fences or carnivore lighting deterrents at night because woody plants fences are ineffective and deteriorate easily with time, and also lead to depletion of plant resources critical to households.
Endoscopic findings in upper gastrointestinal bleeding patients at Lacor hospital, northern Uganda
ON Alema, DO Martin, TR Okello
African Health Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a common emergency medical condition that may require hospitalization and resuscitation, and results in high patient morbidity. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the preferred investigative procedure for UGIB because of its accuracy, low rate of complication, and its potential for therapeutic interventions. Objective: To determine the endoscopic findings in patients presenting with UGIB and its frequency among these patients according to gender and age in Lacor hospital, northern Uganda. Methods: The study was carried out at Lacor hospital, located at northern part of Uganda. The record of 224 patients who underwent endoscopy for upper gastrointestinal bleeding over a period of 5 years between January 2006 and December 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: A total of 224 patients had endoscopy for UGIB which consisted of 113 (50.4%) males and 111 (49.6%) females, and the mean age was 42 years ± SD 15.88. The commonest cause of UGIB was esophagealvarices consisting of 40.6%, followed by esophagitis (14.7%), gastritis (12.6%) and peptic ulcer disease (duodenal and gastric ulcers) was 6.2%. The malignant conditions (gastric and esophageal cancers) contributed to 2.6%. Other less frequent causes of UGIB were hiatus hernia (1.8), duodenitis (0.9%), others-gastric polyp (0.4%). Normal endoscopic finding was 16.1% in patients who had UGIB Conclusions: Esophageal varices are the commonest cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in this environment as compared to the west which is mainly peptic ulcer disease.
Gender-based profiling of Quality of Life (QOL) of primary health care (PHC) attendees in central Uganda: a cross sectional analysis
WW Muhwezi, ES Okello, AK Turiho
African Health Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: To analyze gender differences in QOL of patients presenting at PHC centres and to identify the socio-demographic variables associated with poor QOL. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Consecutive adult patients at outpatient departments of three PHC centres were eligible. Those selected were interviewed using the WHOQOL-BREF, a 26-item questionnaire generating four domain scores of physical, psychological, environment and social relationships. Results: The study had 446 respondents aged 18-84 years. Female parents significantly performed poorly on the physical health domain (OR 2.47: 95 % CI: 1.32 - 4.61). Respondents reported comparable scores on the 3 WHOQOL-BREF domains, except on poor physical health where being a parent had a positive association (OR 2.12; 95% CI: 1.27 - 3.55). Belonging to an age-range of 18-29 years had a positive association with poor physical health (OR 1.74; 95% CI: 1.13 - 2.68). Conclusion: Generally, women reported poorer physical health. Health workers need orientation and training to appreciate the role of gender in health care. There is need to appreciate the complexities affecting QOL of women that are physically ill. Interventions aimed at improving patients' QOL at PHC centres should take a gender-based perspective that recognizes the greater vulnerability of women to poor physical health.
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