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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 216082 matches for " Richard N. Henson "
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A Parametric Empirical Bayesian Framework for the EEG/MEG Inverse Problem: Generative Models for Multi-Subject and Multi-Modal Integration
Richard N. Henson,Daniel G. Wakeman
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2011.00076
Abstract: We review recent methodological developments within a parametric empirical Bayesian (PEB) framework for reconstructing intracranial sources of extracranial electroencephalographic (EEG) and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data under linear Gaussian assumptions. The PEB framework offers a natural way to integrate multiple constraints (spatial priors) on this inverse problem, such as those derived from different modalities (e.g., from functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI) or from multiple replications (e.g., subjects). Using variations of the same basic generative model, we illustrate the application of PEB to three cases: (1) symmetric integration (fusion) of MEG and EEG; (2) asymmetric integration of MEG or EEG with fMRI, and (3) group-optimization of spatial priors across subjects. We evaluate these applications on multi-modal data acquired from 18 subjects, focusing on energy induced by face perception within a time–frequency window of 100–220 ms, 8–18 Hz. We show the benefits of multi-modal, multi-subject integration in terms of the model evidence and the reproducibility (over subjects) of cortical responses to faces.
Canonical Source Reconstruction for MEG
Jérémie Mattout,Richard N. Henson,Karl J. Friston
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience , 2007, DOI: 10.1155/2007/67613
Abstract: We describe a simple and efficient solution to the problem of reconstructing electromagnetic sources into a canonical or standard anatomical space. Its simplicity rests upon incorporating subject-specific anatomy into the forward model in a way that eschews the need for cortical surface extraction. The forward model starts with a canonical cortical mesh, defined in a standard stereotactic space. The mesh is warped, in a nonlinear fashion, to match the subject's anatomy. This warping is the inverse of the transformation derived from spatial normalization of the subject's structural MRI image, using fully automated procedures that have been established for other imaging modalities. Electromagnetic lead fields are computed using the warped mesh, in conjunction with a spherical head model (which does not rely on individual anatomy). The ensuing forward model is inverted using an empirical Bayesian scheme that we have described previously in several publications. Critically, because anatomical information enters the forward model, there is no need to spatially normalize the reconstructed source activity. In other words, each source, comprising the mesh, has a predetermined and unique anatomical attribution within standard stereotactic space. This enables the pooling of data from multiple subjects and the reporting of results in stereotactic coordinates. Furthermore, it allows the graceful fusion of fMRI and MEG data within the same anatomical framework.
Effects of the BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism and Met Allele Load on Declarative Memory Related Neural Networks
Chris M. Dodds, Richard N. Henson, John Suckling, Kamilla W. Miskowiak, Cinly Ooi, Roger Tait, Fruzsina Soltesz, Phil Lawrence, Graham Bentley, Kay Maltby, Andrew Skeggs, Sam R. Miller, Simon McHugh, Edward T. Bullmore, Pradeep J. Nathan
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074133
Abstract: It has been suggested that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism modulates episodic memory performance via effects on hippocampal neural circuitry. However, fMRI studies have yielded inconsistent results in this respect. Moreover, very few studies have examined the effect of met allele load on activation of memory circuitry. In the present study, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of the effects of the BDNF polymorphism on brain responses during episodic memory encoding and retrieval, including an investigation of the effect of met allele load on memory related activation in the medial temporal lobe. In contrast to previous studies, we found no evidence for an effect of BDNF genotype or met load during episodic memory encoding. Met allele carriers showed increased activation during successful retrieval in right hippocampus but this was contrast-specific and unaffected by met allele load. These results suggest that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism does not, as previously claimed, exert an observable effect on neural systems underlying encoding of new information into episodic memory but may exert a subtle effect on the efficiency with which such information can be retrieved.
Macroscopic non-contextuality as a principle for Almost Quantum Correlations
Joe Henson,Ana Belén Sainz
Mathematics , 2015, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.042114
Abstract: Quantum mechanics allows only certain sets of experimental results (or "probabilistic models") for Bell-type quantum non-locality experiments. A derivation of this set from simple physical or information theoretic principles would represent an important step forward in our understanding of quantum mechanics, and this problem has been intensely investigated in recent years. "Macroscopic locality," which requires the recovery of locality in the limit of large numbers of trials, is one of several principles discussed in the literature that place a bound on the set of quantum probabilistic models. A similar question can also be asked about probabilistic models for the more general class of quantum contextuality experiments. Here, we extend the Macroscopic Locality principle to this more general setting, using the hypergraph approach of Ac\'in, Fritz, Leverrier and Sainz [Comm. Math. Phys. 334(2), 533-628 (2015)], which provides a framework to study both phenomena of nonlocality and contextuality in a unified manner. We find that the set of probabilistic models allowed by our Macroscopic Non-Contextuality principle is equivalent to an important and previously studied set in this formalism, which is slightly larger than the quantum set. In the particular case of Bell Scenarios, this set is equivalent to the set of "Almost Quantum" models, which is of particular interest since the latter was recently shown to satisfy all but one of the principles that have been proposed to bound quantum probabilistic models, without being implied by any of them (or even their conjunction). Our condition is the first characterisation of the almost quantum set from a simple physical principle.
High-resolution genotyping and mapping of recombination and gene conversion in the protozoan Theileria parva using whole genome sequencing
Henson Sonal,Bishop Richard P,Morzaria Subhash,Spooner Paul R
BMC Genomics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-13-503
Abstract: Background Theileria parva is a tick-borne protozoan parasite, which causes East Coast Fever, a disease of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa. Like Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite undergoes a transient diploid life-cycle stage in the gut of the arthropod vector, which involves an obligate sexual cycle. As assessed using low-resolution VNTR markers, the crossover (CO) rate in T. parva is relatively high and has been reported to vary across different regions of the genome; non-crossovers (NCOs) and CO-associated gene conversions have not yet been characterised due to the lack of informative markers. To examine all recombination events at high marker resolution, we sequenced the haploid genomes of two parental strains, and two recombinant clones derived from ticks fed on cattle that had been simultaneously co-infected with two different parasite isolates. Results By comparing the genome sequences, we were able to genotype over 64 thousand SNP markers with an average spacing of 127 bp in the two progeny clones. Previously unrecognized COs in sub-telomeric regions were detected. About 50% of CO breakpoints were accompanied by gene conversion events. Such a high fraction of COs accompanied by gene conversions demonstrated the contributions of meiotic recombination to the diversity and evolutionary success of T. parva, as the process not only redistributed existing genetic variations, but also altered allelic frequencies. Compared to COs, NCOs were more frequently observed and more uniformly distributed across the genome. In both progeny clones, genomic regions with more SNP markers had a reduced frequency of COs or NCOs, suggesting that the sequence divergence between the parental strains was high enough to adversely affect recombination frequencies. Intra-species polymorphism analysis identified 81 loci as likely to be under selection in the sequenced genomes. Conclusions Using whole genome sequencing of two recombinant clones and their parents, we generated maps of COs, NCOs, and CO-associated gene conversion events for T. parva. The data comprises one of the highest-resolution genome-wide analyses of the multiple outcomes of meiotic recombination for this pathogen. The study also demonstrates the usefulness of high throughput sequencing typing for detailed analysis of recombination in organisms in which conventional genetic analysis is technically difficult.
Long-term polarization observations of Mira variable stars suggest asymmetric structures
Hilding R. Neilson,Richard Ignace,Gary D. Henson
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1017/S1743921313015068
Abstract: Mira and semi-regular variable stars have been studied for centuries but continue to be enigmatic. One unsolved mystery is the presence of polarization from these stars. In particular, we present 40 years of polarization measurements for the prototype o Ceti and V CVn and find very different phenomena for each star. The polarization fraction and position angle for Mira is found to be small and highly variable. On the other hand, the polarization fraction for V CVn is large and variable, from 2 - 7 %, and its position angle is approximately constant, suggesting a long-term asymmetric structure. We suggest a number of potential scenarios to explain these observations.
Buffer standards for the physiological pH of the zwitterionic buffer 3-[N-tris(hydroxymethyl)methylamino]-2-hydroxypropanesulfonic Acid (TAPSO) From (278.15 to 328.15) K  [PDF]
Lakshmi N. Roy, Rabindra N. Roy, Blake M. Bodendorfer, Zachary M. Downs, Stephen D. Rocchio, Jessica M. Stegner, Isaac B. Henson
Journal of Biophysical Chemistry (JBPC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jbpc.2011.24048
Abstract: The second dissociation constant, pK2, and related thermodynamic quantities for TAPSO have been previously determined and reported from the temperatures (278.15 to 328.15) K. In the current study there are five buffer solutions without NaCl and five buffer solutions with NaCl present which yield an ionic strength (I = 0.16 mol·kg-1) similar to that of blood plasma. These buffer solutions have been evaluated in the temperature range of (278.15 to 328.15) K using the extended Debye-Hückel equation, due to the limitations of the Bates-Guggenheim convention such that it is only valid when I < 0.1 mol·kg-1. The liquid junction potential (Ej) values between the TAPSO solution and the saturated KCl calomel electrode solution have been estimated at (298.15 and 310.15) K using a flowing junction cell measurement. The previously mentioned Ej values have been used in determining the operational pH values at (298.15 and 310.15) K. These TAPSO buffer solutions are recommended as reference solutions for pH measurements in saline media with an ionic strength of I = 0.16 mol·kg-1.
Buffer Standards for Physiological pH of the Buffer N-(2-Acetamido)-2-aminoethanesulfonic Acid from 5°C to 55°C  [PDF]
Zachary M. Downs, Blake M. Bodendorfer, Isaac B. Henson, Lakshmi N. Roy, Rabindra N. Roy, Jaime A. Veliz, Joshua T. Wollen, Jessica M. Stegner
Open Journal of Physical Chemistry (OJPC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojpc.2011.13016
Abstract: Electromotive force (emf) measurements of the Cell Pt(s), H2(g)|ACES(m1) + NaACES(m2) + NaCl (m3)| AgCl, Ag(s) have been carried out from 5°C to 55°C . The agreement of pH values between two calculated (extended Debye-Hückel and liquid junction correction) is very good. Two buffer solutions without the chloride ion and seven buffer solutions with NaCl, at an ionic strength (I = 0.16 mol.kg-1) similar to that of physiological fluids, have been studied. The pH values for these buffer solutions have been evaluated in the temperature range of 5°C to 55°C using the extended Debye-Hückel equation of the Bates-Guggenheim convention. Values of the residual liquid junction potential (δEj) between the ACES solutions and the saturated KCl calomel electrode solution have been estimated at 25°C and 37°C from the previously determined Ej values using the flowing junction cell to determine the operational pH values at 25°C and 37°C. These ACES buffer solutions are recommended as secondary standard reference solutions for pH measurements in the range of physiological applicati on at I = 0.16 mol.kg-1.
Calculation of the pH of Buffer Solution of 2-[N -Morpholino]ethanesulfonic Acid (MES) from 5°C to 55°C  [PDF]
Blake M. Bodendorfer, Meagan A. Harmon, Isaac B. Henson, Lakshmi N. Roy, Rabindra N. Roy, Jessica M. Stegner, Michael S. Martin, Joshua T. Wollen
Open Journal of Physical Chemistry (OJPC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojpc.2011.13011
Abstract: This paper reports the results for the pH of three buffer solutions free of chloride ion. The remaining six buffer solutions have saline media of the ionic strength I = 0.16 mol.kg-1, matching closely to that of the physiological sample. Conventional paH values for the three buffer solutions without the chloride ion and six buffer solutions with the chloride ion at I = 0.16 mol.kg-1 from 5°C to 55°C have been calculated. The operational pH values for five buffer solutions at 5°C and 55°C have been determined based on the difference in the values of the liquid junction potentials between the blood phosphate standard and the experimental buffer solutions. Five of these buffers are recommended as standards for the physiological pH range 7.5 to 8.5.
Evidence of a Mira-like tail and bow shock about the semi-regular variable V CVn from four decades of polarization measurements
Hilding R. Neilson,Richard Ignace,Beverly J. Smith,Gary Henson,Alyssa M. Adams
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201424037
Abstract: Polarization is a powerful tool for understanding stellar atmospheres and circumstellar environments. Mira and semi-regular variable stars have been observed for decades and some are known to be polarimetrically variable, however, the semi-regular variable V Canes Venatici displays an unusually large, unexplained amount of polarization. We present ten years of optical polarization observations obtained with the HPOL instrument, supplemented by published observations spanning a total interval of about forty years for V CVn. We find that V CVn shows large polarization variations ranging from 1 - 6%. We also find that for the past forty years the position angle measured for V CVn has been virtually constant suggesting a long-term, stable, asymmetric structure about the star. We suggest that this asymmetry is caused by the presence of a stellar wind bow shock and tail, consistent with the star's large space velocity.
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