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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 19180 matches for " Richard Muko OCHANDA "
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Faith Organizations and Social Economic Welfare in Kenya
Richard Muko OCHANDA
Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie Multidimensionala , 2012,
Abstract: This study contributes to the discourse on religion and development by studying the contribution of the faith organizations to socio-economic welfare in Kenya.The studystarts by exploring the history of Christian and Muslim religions in Kenya including their historicalpros and cons. It thenanalyses government datain the light of the contribution of faith actors in education and health in the country deposited at the Kenya Open Data project. Lastly, it presents case analyses of the works of the major umbrella religious organizations in Kenya.The study found that religious actors have contributed in significant ways to Kenya’s development despite the scourge of slavery and ultimate colonization. One major contribution was the promotion and development of Swahililanguage which enabled communication amongst different ethnic communities.Swahili language also became a medium which enabled education and trade to take place. Secondly religious actors have contributed immensely in the education, health and agriculture sectors. These actorshave also helped in tackling social exclusion of vulnerable populations, infrastructure building and also in promoting peaceful co-existence.This study attempts to demonstrate that religious actors are silent development actors complimenting government efforts whose work traverses all spheres of the economy.
Effectiveness of Street Youth Integration in East Africa
Richard Muko OCHANDA,Berhannu GEBREMICHAEL,Herbert WAMALWA
Postmodern Openings , 2011,
Abstract: Youth unemployment in Africa challenges governments and development partners alike. This problem is hard to tackle because of the lack of reliable data and related analysis on scale, distribution and complexity of employment, unemployment and livelihood situation as well as effective policies, programmes and approaches for young women and men. Vulnerable groups of youth such as those on the Streets are worst hit by this problem. This study examines the effectiveness of East African institutions in intervening to assist street youth get integrated into the society through acquisition of adequate employment skills or entrepreneurial skills. The study uses a set of data collected by Koinonia Advisory Research and Development Service (KARDS), a community development consultancy in Nairobi, Kenya. The data was collected in 2007 and in 2010. This data is based on the work-activities of street children projects in Nairobi for 122 street children institutions.It was found out that most institutions disengage the children once they become young adults, leaving them to find jobs and to fend for themselves. Unfortunately, by the time the former street youth are disengaged from institutional benefits they may not have adequate skills for competitiveness in the job markets. This fact underscores the fact that the rehabilitation programmes have less abilities toimpart adequate community and societal integration skills to the former street youth. There is therefore a need to develop other interventions such as work integration social enterprises (WISE) that would assist the young adults to become independent while helping them deal with barriers inhibiting their competitiveness, ability to get employed, become entrepreneurial and ultimately be able to reintegrate effectively back into the society.
Human Rights in the Context of Deepening Integration of East African Community (EAC)
Richard MUKO OCHANDA,Paul KISOLO WAKINYA,William OMONDI ODIPO
Postmodern Openings , 2013,
Abstract: This study contributes to the discourse on the process of political integration by studying East African Community (EAC)’s integration efforts in the light of Human Rights Based Approach (HBRA). Data used has been assembled from various sources such as media reports, EAC documents and country statistical reports from various institutions such as bureaus of statistics, UNDP, UNAIDS, World Bank, Freedom House and Transparency International. This study has been on-going from 2008 to 2012. The study found that various structures have been created to aid the deepening integration efforts in East Africa. With the exception of human rights, the EAC treaty stipulates eleven areas of collaboration. It was also found that Tanzania scores better than other countries on political and civil liberties, while Human Welfare Indicators were a challenge in the entire EAC. The Gini index scores were high and worsening in some countries over time, indicating the presence of distributive injustices.Other areas of concern comprised media control, gender based challenges, harassment of opposition and poor protection of minorities and vulnerable populations. Four countries of the region are part of the Africa Peer Review Mechanism (APRM)process. The APRM as a process is meant to promote good governance and presents an opportunity for bettering human rights in the region.The study ends by recommending the mainstreaming of Human Rights Based Approach (HBRA) through the formation of East African Human Rights Commission (EAHRC) within EAC structures.
Effect of Spices on Consumer Acceptability of Purple Tea (Camellia sinensis)  [PDF]
Simon O. Ochanda, John K. Wanyoko, Henrik K. Ruto
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.68073
Abstract: Spices have been used by consumers worldwide to improve flavours of food including tea. A study was done to determine the effect of selected spices on consumer acceptability of spiced purple tea, their antioxidant properties and economic impact. TRFK 306 (purple tea Variety) was used. Flavored teas were developed by blending the un-aerated purple tea with selected spices including ginger, lemon grass, nutmeg, cinnamon, tea masala (spice mix), and rosemary at different ratios and resulting products brewed and assessed by a sensory panel. Antioxidant activity, catechin analysis and sensory evaluation were done and results showed that all the spices had low antioxidant activities as compared to un-aerated tea from TRFK 306. Cinnamon had an antioxidant capacity of 89.89%, ginger 69.23%, rosemary 89.47%, tea masala 55.79%, nutmeg 46.99% and Purple tea (TRFK 306) 92.53%. Spices had a positive effect on consumer acceptability of purple tea at various threshold ranges. The three best rated spices included cinnamon at 10%, lemongrass at 10% and nutmeg at 25% with mean values of 6.88, 6.24 and 6.92 respectively on a hedonic scale. The results showed that some spices are preferred more with tea than others and some have lower threshold detection values than others. Overall, addition of suitable spices to the purple tea led to an increase acceptability of tea. Economic evaluation of purple tea blended with nutmeg showed a significant increase in cost, from Ksh 56.00, Ksh 58.07 and Ksh 61.17 for 0%, 10% and 25% spice to tea ratio respectively.
Extraction and Quantification of Total Polyphenol Content in Different Parts of Selected Tea Cultivars  [PDF]
Simon Oduor Ochanda, Abdul Kiptoo Faraj, John Kanyiri Wanyoko, Christine Akoth Onyango, Henrik Kipngeno Ruto
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.69158
Abstract: Tea (Cammelia sinensis) is the most widely consumed beverage in the world and has been reported to have unlimited health benefits due to its antioxidant properties. There is a high correlation between polyphenol compounds with antioxidant properties. Tea leaves are a major source of polyphenols. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the approximate level of polyphenols in different other parts of the tea plant to give comparative data on obtaining extracts that can be used to design products through value addition to assist in the prevention of diseases associated with oxidative stress. Twenty-one selected region specific tea varieties were used to obtain roots, flowers, leaves and barks. Leaves were prepared by microwaving and the remaining portions processed as green non-aerated teas and black aerated tea. Roots, barks, flowers were sun-dried and milled. Total polyphenol content was determined by calorimetric method using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The obtained results suggest that different parts of tea plant have varying numbers of total polyphenols with microwaved leaves having mean levels at 23.1%, steamed leaves (non-aerated green tea) at 22.37%, aerated leaves at 15.51%, barks at 14.92%, flowers at 10.62% and roots at 1.48%.
Improved seedling emergence and growth of maize and beans by Trichoderma harziunum
Okoth, Sheila A.;Otadoh, Jane A.;Ochanda, James O;
Tropical and subtropical agroecosystems , 2011,
Abstract: an indigenous strain of trichoderma spp. was tested for its ability to promote seed germination and growth of maize and bean seedlings grown in the field at embu district, kenya. the trial was carried out for three seasons with the following treatments; two types of fertilizers, cow manure, and trichoderma seed coat. seedlings were counted 14 days after emergence from soil and a sample gently uprooted using a spade. shoot height, root length, stem and root diameter measurements were taken. trichoderma inoculation significantly increased rate of maize seed germination but had no effect on emergence of bean seedlings. maize seeds coated with trichoderma inoculum and planted on soils without fertilizer addition recorded the highest germination rate of 82.7% followed by seeds coated with the inoculum and planted in soils treated with manure (82.2%). combination of the inoculum and fertilizer performed better at improving maize seed germination compared with fertilizers applied singly. this was the case for shoot and root growth. seeds coated with the inoculum and planted in soils ammended with triple superphosphate and calcium ammonium nitrate recorded the greatest shoot and root growth in both maize and beans. increased growth of shoot and root caused by trichoderma implied that there was beneficial effect of inoculation on plant growth and development since root collar and stem diameters were a measure of survivability of seedlings.
The effect of vaccinating S. mansoni–infected BALB/c mice either before or after treatment
Dorcas S Yole, Vincent O Obanda, Kiio Kithome, Horance Ochanda
African Journal of Health Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: In Schistosoma mansoni endemic areas, there are people with ongoing S. mansoni infection, others have been infected and treated while others have never been infected. What would happen if these different groups of people were vaccinated against S. mansoni? BALB/c mice were divided into five groups: Infected-Treated-Vaccinated; Infected-Vaccinated-Treated; Vaccinated-Treated Control; Challenge Control and Untreated challenge Control. Vaccination (500 20krad irradiated S. mansoni cercariae), Treatment (praziquantel), Infection and Challenge (150 S. mansoni cercariae) were carried out at specified times. Proliferation assay, Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, gross pathology, histopathology and perfusion were performed. High protection levels were obtained in mice treated after vaccination: Vaccinated-Treated control, 96.5%; Infected-Vaccinated-Treated, 68.9%; and Infected-Treated-Vaccinated, 41%. A good correlation was obtained between proliferative responses and protective levels, implying cellular involvement in protection. Although all protected animals had high IgG levels, there was no strong correlation between the two. Specificity rather than amounts of IgG, seem more important in protection. Praziquantel seemed to boost protective immunity when administered after vaccination. Granuloma development and modulation in the two test groups was similar. It seems better to vaccinate infected patients before treatment, the ideal situation being vaccinating people who have not encountered S. mansoni. African Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 12(3-4) 2005: 65-77
The effect of vaccinating S. mansoni–infected BALB/c mice either before or after treatment
DS Yole, VO Obanda, K Kithome, H Ochanda
African Journal of Health Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: In Schistosoma mansoni endemic areas, there are people with ongoing S. mansoni infection, others have been infected and treated while others have never been infected. What would happen if these different groups of people were vaccinated against S. mansoni? BALB/c mice were divided into five groups: Infected-Treated-Vaccinated; Infected-Vaccinated-Treated; Vaccinated-Treated Control; Challenge Control and Untreated challenge Control. Vaccination (500 20krad irradiated S. mansoni cercariae), Treatment (praziquantel), Infection and Challenge (150 S. mansoni cercariae) were carried out at specified times. Proliferation assay, Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, gross pathology, histopathology and perfusion were performed. High protection levels were obtained in mice treated after vaccination: Vaccinated-Treated control, 96.5%; Infected-Vaccinated-Treated, 68.9%; and Infected-Treated-Vaccinated, 41%. A good correlation was obtained between proliferative responses and protective levels, implying cellular involvement in protection. Although all protected animals had high IgG levels, there was no strong correlation between the two. Specificity rather than amounts of IgG, seem more important in protection. Praziquantel seemed to boost protective immunity when administered after vaccination. Granuloma development and modulation in the two test groups was similar. It seems better to vaccinate infected patients before treatment, the ideal situation being vaccinating people who have not encountered S. mansoni. African Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 13 (1-2) 2008: pp. 55-68
Preventing mother-to-child transmission: factors affecting mothers\' choice of feeding — a case study from Cameroon
K N Muko, G K Tchangwe, V C Ngwa, L Njoya
SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance) , 2004,
Abstract: This paper reports on factors influencing the decision of mothers regarding the type of feeding method for their babies in a rural setting in Cameroon. The aim of the study was to ascertain the proportion of mothers choosing the different methods of feeding, to determine the various factors influencing their choices, and to ascertain the relationships of these factors to their respective choices. Questionnaires were used on 108 HIV-positive mothers who had delivered babies and who were administered nevirapine at least 3 months prior to the study. A focus group discussion with mothers also took place. Findings were that more mothers (84%) chose breastfeeding than artificial feeding (16%), while a minority (4%) selected mixed feeding. Factors found to militate against artificial feeding were cost (69%), stigma (64%), family pressure (44%), inconvenience in preparation/administration (38%), prior education from health workers (23%), and loss of special attention from family (8%). On the other hand, advice of health worker (44%), ill health (19.5%), free milk (12.5%), job pressure (12.5%) and loss of beauty (12.5%) were found to militate against breastfeeding. A direct relationship was also found between age, educational level, income size, marital status and choice of feeding. Policies targeting stigma reduction and socio-cultural factors affecting the choice of feeding are needed to optimise uptake of the less risky methods of feeding which could in turn contribute to a reduction in transmission.
Willingness to pay for treatment with highly active antiretroviral (HAART) drugs: a rural case study in Cameroon
K N Muko, V C Ngwa, L Chigang, I G Ngwa, A Meiburg, E N Shu
SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance) , 2004,
Abstract: This paper reports on the willingness of HIV/AIDS patients to pay for the most affordable triple therapy combination of antiretrovirals in a local setting in Cameroon. Questionnaires were used to evaluate willingness to pay, and patients who could still afford their medication 6 months after the survey were also investigated, to give an indication of actual ability to pay. In addition, oral interviews were carried out for clarification. In all, 84 patients out of a total of 186 were involved in the study. Results indicated that more men (39%) were willing to pay than women (22%), although more women (56%) were afflicted than men.Willingness to pay was directly dependent on cost with 69%, 22% and 9% of respondents indicating willingness to pay $1, $2 and $3 a day respectively. After 6 months of treatment, 22% of patients were still on therapy. A majority of patients stopped taking the drugs after 6 months due to financial constraints. Apart from cost, stigma, disbelief and side-effects of medication were found to be the main factors militating against willingness to pay. Improved counselling and provision of information, reduced cost of drugs including laboratory tests, and destigmatisation programmes are recommended to improve patients' ability to pay for antiretrovirals. SAHARA-J (2004) 1(2): 107-113
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