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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 417186 matches for " Richard M. Novak "
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In vivo evaluation of an experimental root-end filling material versus MTA  [PDF]
Paul D. Eleazer, S. Craig Rhodes, David M. Horn, Patricia DeVilliers, Shi Wei, Lea Novak, Erik D. Dohm, Richard A. Weems, Mark S. Litaker
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2013.33A003
Abstract: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been found to be very biocompatible in a large number of studies. However, the handling properties can be challenging and research on modified materials to enhance placement are few. The purpose of this study is to compare a new faster setting, and more easily placed preparation with classic MTA in an animal model. Canine premolar teeth from two dogs were randomized and received quadrant surgery timed to allow 50 day and 98 day comparisons. Histologic and radiographic comparisons were made. Results were essentially equal in healing, even close to the materials.
Unbiased Proteomics Analysis Demonstrates Significant Variability in Mucosal Immune Factor Expression Depending on the Site and Method of Collection
Kenzie M. Birse, Adam Burgener, Garrett R. Westmacott, Stuart McCorrister, Richard M. Novak, T. Blake Ball
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079505
Abstract: Female genital tract secretions are commonly sampled by lavage of the ectocervix and vaginal vault or via a sponge inserted into the endocervix for evaluating inflammation status and immune factors critical for HIV microbicide and vaccine studies. This study uses a proteomics approach to comprehensively compare the efficacy of these methods, which sample from different compartments of the female genital tract, for the collection of immune factors. Matching sponge and lavage samples were collected from 10 healthy women and were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. Data was analyzed by a combination of differential protein expression analysis, hierarchical clustering and pathway analysis. Of the 385 proteins identified, endocervical sponge samples collected nearly twice as many unique proteins as cervicovaginal lavage (111 vs. 61) with 55% of proteins common to both (213). Each method/site identified 73 unique proteins that have roles in host immunity according to their gene ontology. Sponge samples enriched for specific inflammation pathways including acute phase response proteins (p = 3.37×10?24) and LXR/RXR immune activation pathways (p = 8.82×10?22) while the role IL-17A in psoriasis pathway (p = 5.98×10?4) and the complement system pathway (p = 3.91×10?3) were enriched in lavage samples. Many host defense factors were differentially enriched (p<0.05) between sites including known/potential antimicrobial factors (n = 21), S100 proteins (n = 9), and immune regulatory factors such as serpins (n = 7). Immunoglobulins (n = 6) were collected at comparable levels in abundance in each site although 25% of those identified were unique to sponge samples. This study demonstrates significant differences in types and quantities of immune factors and inflammation pathways collected by each sampling technique. Therefore, clinical studies that measure mucosal immune activation or factors assessing HIV transmission should utilize both collection methods to obtain the greatest representation of immune factors secreted into the female genital tract.
Murine Leukemia Virus Spreading in Mice Impaired in the Biogenesis of Secretory Lysosomes and Ca2+-Regulated Exocytosis
Wai-Tsing Chan, Nathan M. Sherer, Pradeep D. Uchil, Edward K. Novak, Richard T. Swank, Walther Mothes
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002713
Abstract: Background Retroviruses have been observed to bud intracellularly into multivesicular bodies (MVB), in addition to the plasma membrane. Release from MVB is thought to occur by Ca2+-regulated fusion with the plasma membrane. Principal Findings To address the role of the MVB pathway in replication of the murine leukemia virus (MLV) we took advantage of mouse models for the Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) and Griscelli syndrome. In humans, these disorders are characterized by hypopigmentation and immunological alterations that are caused by defects in the biogenesis and trafficking of MVBs and other lysosome related organelles. Neonatal mice for these disease models lacking functional AP-3, Rab27A and BLOC factors were infected with Moloney MLV and the spread of virus into bone marrow, spleen and thymus was monitored. We found a moderate reduction in MLV infection levels in most mutant mice, which differed by less than two-fold compared to wild-type mice. In vitro, MLV release form bone-marrow derived macrophages was slightly enhanced. Finally, we found no evidence for a Ca2+-regulated release pathway in vitro. Furthermore, MLV replication was only moderately affected in mice lacking Synaptotagmin VII, a Ca2+-sensor regulating lysosome fusion with the plasma membrane. Conclusions Given that MLV spreading in mice depends on multiple rounds of replication even moderate reduction of virus release at the cellular level would accumulate and lead to a significant effect over time. Thus our in vivo and in vitro data collectively argue against an essential role for a MVB- and secretory lysosome-mediated pathway in the egress of MLV.
Trends in Decline of Antiretroviral Resistance among ARV-Experienced Patients in the HIV Outpatient Study: 1999–2008
Kate Buchacz,Rose Baker,Douglas J. Ward,Frank J. Palella,Joan S. Chmiel,Benjamin Young,Bienvenido G. Yangco,Richard M. Novak,John T. Brooks
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/230290
Abstract: Background. Little is known about temporal trends in frequencies of clinically relevant ARV resistance mutations in HIV strains from U.S. patients undergoing genotypic testing (GT) in routine HIV care. Methods. We analyzed cumulative frequency of HIV resistance among patients in the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) who, during 1999–2008 and while prescribed antiretrovirals, underwent GT with plasma HIV RNA >1,000 copies/mL. Exposure ≥4 months to each of three major antiretroviral classes (NRTI, NNRTI and PI) was defined as triple-class exposure (TCE). Results. 906 patients contributed 1,570 GT results. The annual frequency of any major resistance mutations decreased during 1999–2008 (88% to 79%, ). Resistance to PIs decreased among PI-exposed patients (71% to 46%, ) as exposure to ritonavir-boosted PIs increased (6% to 81%, ). Non-significant declines were observed in resistance to NRTIs among NRTI-exposed (82% to 67%), and triple-class-resistance among TCE patients (66% to 41%), but not to NNRTIs among NNRTI-exposed. Conclusions. HIV resistance was common but declined in HIV isolates from subgroups of ARV-experienced HOPS patients during 1999–2008. Resistance to PIs among PI-exposed patients decreased, possibly due to increased representation of patients whose only PI exposures were to boosted PIs. 1. Introduction Highly active combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has significantly improved survival and reduced the rates of AIDS-related complications among HIV-infected persons [1–3]. Emergence of HIV variants with reduced susceptibility to antiretroviral (ARV) medications can significantly limit the effectiveness and durability of treatment [3–8]. Use of ARV resistance testing to optimize cART selection has been associated with better virologic and clinical outcomes [9–11] and improved survival [12], and resistance testing is now generally recommended in the clinical management of HIV infection [13–15]. We have previously shown that use of genotypic and phenotypic testing increased in the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) during 1999–2006 and that the likelihood of testing varied by HIV disease severity and demographic characteristics [16]. Recent European and Canadian studies have suggested that both the prevalence [17, 18] and incidence [19, 20] of ARV resistance among HIV-infected persons have declined, due predominately to a decrease in the proportion of patients with pre-cART mono- or dual-ARV experience, and the increasing use and effectiveness of more tolerable and potent cART regimens that appear less likely to result in resistance mutations [18–22].
Mn3+-rich andalusite to kanonaite and their breakdown products from metamanganolite at Kojetice near Trebic, the Moldanubian Zone, Czech Republic
Novak M,Skoda R
Journal of Geosciences , 2007, DOI: 10.3190/jgeosci.003
Abstract: A zoned Mn3+-rich andalusite to kanonaite occurs as shortly prismatic, black-green crystals, up to 2 mm in size, randomly distributed in quartz matrix of quartzitic rock with metamanganolite portions from Kojetice near Trebic. Minor spessartine, braunite, K-feldspar, albite, hyalophane, rare paragonite and accessory magnetite-rutile intergrowths, tephroite, chernovite-(Y), monazite-(Ce), pyrophanite, Sb-rich rutile, cobaltite, pseudobrookite(?) and pale pink flakes of late muscovite were identified in this rock. Zoned subhedral grains of Mn3+-rich andalusite to kanonaite have strong pleochroism: X = yellow, Y = green, Z = deep green, when narrow Mn3+-enriched rims feature slightly more intensive colors. Electron microprobe study shows that the core has always lower contents of Mn2O3 relative to commonly narrow rim of kanonaite. Chemical composition varies from Mn3+-rich andalusite with 0.21 apfu Mn3+ (9.72 wt. % Mn2O3) to kanonaite with up to 0.60 apfu Mn3+ (26.09 wt. % Mn2O3). Minor amount of Fe2O3 from 0.07 to 0.14 apfu Fe3+ apfu (6.12 wt. % Fe2O3) is typical. In thin sections, subhedral grains of Mn3+-rich andalusite to kanonaite are enclosed in massive quartz and locally overgrown or replaced by spessartine plus albite/paragonite and later replaced by muscovite. No difference in degree of muscovitization was observed between Mn3+-rich andalusite and kanonaite. In particular, the abundance of feldspars as well as the total absence of Al2SiO5 minerals and the presence of some rare accessory minerals in Kojetice are different from the other localities of Mn3+-rich andalusite and kanonaite. The presence of K-feldspar may suggest higher temperature relative to the other mostly low- to medium-grade kanonaite-bearing metamorphic rocks. The following mineral reactions are indicated from textural relations: 3 Mn3+-rich andalusite (kanonaite) + Na+ + 3 quartz = spessartine + albite/paragonite, and 3 Mn3+-rich andalusite (kanonaite) + K+ + H2O = muscovite + 3 Mn. The newly formed spessartine requires a decrease in fO2, which is also indicated by the presence of accessory tephroite. This is in contrast to the other localities of Mn3+-rich andalusite to kanonaite described to date, where increasing fO2 during replacement of these minerals is typical.
The Intellectual
John M. Novak
Brock Education : a Journal of Educational Research and Practice , 2005,
Abstract: Book jackets sometimes provide insightful provocation about the content and flavour of a text. Certainly the designers of the front jacket for Steve Fuller’s The Intellectual intended to be provocative when they placed the words, “the positive power of negative thinking,” at the top centre.
The Magnetic Field Morphology of the Class 0 Protostar L1157-mm
Ian W. Stephens,Leslie W. Looney,Woojin Kwon,Charles L. H. Hull,Richard L. Plambeck,Richard M. Crutcher,Nicholas Chapman,Giles Novak,Jacqueline Davidson,John E. Vaillancourt,Hiroko Shinnaga,Tristan Matthews
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/769/1/L15
Abstract: We present the first detection of polarization around the Class 0 low-mass protostar L1157-mm at two different wavelengths. We show polarimetric maps at large scales (10" resolution at 350 um) from the SHARC-II Polarimeter and at smaller scales (1.2"-4.5" at 1.3 mm) from the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). The observations are consistent with each other and show inferred magnetic field lines aligned with the outflow. The CARMA observations suggest a full hourglass magnetic field morphology centered about the core; this is only the second well-defined hourglass detected around a low-mass protostar to date. We apply two different methods to CARMA polarimetric observations to estimate the plane-of-sky magnetic field magnitude, finding values of 1.4 and 3.4 mG.
Host choice and multiple blood feeding behaviour of malaria vectors and other anophelines in Mwea rice scheme, Kenya
Simon M Muriu, Ephantus J Muturi, Josephat I Shililu, Charles M Mbogo, Joseph M Mwangangi, Benjamin G Jacob, Lucy W Irungu, Richard W Mukabana, John I Githure, Robert J Novak
Malaria Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-7-43
Abstract: Samples were collected indoors by pyrethrum spay catch and outdoors by Centers for Disease Control light traps and processed for blood meal analysis by an Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay.A total of 3,333 blood-fed Anopheles mosquitoes representing four Anopheles species were collected and 2,796 of the samples were assayed, with Anopheles arabiensis comprising 76.2% (n = 2,542) followed in decreasing order by Anopheles coustani 8.9% (n = 297), Anopheles pharoensis 8.2% (n = 272) and Anopheles funestus 6.7% (n = 222). All mosquito species had a high preference for bovine (range 56.3–71.4%) over human (range 1.1–23.9%) or goat (0.1–2.2%) blood meals. Some individuals from all the four species were found to contain mixed blood meals. The bovine blood index (BBI) for An. arabiensis was significantly higher for populations collected indoors (71.8%), than populations collected outdoors (41.3%), but the human blood index (HBI) did not differ significantly between the two populations. In contrast, BBI for indoor collected An. funestus (51.4%) was significantly lower than for outdoor collected populations (78.0%) and the HBI was significantly higher indoors (28.7%) than outdoors (2.4%). Anthropophily of An. funestus was lowest within the rice scheme, moderate in unplanned rice agro-ecosystem, and highest within the non-irrigated agro-ecosystem. Anthropophily of An. arabiensis was significantly higher in the non-irrigated agro-ecosystem than in the other agro-ecosystems.These findings suggest that rice cultivation has an effect on host choice by Anopheles mosquitoes. The study further indicate that zooprophylaxis may be a potential strategy for malaria control, but there is need to assess how domestic animals may influence arboviruses epidemiology before adapting the strategy.Anopheles mosquitoes are important vectors of malaria and several arboviruses. Although more than 500 species of Anopheles have been described, only less than one third are considered vectors, and one o
Age-Associated Changes in Monocyte and Innate Immune Activation Markers Occur More Rapidly in HIV Infected Women
Genevieve E. Martin, Maelenn Gouillou, Anna C. Hearps, Thomas A. Angelovich, Allen C. Cheng, Fiona Lynch, Wan-Jung Cheng, Geza Paukovics, Clovis S. Palmer, Richard M. Novak, Anthony Jaworowski, Alan L. Landay, Suzanne M. Crowe
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055279
Abstract: Background Aging is associated with immune dysfunction and the related development of conditions with an inflammatory pathogenesis. Some of these immune changes are also observed in HIV infection, but the interaction between immune changes with aging and HIV infection are unknown. Whilst sex differences in innate immunity are recognized, little research into innate immune aging has been performed on women. Methods This cross-sectional study of HIV positive and negative women used whole blood flow cytometric analysis to characterize monocyte and CD8+ T cell subsets. Plasma markers of innate immune activation were measured using standard ELISA-based assays. Results HIV positive women exhibited elevated plasma levels of the innate immune activation markers CXCL10 (p<0.001), soluble CD163 (sCD163, p = 0.001), sCD14 (p = 0.022), neopterin (p = 0.029) and an increased proportion of CD16+ monocytes (p = 0.009) compared to uninfected controls. Levels of the innate immune aging biomarkers sCD163 and the proportion of CD16+ monocytes were equivalent to those observed in HIV negative women aged 14.5 and 10.6 years older, respectively. CXCL10 increased with age at an accelerated rate in HIV positive women (p = 0.002) suggesting a synergistic effect between HIV and aging on innate immune activation. Multivariable modeling indicated that age-related increases in innate immune biomarkers CXCL10 and sCD163 are independent of senescent changes in CD8+ T lymphocytes. Conclusions Quantifying the impact of HIV on immune aging reveals that HIV infection in women confers the equivalent of a 10–14 year increase in the levels of innate immune aging markers. These changes may contribute to the increased risk of inflammatory age-related diseases in HIV positive women.
Palaeodemographic and palaeopathological characteristics of individuals buried in three Bronze Age sites from southern Croatia
M. Novak,V. Vyroubal,?. Bedi?
Bulletin of the International Association for Paleodontology , 2011,
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to reconstruct paleodemographic and paleopathological characteristics of sixteen individuals (three subadults, seven males and six females) buried in three Bronze Age sites (Crip, Matkovi i, and Veliki Vanik) located in southern Croatia. The analysed sample is characterised by the presence of pathological changes which are often associated with stressful episodes such as anaemia, inadequate nutrition, infectious diseases and the occurrence of parasites. Cribra orbitalia, dental enamel hypoplasia, porotic hyperostosis and periostitis were observed in seven out of sixteen analysed skeletons. One ulnar “parry” fracture and three fractures of the frontal bone strongly suggest the presence of deliberate interpersonal violence within the studied communities. The average life span of the adults, as well as the number and character of the observed pathologies, suggest a relatively poor life quality and harsh living conditions in the studied region during the Bronze Age.
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