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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 312183 matches for " Richard J. Gusberg "
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Limitations of Online Information on Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
Carolyn G. Goldberg,Loren Berman,Richard J. Gusberg
International Journal of Vascular Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/789198
Abstract: Background. Patients with AAA face a complex decision, and knowledge of the risks and benefits of each treatment option is essential to informed decision-making. Here we assess the current information on the internet accessible to patients regarding the management of AAA. Study Design. We performed a search on Google using the keywords “abdominal aortic aneurysm” and reviewed the top 50 web sites. We focused on information related to treatment options and alternatives to treatment and the risks of each option. Results. Twenty-seven websites were included in the study. Nearly 30% of websites discussed the risk of mortality and myocardial infarction after open surgery, compared to only 7.4% for both risks after EVAR. Other complications were listed by fewer websites. Fifty-five percent of websites reported that patients had a faster recovery following EVAR, but only 18.5% mentioned the risk of reintervention after EVAR or the need for long-term surveillance with CT scans. Conclusions. While most websites included descriptive information on AAA and mentioned the potential treatment options available to patients, the discussion of the risks of open surgery and EVAR was inadequate. These results suggest that websites frequently accessed by patients lack important information regarding surgical risk. 1. Introduction When diagnosed with an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), patients are confronted with a complex decision: whether or not to undergo invasive treatment for an asymptomatic but potentially fatal condition. If patients elect to pursue surgical treatment, many must further decide between open surgery and endovascular repair (EVAR). Knowledge of the natural history of AAA as well as the risks and benefits of all treatment options is essential for patients to make a well-informed decision. Effective communication of this information during the informed consent process can be challenging because of the volume and complexity of the information involved as well as the emotional impact of the potentially life-changing alternatives being considered. We have previously reported that many patients neither appreciated the scope of their options before AAA repair nor felt adequately informed prior to making a decision [1]. Given the complexity and variability of information, it is not surprising that many patients do not feel well informed about possible outcomes of surgical intervention. It has been well documented that education increases patient satisfaction with decision making [2–5]. The internet has the potential to provide patients with information and
Measurement Error for Age of Onset in Prevalent Cohort Studies  [PDF]
Yujie Zhong, Richard J. Cook
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.511160

Prevalent cohort studies involve screening a sample of individuals from a population for disease, recruiting affected individuals, and prospectively following the cohort of individuals to record the occurrence of disease-related complications or death. This design features a response-biased sampling scheme since individuals living a long time with the disease are preferentially sampled, so naive analysis of the time from disease onset to death will over-estimate survival probabilities. Unconditional and conditional analyses of the resulting data can yield consistent estimates of the survival distribution subject to the validity of their respective model assumptions. The time of disease onset is retrospectively reported by sampled individuals, however, this is often associated with measurement error. In this article we present a framework for studying the effect of measurement error in disease onset times in prevalent cohort studies, report on empirical studies of the effect in each framework of analysis, and describe likelihood-based methods to address such a measurement error.

Les pays bourguignons méridionaux dans l'ensemble des Etats des ducs Valois
J. Richard
BMGN : Low Countries Historical Review , 1980,
Role of irrational beliefs in depression and anxiety: a review  [PDF]
K. Robert Bridges, Richard J. Harnish
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.28130
Abstract: Irrational beliefs play a central role in cognitive theory and therapy; they have been shown to be related to a variety of disorders such as depression and anxiety. Irrational beliefs, which can be assessed via clinical interviewing techniques, are frequently assessed by self-report measures, both clinically and for research purposes. Much of the research demonstrating the effect of irrational beliefs has utilized such measures. The present article reviews the empirical work on irrational beliefs assessment and identifies 25 scales and techniques. The measures are organized according to their theoretical affiliation (i.e., either the Ellis or Beck model), with the goal of providing investigators a source to identify the available tests, their shortcomings, and potential applications. The authors conclude with recommendations which would strengthen empirical cohesion and precision in the measurement of irrational beliefs.
Do Individual Differences Moderate the Cognitive Benefits of Chewing Gum?  [PDF]
Richard Stephens, Nicola M. J. Edelstyn
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.28127
Abstract: Recent experiments investigating whether chewing gum enhances cognitive performance have shown mixed results and a recent replication failed to reproduce earlier findings. The present experiment aimed to investigate whether participant individual differences underlie the discrepant findings. Therefore, in addition to examining differences in Digit Span and Spatial Span performance across gum and control groups, chronotype, extraversion, habitual tiredness, current stress, current arousal and current thirst were assessed using questionnaires. Task difficulty was also manipulated. While there were no chewing gum effects under standard testing conditions, chewing gum enhanced Digit Span performance in the more difficult dual task condition. Furthermore, Spatial Span performance was improved by chewing gum in introverts but not extraverts and chewing gum was shown to eliminate the negative relationship between thirst and Digit Span performance. In explaining these data it is proposed that chewing gum may act both to reduce stress and to alleviate thirst.
The Effect of Prices on Risk Aversion  [PDF]
Richard Watt, Francisco J. Vázquez
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.21007
Abstract: Traditionally, risk aversion (both absolute and relative) has been expressed as a function of wealth alone. The charac- teristics of risk aversion as wealth changes have been extensively studied. However, prices, as well as wealth, enter the indirect utility function, from which the typical risk aversion measures are calculated. Given that, changes in prices will affect risk aversion, although exactly how has not been considered in the literature. This paper provides such an analysis. In particular, we firstly remind the reader that both absolute and relative risk aversion are homogeneous functions, and as such independently of their particular slopes in wealth, there is a natural effect that holds relative risk aversion constant and decreases absolute risk aversion when prices and wealth are increased by a common factor. We also show that the size of relative risk aversion as compared to the number 1, which is of much importance to the comparative statics of the economics of risk and uncertainty, depends on how changes in prices affect marginal utility. Under plausible (and standard) theoretical assumptions we find that relative risk aversion is likely to be increasing, and that increases in prices will have a tempering effect on risk aversion.
Development of Analytical Model for Modular Tank Vehicle Carrying Liquid Cargo  [PDF]
M. Toumi, M. Bouazara, M. J. Richard
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2013.32010

The study of dynamics of tank vehicles carrying liquid fuel cargo is complex. The forces and moments due to liquid sloshing create serious problems related to the instability of tank vehicles. In this paper, a complete analytical model of a modular tank vehicle has been developed. The model included all the vehicle systems and subsystems. Simulation results obtained using this model was compared with those obtained using the popular TruckSim software. The comparison proved the validity of the assumptions used in the analytical model and showed a good correlation under single or double lane change and turning manoeuvers.

Gender Differences in Formal Thinking: Their Impact on Right-Wing Authoritarianism and Religious Fundamentalism  [PDF]
K. Robert Bridges, Richard J. Harnish
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.613164
Abstract: The present study investigated the relationship between cognitive development and political and religious ideology, and whether there are gender differences in formal thinking which may be related to right-wing authoritarianism and religious fundamentalism. The conceptual and empirical literature suggests that many aspects of cognition which play a role in the formation of conservative political and religious ideology are also present in those who engage in Piagetian concrete thinking (versus formal thought). The sample consisted of 116 late adolescents and young adults enrolled at a large public university. Results found that only 40% of participants had achieved formal thought on a traditional test of formal thinking, and that women who had lower scores on this test scored higher on measures of right-wing authoritarianism and religious fundamentalism. There was no such relationship for men. The present study shows the value of this approach and suggests the need for a pragmatic test of formal thought focused on political and religious ideologies.
évolution des classifications et spécifications des huiles pour moteurs (situation en avril 1989) Evolution of Classifications and Specifications for Motor Oils (Situation April 1989)
Ayel J.,Richard J.
Oil & Gas Science and Technology , 2006, DOI: 10.2516/ogst:1989036
Abstract: D'une manière générale, les lubrifiants pour moteurs répondent à des classifications de viscosité et de service ainsi qu'à des spécifications émanant d'organismes nationaux ou internationaux, comme la Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) et l'American Petroleum Institute (API) aux états-Unis ou le Comité des Constructeurs d'Automobiles du Marché Commun (CCMC) en Europe. Celles-ci sont destinées à mieux qualifier les produits. De leur c té, les constructeurs de moteurs établissent, de plus en plus systématiquement, des normes d'homologation d'huiles afin de satisfaire au mieux les exigences de lubrification de leur production dans le but d'améliorer la longévité et la fiabilité des mécaniques tout en rationalisant leur entretien. De grands utilisateurs, enfin, tels que les armées ou les grandes administrations civiles, ont également mis au point des spécifications, véritables cahiers des charges, pour satisfaire leurs propres besoins. Toutes ces normes définissent des limites de caractéristiques physico-chimiques ainsi que des niveaux minimaux de performances à atteindre lors d'essais sur moteurs et sur simulateurs de laboratoire. Avec le développement technologique des moteurs à essence et Diesel, ainsi qu'avec l'apparition de nouvelles contraintes législatives, économiques et écologiques (économie d'énergie, allongement des intervalles de vidange, lutte antipollution, . . . ), ces spécifications sont devenues de plus en plus nombreuses et de plus en plus complexes. De plus, elles sont en perpétuelle évolution, quelquefois à un rythme excessif. Malgré cela, le présent document fait le point sur la situation des normes au début de l'année 1989, analyse les plus importantes d'entre elles, rappelle, le cas échéant, les grandes étapes qui ont mené aux spécifications actuelles et, lorsque cela est possible, indique leurs évolutions prévisibles dans un avenir relativement proche. Generally speaking, lubricants for engines meet viscosity and service classifications as well as specifications issuing from national or international agencies such as Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and American Petroleum Institute (API) in the United States or Comité des Constructeurs d'Automobiles du Marché Commun (CCMC) in Europe. The aim of these classifications and specifications is to qualify products more specifically. At the same time, engine manufacturers are more and more systematically establishing approval standards for oils to better meet the lubrication requirements of their engines so as to improve their mechanical longevity and reliability while making maintena
Chronic Marijuana Smoking Does Not Negatively Impact Select Blood Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Young, Physically Active Men and Women  [PDF]
Richard J. Bloomer, Matthew Butawan, Nicholas J. G. Smith
Health (Health) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/health.2018.107071
Abstract: Background: The smoking of Cannabis sativa, the marijuana plant, is increasing in popularity among young adults, even those who may be engaged in regular exercise (i.e., athletes). Research has shown the plant to have antioxidant and analgesic properties, but the effects on oxidative stress are conflicting. The purpose of this study was to measure blood oxidative stress and cardio-metabolic parameters in physically active men and women who regularly smoke marijuana. Methods: A total of 43 marijuana smokers (23 ± 4 years) and 22 non-smokers (24 ± 7 years), who did not smoke tobacco products, participated in this study. Both smokers and non-smokers engaged in regularly exercise, totaling several hours per week (6.4 ± 4.0 and 6.8 ± 4.4, respectively). Smokers reported using marijuana frequently during the week (4.5 ± 2.3 sessions) for a minimum of three consecutive months prior to participating in the study. Blood samples were collected from participants following a 12-hour fast (all food, drink [except water] and smoking) and analyzed for malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Heart rate and blood pressure was also measured and recorded. Results: No differences of statistical significance were noted for any variable (p > 0.05), with very similar values noted between smokers and non-smokers. Conclusions: In a sample of young, physically active men and women, regular marijuana smoking is not associated with untoward effects on select biomarkers of oxidative stress and cardio-metabolic health. These findings do not suggest that marijuana smoking can be done without harm, as limitations of this study need to be considered.
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