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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 312926 matches for " Richard J. Gray "
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Galactic S Stars: Investigations of Color, Motion, and Spectral Features
Elizabeth Otto,Paul J Green,Richard O. Gray
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/196/1/5
Abstract: Known bright S stars, recognized as such by their enhanced s-process abundances and C/O ratio, are typically members of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) or the red giant branch (RGB). Few modern digital spectra for these objects have been published, from which intermediate resolution spectral indices and classifications could be derived. For published S stars we find accurate positions using the Two-Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and use the FAST spectrograph of the Tillinghast reflector on Mt. Hopkins to obtain the spectra of 57 objects. We make available a digital S star spectral atlas consisting of 14 spectra of S stars with diverse spectral features. We define and derive basic spectral indices that can help distinguish S stars from late-type (M) giants and carbon stars. We convolve all our spectra with the SDSS bandpasses, and employ the resulting gri magnitudes together with 2MASS JHK mags to investigate S star colors. S stars have colors similar to carbon and M stars, and are therefore difficult to distinguish by color alone. Using near and mid-infrared colors from IRAS and AKARI, we identify some of the stars as intrinsic (AGB) or extrinsic (with abundances enhanced by past mass-transfer). We also use V band and 2MASS magnitudes to calculate a temperature index for stars in the sample. We analyze the proper motions and parallaxes of our sample stars to determine upper and lower limit absolute magnitudes and distances, and confirm that most are probably giants.
Bioinformatics Analysis of the FREM1 Gene—Evolutionary Development of the IL-1R1 Co-Receptor, TILRR
Richard C. Hudson,Caroline Gray,Endre Kiss-Toth,Timothy J. A. Chico,Eva E. Qwarnstrom
Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/biology1030484
Abstract: The TLRs and IL-1 receptors have evolved to coordinate the innate immune response following pathogen invasion. Receptors and signalling intermediates of these systems are generally characterised by a high level of evolutionary conservation. The recently described IL-1R1 co-receptor TILRR is a transcriptional variant of the FREM1 gene. Here we investigate whether innate co-receptor differences between teleosts and mammals extend to the expression of the TILRR isoform of FREM1. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic approaches were used to analyse the genome sequences of FREM1 from eukaryotic organisms including 37 tetrapods and five teleost fish. The TILRR consensus peptide sequence was present in the FREM1 gene of the tetrapods, but not in fish orthologs of FREM1, and neither FREM1 nor TILRR were present in invertebrates. The TILRR gene appears to have arisen via incorporation of adjacent non-coding DNA with a contiguous exonic sequence after the teleost divergence. Comparing co-receptors in other systems, points to their origin during the same stages of evolution. Our results show that modern teleost fish do not possess the IL-1RI co-receptor TILRR, but that this is maintained in tetrapods as early as amphibians. Further, they are consistent with data showing that co-receptors are recent additions to these regulatory systems and suggest this may underlie differences in innate immune responses between mammals and fish.
A cross-sectional study of the nutritional status of community-dwelling people with idiopathic Parkinson's disease
Ahmed F Jaafar, William K Gray, Bob Porter, Elizabeth J Turnbull, Richard W Walker
BMC Neurology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2377-10-124
Abstract: People diagnosed with idiopathic PD from within two PD prevalence study sites in North-East England were asked to participate in this study. Those who participated (n = 136) were assessed using a number of standard rating scales including Hoehn & Yahr stage and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Body mass index (BMI), mid-arm circumference (MAC), triceps skin fold thickness (TSF) and grip strength were recorded together with social and demographic information.BMI < 20 identified over 15% of the study group to have under-nutrition. The Malnutritional Universal Screening Tool (MUST) scoring system identified 23.5% of participants at medium or high risk of malnutrition. Low BMI, indicating under-nutrition, was associated with greater age and disease duration, lower MAC, TSF, mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), reduced grip strength and a report of unintentional weight loss. Problems increased with increasing age and disease duration and were greater in females.Under-nutrition is a problem for around 15% of community dwelling people with PD. All PD patients should be screened for under-nutrition; the MUST score is a useful early screening tool.Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that has been shown to put individuals at increased risk of malnutrition and weight loss compared to age matched controls [1]. The nutritional problems associated with PD have been reviewed recently [2]. Previous studies have shown an increase in basal metabolic rate in PD patients, and this increase in energy expenditure has been implicated in the aetiology of weight loss in patients with PD [3-6]. Other possible causes of weight loss include, difficulty swallowing [7,8], inability to prepare food and handle it appropriately [9], gastrointestinal symptoms of the disease itself and drug side effects, such as dyskinesia [10,11].Using the mini nutritional assessment as a screening tool, a recent 3 year longitudinal study of 61 PD patients from a ref
Mapping and mutation of the conserved DNA polymerase interaction motif (DPIM) located in the C-terminal domain of fission yeast DNA polymerase δ subunit Cdc27
Fiona C Gray, J Richard G Pohler, Emma Warbrick, Stuart A MacNeill
BMC Molecular Biology , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2199-5-21
Abstract: Here it is shown that the catalytic subunit of Pol α, Pol1, interacts with Cdc27, one of three non-catalytic subunits of fission yeast Pol δ, both in vivo and in vitro. Pol1 interacts with the C-terminal domain of Cdc27, at a site distinct from the previously identified binding sites for Cdc1 and PCNA. Comparative protein sequence analysis identifies a protein sequence motif, called the DNA polymerase interaction motif (DPIM), in Cdc27 orthologues from a wide variety of eukaryotic species, including mammals. Mutational analysis shows that the DPIM in fission yeast Cdc27 is not required for effective DNA replication, repair or checkpoint function.The absence of any detectable phenotypic consequences arising from mutation of the DPIM suggests that despite its evolutionary conservation, the interaction between the two polymerases mediated by this motif is a non-essential one.Three conserved DNA polymerase enzymes whose activities are essential for complete chromosomal DNA replication have been identified through biochemical studies in mammalian systems [1] and combined genetic and biochemical studies in yeast [2]. During S-phase, the DNA polymerase α-primase complex synthesises the short RNA-DNA segment that is used to prime synthesis of the leading strand at the chromosomal replication origin and synthesis of each Okazaki fragment on the lagging strand. The short RNA segment is synthesised by the primase and then extended by 10–20 nucleotides by Pol α. The 3' end of the RNA-DNA primer is recognised by replication factor C (RFC), which displaces the Pol α-primase complex and catalyses the loading of the sliding clamp PCNA at the primer-template junction. PCNA then acts as a processivity factor for the Pol δ and/or Pol ε enzymes. The exact roles played by Pol δ and Pol ε remain unclear (for a recent perspective, see ref. [3] and references therein) but Pol δ is most likely responsible for lagging strand replication and may also play a role on the leading strand. Yeast l
The serious mental illness health improvement profile [HIP]: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial
Jacquie White, Richard J Gray, Louise Swift, Garry R Barton, Martin Jones
Trials , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6215-12-167
Abstract: A single blind parallel group cluster randomised controlled trial with secondary economic analysis and process observation. Unit of randomisation: mental health nurses [MHNs] working in adult community mental health teams across two NHS Trusts. Subjects: Patients over 18 years with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective or bipolar disorder on the caseload of participating MHNs. Primary objective: To determine the effects of the HIP programme on patients' physical wellbeing assessed by the physical component score of the Medical Outcome Study (MOS) 36 Item Short Form Health Survey version 2 [SF-36v2]. Secondary objectives: To determine the effects of the HIP programme on: cost effectiveness, mental wellbeing, cardiovascular risk, physical health care attitudes and knowledge of MHNs and to determine the acceptability of the HIP Programme in the NHS. Consented nurses (and patients) will be randomised to receive the HIP Programme or treatment as usual. Outcomes will be measured at baseline and 12 months with a process observation after 12 months to include evaluation of patients' and professionals' experience and observation of any effect on care plans and primary-secondary care interface communication. Outcomes will be analysed on an intention-to-treat (ITT) basis.The results of the trial and process observation will provide information about the effectiveness of the HIP Programme in supporting MHNs to address physical comorbidity in serious mental illness. Given the current unacceptable prevalence of physical comorbidity and mortality in the serious mental illness population, it is hoped the HIP trial will provide a timely contribution to evidence on organisation and delivery of care for patients, clinicians and policy makers.ISRCTN: ISRCTN41137900Improving the physical health of people with serious mental illness [SMI] (people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective or bipolar disorder) is an important public health challenge[1,2]. Comorbid physical
Cholesterol Levels and Statin Use in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease Treated in Primary Care Settings
Patrick J. O’Connor, MD, MPH,Richard J. Gray, MD,Michael V. Maciosek, PhD,Kelly M. Fillbrandt, BS
Preventing Chronic Disease , 2005,
Abstract: Introduction Therapy with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, or statins, has proven to be effective in the treatment of lipid disorders. However, statin therapy continues to be underused, even though statins are a relatively safe and well-tolerated class of agents. In this study, we assessed trends in lipid control in patients with heart disease who receive most of their health care in primary care clinics. The objective was to determine whether systems of care implemented within a large medical group are associated with improved treatment and control of dyslipidemia in a high-risk group of coronary heart disease patients. Methods All adults with heart disease in a Minnesota medical group (N = 2947) were identified using diagnosis and procedure codes related to coronary heart disease (sensitivity = 0.85; positive predictive value = 0.89) in 1996. Study subjects were observed from 1995 to 1998. Subjects had a baseline and follow-up test for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Changes between baseline and follow-up measurements and trends in the use of statins and other lipid-active agents among the study subjects were analyzed. Results Among 1388 subjects with two or more eligible lipid measurements, mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol improved from 137.6 mg/dL to 111.0 mg/dL (P < .001), and mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol improved from 42.3 mg/dL to 46.3 mg/dL (P < .001). The percentage of patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤100 mg/dL rose from 12.5% to 39.8% (P < .001), and the percentage with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥40 mg/dL rose from 52.5% to 67.6% (P < .001). In multivariate models, statin use was identified as the main factor that contributed to the improvement in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < .001). Men had greater decreases in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol than women after adjusting for other variables (P < .001). Statin use rose from 24.3% at baseline to 69.6% at follow-up. The statin discontinuation rate was 8.3% for baseline statin users and 12.2% for subjects who used statins at any time during the study period. Conclusion Investment in better heart disease care for patients in primary care clinics led to major improvement in lipid control over 30 months, primarily due to increased statin use. Improvements in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were sufficient to substantially reduce risk of subsequent major cardiovascular events.
Malignant Melanoma in the Elderly: Different Regional Disease and Poorer Prognosis
James B. Macdonald, Amylou C. Dueck, Richard J. Gray, Nabil Wasif, David L. Swanson, Aleksandar Sekulic, Barbara A. Pockaj
Journal of Cancer , 2011,
Abstract: Purpose: Age is a poor prognostic factor in melanoma patients. Elderly melanoma patients have a different presentation and clinical course than younger patients. We evaluated the impact of age ≥70 years (yrs) on the diagnosis and natural history of melanoma. Methods: Retrospective review of 610 patients with malignant melanoma entered into a prospective sentinel lymph node (SLN) database, treated from June 1997 to June 2010. Disease characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared between patients ≥70 yrs vs. <70 yrs of age. Results: 237 patients (39%) were ≥70 yrs. Elderly patients had a higher proportion of head and neck melanomas (34% vs. 20%, p<0.001), and greater mean tumor thickness (2.4mm vs. 1.8mm, p<0.001). A greater proportion of T3 or T4 melanoma was seen in the elderly (p<0.001) as well as a greater mean number of mitotic figures: 3.6/mm2 vs. 2.7/mm2 (p=0.005). Despite greater mean thickness, the incidence of SLN metastases was less in the ≥70 yrs group with T3/T4 melanomas (18% vs. 33%, p=0.02). The elderly had a higher rate of local and in-transit recurrences, 14.5% vs. 3.4% at 5 yrs (p<0.001). 5 yr disease-specific mortality and overall mortality were worse for those ≥70 yrs: 16% vs. 8% (p=0.004), and 30% vs. 12% (p<0.001), respectively. Conclusions: Elderly (≥70 yrs) melanoma patients present with thicker melanomas and a higher mitotic rate but have fewer SLN metastases. Melanoma in the elderly is more common on the head and neck. Higher incidence of local/in-transit metastases is seen among the elderly. Five-year disease-specific mortality and overall mortality are both worse for these patients.
The use of carer assisted adherence therapy for people with Parkinson's disease and their carers (CAAT-PARK): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial
David J Daley, Katherine HO Deane, Richard J Gray, Paul F Worth, Allan B Clark, Kanagasabesan Sabanathan, Michael Pfeil, Phyo K Myint
Trials , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6215-12-251
Abstract: A parallel, randomised controlled trial will be conducted to investigate whether carer assisted adherence therapy is effective for improving medication adherence and quality of life. We aim to recruit 40 patient/carer pairs into each group. Participants will be randomly assigned by the Clinical Research Trials Unit at the University of East Anglia. Adherence therapy is a brief cognitive-behavioural approach aimed at facilitating a process of shared decision making. The central theory is that when patients make shared choices with a professional they are more likely to continue with those choices because they are personally owned and meaningful. Outcomes will be rates of adherence and quality of life, determined by the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-4 and the Parkinson's disease Questionnaire-39 respectively. Assessments will take place post randomisation, immediately post intervention and 12-weeks post randomisation. Primary outcomes are adherence and quality of life at 12-week follow-up. Efficacy will be determined using intention-to-treat analysis. Independent samples t-tests will compare mean changes between groups from baseline to follow-up. Per protocol analysis will be conducted based on individuals with no major protocol deviation. Where imbalances in baseline characteristics are identified, an adjusted analysis will be performed using a regression model. Analysis will be masked to treatment allocation.ISRCTN: ISRCTN07830951Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive, disabling, neurodegenerative disease that significantly reduces quality of life (QoL) [1,2]. Debilitating symptoms of bradykinesia (slowness of movement), resting tremor, rigidity and postural instability are principal features of PD [1,3]. In addition to these motor symptoms, non-motor symptoms (NMS) such as cognitive impairment, dementia, sleep disturbances, depression and falls are significantly associated with reduced QoL [4]. Cognitive impairment is reported to affect 20-30% of patients w
An evaluation of the membership probability of 212 $λ$ Boo stars: I. A Catalogue
Simon J. Murphy,Christopher J. Corbally,Richard O. Gray,Kwang-Ping Cheng,James E. Neff,Chris Koen,Charles A. Kuehn,Ian Newsome,Quinlin Riggs
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1017/pasa.2015.34
Abstract: The literature on the $\lambda$ Boo stars has grown to become somewhat heterogenous, as different authors have applied different criteria across the UV, optical and infrared regions to determine the membership status of $\lambda$ Boo candidates. We aim to clear up the confusion by consulting the literature on 212 objects that have been considered as $\lambda$ Boo candidates, and subsequently evaluating the evidence in favour of their admission to the $\lambda$ Boo class. We obtained new spectra of $\sim$90 of these candidates and classified them on the MK system to aid in the membership evaluations. The re-evaluation of the 212 objects resulted in 64 members and 103 non-members of the $\lambda$ Boo class, with a further 45 stars for which membership status is unclear. We suggest observations for each of the stars in the latter category that will allow them to be confidently included or rejected from the class. Our reclassification facilitates homogenous analysis on group members, and represents the largest collection of confirmed $\lambda$ Boo stars known.
How Global Is the Global Biodiversity Information Facility?
Chris Yesson, Peter W. Brewer, Tim Sutton, Neil Caithness, Jaspreet S. Pahwa, Mikhaila Burgess, W. Alec Gray, Richard J. White, Andrew C. Jones, Frank A. Bisby, Alastair Culham
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001124
Abstract: There is a concerted global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from herbarium and museum collections that together offer an unparalleled archive of life on Earth over the past few centuries. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility provides the largest single gateway to these data. Since 2004 it has provided a single point of access to specimen data from databases of biological surveys and collections. Biologists now have rapid access to more than 120 million observations, for use in many biological analyses. We investigate the quality and coverage of data digitally available, from the perspective of a biologist seeking distribution data for spatial analysis on a global scale. We present an example of automatic verification of geographic data using distributions from the International Legume Database and Information Service to test empirically, issues of geographic coverage and accuracy. There are over 1/2 million records covering 31% of all Legume species, and 84% of these records pass geographic validation. These data are not yet a global biodiversity resource for all species, or all countries. A user will encounter many biases and gaps in these data which should be understood before data are used or analyzed. The data are notably deficient in many of the world's biodiversity hotspots. The deficiencies in data coverage can be resolved by an increased application of resources to digitize and publish data throughout these most diverse regions. But in the push to provide ever more data online, we should not forget that consistent data quality is of paramount importance if the data are to be useful in capturing a meaningful picture of life on Earth.
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