Abstract:
The small object argument is a transfinite construction which, starting from a set of maps in a category, generates a weak factorisation system on that category. As useful as it is, the small object argument has some problematic aspects: it possesses no universal property; it does not converge; and it does not seem to be related to other transfinite constructions occurring in categorical algebra. In this paper, we give an "algebraic" refinement of the small object argument, cast in terms of Grandis and Tholen's natural weak factorisation systems, which rectifies each of these three deficiencies.

Abstract:
We explain how any cofibrantly generated weak factorisation system on a category may be equipped with a universally and canonically determined choice of cofibrant replacement. We then apply this to the theory of weak omega-categories, showing that the universal and canonical cofibrant replacement of the operad for strict omega-categories is precisely Leinster's operad for weak omega-categories.

Abstract:
The notion of Grothendieck topos may be considered as a generalisation of that of topological space, one in which the points of the space may have non-trivial automorphisms. However, the analogy is not precise, since in a topological space, it is the points which have conceptual priority over the open sets, whereas in a topos it is the other way around. Hence a topos is more correctly regarded as a generalised locale, than as a generalised space. In this article we introduce the notion of ionad, which stands in the same relationship to a topological space as a (Grothendieck) topos does to a locale. We develop basic aspects of their theory and discuss their relationship with toposes.

Abstract:
The notion of term graph encodes a refinement of inductively generated syntax in which regard is paid to the the sharing and discard of subterms. Inductively generated syntax has an abstract expression in terms of initial algebras for certain endofunctors on the category of sets, which permits one to go beyond the set-based case, and speak of inductively generated syntax in other settings. In this paper we give a similar abstract expression to the notion of term graph. Aspects of the concrete theory are redeveloped in this setting, and applications beyond the realm of sets discussed.

Abstract:
We describe a construction that to each algebraically specified notion of higher-dimensional category associates a notion of homomorphism which preserves the categorical structure only up to weakly invertible higher cells. The construction is such that these homomorphisms admit a strictly associative and unital composition. We give two applications of this construction. The first is to tricategories; and here we do not obtain the trihomomorphisms defined by Gordon, Power and Street, but only something equivalent in a suitable sense. The second is to Batanin's weak omega-categories.

Abstract:
There is an ``algebraisation'' of the notion of weak factorisation system (w.f.s.) known as a natural weak factorisation system. In it, the two classes of maps of a w.f.s. are replaced by two categories of maps-with-structure, where the extra structure on a map now encodes a choice of liftings with respect to the other class. This extra structure has pleasant consequences: for example, a natural w.f.s. on C induces a canonical natural w.f.s. structure on any functor category [A, C]. In this paper, we define cofibrantly generated natural weak factorisation systems by analogy with cofibrantly generated w.f.s.'s. We then construct them by a method which is reminiscent of Quillen's small object argument but produces factorisations which are much smaller and easier to handle, and show that the resultant natural w.f.s. is, in a suitable sense, freely generated by its generating cofibrations. Finally, we show that the two categories of maps-with-structure for a natural w.f.s. are closed under all the constructions we would expect of them: (co)limits, pushouts / pullbacks, transfinite composition, and so on.

Abstract:
One may formulate the dependent product types of Martin-L\"of type theory either in terms of abstraction and application operators like those for the lambda-calculus; or in terms of introduction and elimination rules like those for the other constructors of type theory. It is known that the latter rules are at least as strong as the former: we show that they are in fact strictly stronger. We also show, in the presence of the identity types, that the elimination rule for dependent products--which is a "higher-order" inference rule in the sense of Schroeder-Heister--can be reformulated in a first-order manner. Finally, we consider the principle of function extensionality in type theory, which asserts that two elements of a dependent product type which are pointwise propositionally equal, are themselves propositionally equal. We demonstrate that the usual formulation of this principle fails to verify a number of very natural propositional equalities; and suggest an alternative formulation which rectifies this deficiency.

Abstract:
We describe a non-extensional variant of Martin-L\"of type theory which we call two-dimensional type theory, and equip it with a sound and complete semantics valued in 2-categories.

Abstract:
In this paper, we give a novel abstract description of Szabo's polycategories. We use the theory of double clubs -- a generalisation of Kelly's theory of clubs to `pseudo' (or `weak') double categories -- to construct a pseudo-distributive law of the free symmetric strict monoidal category pseudocomonad on Mod over itself qua pseudomonad, and show that monads in the `two-sided Kleisli bicategory' of this pseudo-distributive law are precisely symmetric polycategories.

Abstract:
We develop a theory of double clubs which extends Kelly's theory of clubs to the pseudo double categories of Pare and Grandis. We then show that the club for symmetric strict monoidal categories on Cat extends to a `double club' on the pseudo double category of `categories, functors, profunctors and transformations'.