Abstract:
The theory of complex hyperbolic discrete groups is still in its childhood but promises to grow into a rich subfield of geometry. In this paper I will discuss some recent progress that has been made on complex hyperbolic deformations of the modular group and, more generally, triangle groups. These are some of the simplest nontrivial complex hyperbolic discrete groups. In particular, I will talk about my recent discovery of a closed real hyperbolic 3-manifold which appears as the manifold at infinity for a complex hyperbolic discrete group.

Abstract:
We say that a collection Gamma of geodesics in the hyperbolic plane H^2 is a modular pattern if Gamma is invariant under the modular group PSL_2(Z), if there are only finitely many PSL_2(Z)-equivalence classes of geodesics in Gamma, and if each geodesic in Gamma is stabilized by an infinite order subgroup of PSL_2(Z). For instance, any finite union of closed geodesics on the modular orbifold H^2/PSL_2(Z) lifts to a modular pattern. Let S^1 be the ideal boundary of H^2. Given two points p,q in S^1 we write pq if p and q are the endpoints of a geodesic in Gamma. (In particular pp.) We show that is an equivalence relation. We let Q_Gamma=S^1/ be the quotient space. We call Q_Gamma a modular circle quotient. In this paper we will give a sense of what modular circle quotients `look like' by realizing them as limit sets of piecewise-linear group actions

Abstract:
This paper considers a simple geometric construction, called the Pentagram map. The pentagram map, performed on N-gons, gives rise to a birational mapping on the space of all N-gons. This paper finds what conjecturally are all the invariants for this map, and along the way relates the construction to the monodromy of 3rd order differential equations, and also to Dodgson's method of condensation for computing determinants.

Abstract:
Outer billiards is a simple dynamical system based on a convex planar shape. The Moser-Neumann question, first posed by B.H. Neumann around 1960, asks if there exists a planar shape for which outer billiards has an unbounded orbit. The first half of this monograph proves that outer billiards has an unbounded orbit defined relative to any irrational kite. The second half of the monograph gives a very sharp description of the set of unbounded orbits, both in terms of the dynamics and the Hausdorff dimension. The analysis in both halves reveals a close connection between outer billiards on kites and the modular group, as well as connections to self-similar tilings, polytope exchange maps, Diophantine approximation, and odometers.

Abstract:
In this paper we establish a kind of bijection between the orbits of a polygonal outer billiards system and the orbits of a related (and simpler to analyze) system called the pinwheel map. One consequence of the result is that the outer billiards system has unbounded orbits if and only if the pinwheel map has unbounded orbits. As the pinwheel map is much easier to analyze directly, we think that this bijection will be helpful in attacking some of the main questions about polyonal outer billiards.

Abstract:
Outer Billiards is a geometrically inspired dynamical system based on a convex shape in the plane. When the shape is a polygon, the system has a combinatorial flavor. In the polygonal case, there is a natural acceleration of the map, a first return map to a certain strip in the plane. The arithmetic graph is a geometric encoding of the symbolic dynamics of this first return map. In the case of the regular octagon, the case we study, the arithmetic graphs associated to periodic orbits are polygonal paths in R^8. We are interested in the asymptotic shapes of these polygonal paths, as the period tends to infinity. We show that the rescaled limit of essentially any sequence of these graphs converges to a fractal curve that simultaneously projects one way onto a variant of the Koch snowflake and another way onto a variant of the Sierpinski carpet. In a sense, this gives a complete description of the asymptotic behavior of the symbolic dynamics of the first return map. What makes all our proofs work is an efficient (and basically well known) renormalization scheme for the dynamics.

Abstract:
This is a sequel to my paper "The Octagonal PET I: Renormalization and Hyperbolic Symmetry". In this paper we use the renormalization scheme found in the first paper to classify the limit sets of the systems according to their topology. The main result is that the limit set is either a finite forest or a Cantor set, with an explicit description of which cases occur for which parameters. In one special case, the limit set is a disjoint union of 2 arcs if and only if the continued fraction expansion of the parameter has the form [a0:a1:a2:a3...] with a_k even for every odd k.

Abstract:
We introduce a family of polytope exchange transformations (PETs) acting on parallelotopes in $\R^{2n}$ for $n=1,2,3...$. These PETs are constructed using a pair of lattices in $\R^{2n}$. The moduli space of these PETs is $GL_n(\R)$. We study the case n=1 in detail. In this case, we show that the 2-dimensional family is completely renormalizable and that the $(2,4,\infty)$ hyperbolic reflection triangle group acts (by linear fractional transformations) as the renormalization group on the moduli space. These results have a number of geometric corollaries for the system. Most of the paper is traditional mathematics, but some part of the paper relies on a rigorous computer-assisted proof involving integer calculations.

Abstract:
We introduce a geometric construction which relates to the pentagram map much in the way that a logarithmic spiral relates to a circle. After introducing the construction, we establish some basic geometric facts about it, and speculate on some of the deeper algebraic structure, such as the complete integrability of the associated dynamical system.

Abstract:
In this paper we give an affirmative answer to the following question posed by Daryl Cooper: If one lengthens the sides of a tetrahedron by one unit, is the result still a tetrahedron and (if so) does the volume increase? Our proof involves a (presumably) new and sharp inequality involving the Cayley-Menger determinant and one of its directional derivatives. We give a rigorous computer-assisted proof of the inequality. We also sketch an argument which derives the existence portion of the result, in all dimensions, from an old theorem of Von Neumann. Finally, we prove a number of additional results concerning the effect on volume of selectively lengthening some of the sides of a tetrahedron.