oalib

OALib Journal期刊

ISSN: 2333-9721

费用:99美元

投稿

时间不限

2019 ( 24 )

2018 ( 335 )

2017 ( 317 )

2016 ( 415 )

自定义范围…

匹配条件: “Richard E. Ndubai” ,找到相关结果约184213条。
列表显示的所有文章,均可免费获取
第1页/共184213条
每页显示
A Study of the Relationship among Performance Contracting, Measurement and Public Service Delivery in Kenya  [PDF]
Richard E. Ndubai, Isaac M. Mbeche, Ganesh P. Pokhariyal
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102850
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to establish the factors influencing improvement in performance and delivery of public services. Thus, the paper studied the effect of performance contracting and measurement on public service delivery in Kenya. The public services considered in the study included ministries, state corporations, local authorities and tertiary institutions, with a total of 470 public agencies. The cross-sectional survey design was used. The study is based on performance evaluation results compiled over the period between 2004 and 2011. Using regression analysis, it was found that performance measurement was critical to improvement in public service delivery and explained 73.6 percent of improvement in service delivery, as evidenced by independent measurement of customer satisfaction with the services delivered by the public sector.
A Study of the Intervening Effect of Political Stability on the Relationship between Performance Contracting and Measurement, and Public Service Delivery in Kenya  [PDF]
Richard E. Ndubai, Isaac M. Mbeche, Ganesh P. Pokhariyal
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103402
Abstract:
The performance of public agencies is influenced and affected by many factors, both internal and external. The internal factors are in many cases controllable, while external factors tend to fall outside the control of public sector managers. Moreover, the effect may serve to ameliorate performance or intervene to weaken performance and thereby adversely affect delivery of services. This paper explored the intervening effect of political stability, an external factor, on the relationship between performance contracting and measurement, and public service delivery (expressed as customer satisfaction) in Kenya. The study was based on the results of measurement and evaluation of the performance of 470 public agencies that operated under performance contracts between 2004 and 2011. Using regression analysis, it was found initially that on its own, political stability had no significant relationship with or influence on customer satisfaction. It however had an effect on the relationship between performance contracting, measurement and public service delivery, where a unit change in political stability contributed negatively to customer satisfaction by a factor of 0.257, though not statistically significant. Correlation analysis established further that social chaos and turmoil, which result in political instability, negatively impact the attractiveness of a country in the global arena.
A Study of the Joint Effect of Performance Measurement, Political Stability and Global Competitiveness on Customer Satisfaction  [PDF]
Richard E. Ndubai, Isaac M. Mbeche, Ganesh P. Pokhariyal
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104917
Abstract:
The performance of governments in the delivery of services to the pub-lic—which constitutes the customers who are the tax payers, is affected and influenced by a multitude of factors, some controllable and others outside the control of governments. In addition, each of the diverse factors impacts uniquely on performance while others may have only tangential influence. According to Hansen (1989), there are two streams of research regarding the determinants of firm performance. One is based on the economic tradition and emphasizes external market factors that are largely outside the control of firm management, while the other builds on the behavioral and sociological paradigms focusing on organizational factors as they fit into the environment; the latter therefore focuses on factors internal to the firm. A combination of various factors working together however, has the potential to generate a blend of influences, which is a significant departure from the impact of any factor taken on its own. The ensuing study is set out to establish the joint effect of performance measurement, political stability and global competitiveness—critical internal and external factors that affect or influence the performance of governments—on public service delivery and its customer satisfaction derivative in Kenya. The study was based on the results of measurement and evaluation of the performance of 470 public agencies that operated on performance contracts between 2004 and 2011. Using regression analysis, it was found initially that each of the three factors had a uniquely significant effect on the relationship between public service delivery and customer satisfaction, with performance measurement showing a strong positive relationship (R = 0.858) with customer satisfaction. Performance measurement explained 73.6 percent (R2 = 0.736) of customer satisfaction levels with the remaining 26.4 percent accounted for by other factors. Global competitiveness on the other hand, had a weak positive relationship with customer satisfaction. The results showed that global competitiveness explained 0.7 percent (ΔR2 = 0.007) on the direct effect of performance measurement on customer satisfaction and had an average mean of 3.698 on a scale of 1 (very low) and 5 (very competitive). It turned out that there was no significant moderating effect of global competitiveness on the relationship between performance contracting, measurement and public service delivery in Kenya. The performance measurement variable had a t-value of 5.789 and was statistically significant while the effect of global competitiveness was positive although not statistically significant. Preliminary findings established initially that on its own, political stability had no significant relationship with or influence on customer satisfaction. It however had an effect on the relationship between performance contracting, measurement and public service delivery, where a unit change in political stability contributed negatively to customer satisfaction by a factor of 0.235, though not statistically significant. Correlation analysis established further that social chaos and turmoil, which result in political instability, negatively influenced the attractiveness of a country in the global arena. Overall, the results showed that performance measurement, political stability and global competitiveness were positively related to customer satisfaction. The joint effect of the three independent variables explained 78.5 percent (R2 = 0.785) of customer satisfaction levels with the remaining 21.5 percent accounted for by other factors implemented in the public sector.
Principal Component Analysis of EBT2 Radiochromic Film for Multichannel Film Dosimetry  [PDF]
Richard E. Wendt III
International Journal of Medical Physics,Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology (IJMPCERO) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2014.33021
Abstract:

Radiochromic film with a dye incorporated into the radiation sensitive layer [Gafchromic EBT2, Ashland, Inc.] may be digitized by a color transparency scanner, digitally processed, and calibrated so that a digital image in units of radiation absorbed dose is obtained. A transformation from raw scanner values to dose values was developed based upon a principal component analysis of the optical densities of the red, green and blue channels of the color image of a dose of 0.942 Gy delivered by a Sr-90/Y-90 disk-shaped source. In the order of increasing eigenvalue, the three eigenimages of the principal component analysis contained, by visual inspection, 1) mainly noise; 2) mainly a pattern of irregular streaks; and 3) most of the expected dose information along with some of the same background streaking that predominated in the second eigenimage. The combination of the second and third eigenimages that minimized the background streaking was converted into a transformation of the red, green and blue channels optical densities and applied to films with a range of doses from 0 to 63.7 Gy. The curve of dose vs. processed optical density was fit by a two-phase association curve. This processing was applied to a film exposed from its edge by a different Y-90 source in a configuration that was modeled by Monte Carlo simulation. The depth-dose curves of the measurement and simulation agree closely, suggesting that this approach is a valid method of processing EBT2 radiochromic film into maps of radiation absorbed dose.

How Do Viruses Interact with Stress-Associated RNA Granules?
Richard E. Lloyd
PLOS Pathogens , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002741
Abstract:
Elevated excitatory neurotransmitter levels in the fibromyalgia brain
Richard E Harris
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/ar3136
Abstract: The occurrence of central neurobiological factors in chronic pain states is becoming increasingly observed. For fibromyalgia (FM), this is certainly true as evidenced by the recent article by Fayed and colleagues in the previous issue of Arthritis Research and Therapy [1]. These authors used a brain imaging tool called proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), which can assess the concentration of specific metabolites in the human brain, and looked for altered levels of brain neurotransmitters in individuals with FM. Of particular importance to the field of neurobiology, 1H-MRS methods allow for the detection of the brain's major excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, glutamate (Glu) and gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA), respectively. To date, this method has been used frequently in disorders of the brain, such as depression [2], Alzheimer's disease [3], and epilepsy [4]; recently, however, it is becoming increasingly evident that chronic 'central' pain states such as FM may also have altered brain neurotransmitter levels, as evidenced by new 1H-MRS studies [5-7].Fayed and colleagues performed a cross- sectional 1H-MRS investigation of ten patients with FM and ten sex-and age-matched healthy controls, looking at four specific brain regions that are thought to be somewhat involved in pain processing: the sensorimotor cortex, the thalamus, the hippocampus, and the posterior gyrus (posterior cingulate). The authors report elevated levels of Glx, a combined measure of Glu and glutamine, within the posterior cingulate of FM patients. Moreover, they observed negative correlations between Glx in the patient group and pressure pain thresholds, and positive associations with these metabolites and scores on the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, suggesting that elevated levels of Glx in the posterior cingulate are associated with increased pain and tenderness in FM. The posterior cingulate region of the brain is also a key component of the default mode network (DM
Ethics of randomised controlled trials – not yet time to give up on equipoise
Richard E Ashcroft
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/ar1442
Abstract: James Fries and Eswar Krishnan have recently presented an interesting argument for the proposition that 'equipoise is a false and diverting principle' and propose an alternative test of the ethics of a randomised controlled trial, the 'positive expected value' test [1]. The concept of equipoise has been introduced into the medical literature on many occasions [2-7]. Both concepts are intended to give ethical justification to entering patients into randomised controlled trials. The problem that critics of such trials pose is that entering a patient into a trial seems to involve knowingly failing to offer the patient the treatment the doctor believes to be best for the patient, in the interests of scientific research and future patients. However, if there is genuine uncertainty as to which of the treatments being compared is superior, then randomised assignment can be justified [8]. There is considerable debate in the literature about how to give rigorous expression to what 'genuine uncertainty' requires. How much uncertainty? Whose uncertainty? When should we stop being 'uncertain' and start being 'certain'? The concepts of 'equipoise' defined in this literature are all attempts to give more precise expression to what is meant by 'uncertainty' here, and to give a sound basis to the ethical justification of randomisation in controlled trials.Fries and Krishnan argue that in the context of licensing trials of new drugs these debates are irrelevant and misleading. They argue that new drugs that reach industry-sponsored phase III trials are more likely to be effective than not, because they reach this stage of testing only if they have survived rigorous preclinical and clinical screening, and because the trial design decisions that are taken are those most likely to produce a positive result. They argue that this is demonstrated by the fact that all the trials they reviewed produced positive results in favour of the new drugs being tested [1]. On the basis of this, they
Individual freedom versus collective responsibility: an ethicist's perspective
Richard E Ashcroft
Emerging Themes in Epidemiology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1742-7622-3-11
Abstract: There is no problem more central ethics than the question ''Why should I be moral?'' An influential way of posing this question is to put this in terms of self-interest. Why should I act in a way which is, or seems to me to be, contrary to my own personal interests, even where this may produce benefits, or avoid harm, to another person or group? There are a number of different theories of ethics which attempt to answer this question.One popular approach is to draw on evolutionary theory and the theory of games. In this approach, it is argued that although self-interested behaviour may pay off in the short term, in the long term each individual benefits by cooperating (including occasional sacrifices of one's own interests for the benefit of others). This approach has been elaborated in evolutionary theory and moral philosophy by many writers[1-3]. The appeal of this theory is quite broad. Firstly, it seems to be empirically grounded. It is not a pious appeal to a principle such as "Do as you would be done by", but a demonstrably successful evolutionarily stable strategy. Second, it seems to prove that there is no radical distinction between morality and self-interest. Morality is just a generalised version of self-interest. The genuinely self-interested person would be moral, because this is the strategy with the best long-term expected pay-off for him or her. Trade-offs of his or her self-interest are at worst short-term losses that can be considered investments for long-term gain.This argument is, moreover, appealing in practice. It gives a plausible account of why parents ought to vaccinate their children against communicable diseases, why people with sexually transmitted diseases should be encouraged to tell their partners (even where telling might risk the continuity of a desired relationship), and why people ought not to take antibacterials for viral diseases and ought to comply with medical instructions when taking antibiotics.However, a lot of this appeal is
Problems of health insurance coverage and health care in the United States: public and private solution strategies
Brown, E. Richard;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 1992, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X1992000300007
Abstract: a nearly universal consensus has developed in the united states that the current health care financing system is a failure. the system has been unable to control the continuing rapid rise in health care costs (by far, the highest in the world), and it has been unable to stem the growing population that has no health insurance coverage (at least 36 million people). there is nearly universal political agreement that government must provide health insurance to a far greater share of the population than ever before. the political debate now focuses on whether this expanded government role should supplement the private insurance system with an enlarged public program covering those left out of private insurance coverage, or replace private insurance with a universal government health insurance program covering the entire population.
Silage microbiology and its control through additives
Muck, Richard E.;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982010001300021
Abstract: ensiling is a method of preserving a moist crop. a moist crop can support the growth of a wide range of microorganisms, most of which will degrade the nutrient value to livestock. however, ensiling generally controls microbial activity by a combination of an anaerobic environment and a natural fermentation of sugars by lactic acid bacteria on the crop. this fermentation and the resulting low ph primarily suppress the growth of other anaerobic microorganisms. the fermentation can also inhibit yeasts, molds and aerobic bacteria, but the anaerobic environment is essential to preventing most of the spoilage microorganisms from growing. inoculants have become the dominant additives for making silage. homofermentative strains help guarantee a rapid suppression of anaerobic stains early in storage, increase dry matter recovery and have improved animal performance by means that we do not fully understand. inoculants containing lactobacillus buchneri, a heterofermentative species capable of fermenting lactic acid to acetic, are recent additives. the added acetic acid inhibits yeast and mold growth, increasing aerobic stability of silages at feeding.
第1页/共184213条
每页显示


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.