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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 215703 matches for " Richard D. Smith "
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Advanced Mass Spectrometric Methods for the Rapid and Quantitative Characterization of Proteomes
Richard D. Smith
Comparative and Functional Genomics , 2002, DOI: 10.1002/cfg.159
Abstract: Progress is reviewed towards the development of a global strategy that aims to extend the sensitivity, dynamic range, comprehensiveness and throughput of proteomic measurements based upon the use of high performance separations and mass spectrometry. The approach uses high accuracy mass measurements from Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR) to validate peptide ‘accurate mass tags’ (AMTs) produced by global protein enzymatic digestions for a specific organism, tissue or cell type from ‘potential mass tags’ tentatively identified using conventional tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). This provides the basis for subsequent measurements without the need for MS/ MS. High resolution capillary liquid chromatography separations combined with high sensitivity, and high resolution accurate FTICR measurements are shown to be capable of characterizing peptide mixtures of more than 105 components. The strategy has been initially demonstrated using the microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Deinococcus radiodurans. Advantages of the approach include the high confidence of protein identification, its broad proteome coverage, high sensitivity, and the capability for stableisotope labeling methods for precise relative protein abundance measurements.
Global public goods and health
Smith Richard D.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2003,
Abstract:
Global public goods and the global health agenda: problems, priorities and potential
Richard D Smith, Landis MacKellar
Globalization and Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8603-3-9
Abstract: Although the health of the world's poor has been an apparent humanitarian concern of the world's rich for many years, results based on appeals to such 'humanity' have not been sufficient. Even recent high-profile engagements by the Global Fund Against AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (GFATM), the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, and WHO disease-targeted programs such as Stop TB and Roll Back Malaria have failed to bring us to the levels of assistance needed to achieve the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).Beginning in the late 1990s, the suggestion emerged to address this situation by encouraging policy makers in rich countries to view health assistance not only as humanitarian but as a selfish investment in protecting the health of their own populations. The key concept underlying this new interpretation is that of 'global public goods' (GPGs) [1].This paper briefly outlines and clarifies the GPG concept, and identifies two major health GPGs: health research and development (R&D), and communicable disease control. However, just because a problem is global and formidable, or just because the response is multilateral, does not necessarily mean that it has anything to do with the undersupply of GPGs. We show this by considering two major global health innovations, GFATM and the re-branding of traditional health objectives in the form of MDGs. Based on the review, in a concluding section we suggest three ways in which the GPG concept can be more effectively deployed to promote global health development.The GPG concept is an extension of the economic tradition of classifying goods and services according to where they stand along two axes: one measuring rivalry in consumption; the other measuring excludability. Pure private goods are those that we are most used to dealing with in our day-to-day lives, and are defined as those goods (like a loaf of bread) that are diminished by use, a
Antimicrobial resistance: a global response
Smith,Richard D.; Coast,Joanna;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862002000200008
Abstract: resistance to antimicrobial therapies reduces the effectiveness of these drugs, leading to increased morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure. because globalization increases the vulnerability of any country to diseases occurring in other countries, resistance presents a major threat to global public health, and no country acting on its own can adequately protect the health of its population against it. international collective action is therefore essential. nevertheless, responsibility for health remains predominantly national. consequently, there is a potentially significant disparity between the problems and solutions related to antimicrobial resistance and the institutions and mechanisms that are available to deal with them. this paper considers the capacity of national and international institutions and mechanisms to generate a collective response to antimicrobial resistance. strategies for containing resistance are outlined, with particular reference to globally coordinated activities of countries. the adequacy of national and international responses to resistance is assessed, and the actions that international bodies could take to solve difficulties associated with present responses are highlighted. approaches are suggested for securing international collective action for the containment of antimicrobial resistance.
A review of the health and economic implications of patent protection, with a specific focus on Thailand
Yamabhai Inthira,Smith Richard D
Health Research Policy and Systems , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4505-10-24
Abstract: Background Although it has been two decades since the Thai Patent Act was amended to comply with the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), there has been little emphasis given to assessing the implications of this amendment. The purpose of this review is to summarize the health and economic impact of patent protection, with a focus on the experience of Thailand. Methods A review of national and international empirical evidence on the health and economic implications of patents from 1980 to 2009 was undertaken. Results The findings illustrate the role of patent protection in four areas: price, present access, future access, and international trade and investment. Forty-three empirical studies were found, three of which were from Thai databases. Patenting does increase price, although the size of effect differs according to the methodology and country. Although weakening patent rights could increase present access, evidence suggests that strengthening patenting may benefit future access; although this is based on complex assumptions and estimations. Moreover, while patent protection appears to have a positive impact on trade flow, the implication for foreign direct investment (FDI) is equivocal. Conclusions Empirical studies in Thailand, and other similar countries, are rare, compromising the robustness and generalizability of conclusions. However, evidence does suggest that patenting presents a significant inter-temporal challenge in balancing aspects of current versus future access to technologies. This underlines the urgent need to prioritize health research resources to assess the wider implications of patent protection.
Antimicrobial resistance: a global response
Smith Richard D.,Coast Joanna
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002,
Abstract: Resistance to antimicrobial therapies reduces the effectiveness of these drugs, leading to increased morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure. Because globalization increases the vulnerability of any country to diseases occurring in other countries, resistance presents a major threat to global public health, and no country acting on its own can adequately protect the health of its population against it. International collective action is therefore essential. Nevertheless, responsibility for health remains predominantly national. Consequently, there is a potentially significant disparity between the problems and solutions related to antimicrobial resistance and the institutions and mechanisms that are available to deal with them. This paper considers the capacity of national and international institutions and mechanisms to generate a collective response to antimicrobial resistance. Strategies for containing resistance are outlined, with particular reference to globally coordinated activities of countries. The adequacy of national and international responses to resistance is assessed, and the actions that international bodies could take to solve difficulties associated with present responses are highlighted. Approaches are suggested for securing international collective action for the containment of antimicrobial resistance.
VariVis: a visualisation toolkit for variation databases
Timothy D Smith, Richard GH Cotton
BMC Bioinformatics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-9-206
Abstract: Here we present a visualisation toolkit that can be employed by online variation databases to generate graphical models of gene sequence with corresponding variations and their consequences. The VariVis software package can run on any web server capable of executing Perl CGI scripts and can interface with numerous Database Management Systems and "flat-file" data files. VariVis produces two easily understandable graphical depictions of any gene sequence and matches these with variant data. While developed with the goal of improving the utility of human variation databases, the VariVis package can be used in any variation database to enhance utilisation of, and access to, critical information.Although there has been effort over the last few years to improve the quality of variation databases, with the Human Genome Variation Society publishing guidelines covering fields such as variant nomenclature [1], database content, structure and deployment [2], and quality control [3], much of the data contained in variation databases remains difficult to access. In a survey of locus specific databases (LSDBs) in 2002, Claustres et al. noted that only 54% of examined databases would fit minimal criteria for ease of use, only "some" depicted the distribution of variation within a gene and "few" possessed graphical displays, especially of a dynamic nature [4]. Huge sums of money have been invested in the search for the underlying genetic causes of disease, but much of that investment is wasted if anyone who desires the existing data is unable to not only access, but also understand, what is being presented [5]. Variation databases are heavily underfunded and usually run 'on the side' by researchers while pursuing their funded research interests [6]. This lack of time and money means that database curators often are unable to devote the necessary time to developing useful visualisation tools. However, the data that languish in these databases because they are so poorly presented cou
Word learning under infinite uncertainty
Richard A. Blythe,Andrew D. M. Smith,Kenny Smith
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Language learners learn the meanings of many thousands of words, despite encountering them in complex environments where infinitely many meanings might be inferred by the learner as their true meaning. This problem of infinite referential uncertainty is often attributed to Willard Van Orman Quine. We provide a mathematical formalisation of an ideal cross-situational learner attempting to learn under infinite referential uncertainty, and identify conditions under which this can happen. As Quine's intuitions suggest, learning under infinite uncertainty is possible, provided that learners have some means of ranking candidate word meanings in terms of their plausibility; furthermore, our analysis shows that this ranking could in fact be exceedingly weak, implying that constraints allowing learners to infer the plausibility of candidate word meanings could also be weak.
Proteogenomic Analysis of Bacteria and Archaea: A 46 Organism Case Study
Eli Venter, Richard D. Smith, Samuel H. Payne
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027587
Abstract: Experimental evidence is increasingly being used to reassess the quality and accuracy of genome annotation. Proteomics data used for this purpose, called proteogenomics, can alleviate many of the problematic areas of genome annotation, e.g. short protein validation and start site assignment. We performed a proteogenomic analysis of 46 genomes spanning eight bacterial and archaeal phyla across the tree of life. These diverse datasets facilitated the development of a robust approach for proteogenomics that is functional across genomes varying in %GC, gene content, proteomic sampling depth, phylogeny, and genome size. In addition to finding evidence for 682 novel proteins, 1336 new start sites, and numerous dubious genes, we discovered sites of post-translational maturation in the form of proteolytic cleavage of 1175 signal peptides. The number of novel proteins per genome is highly variable (median 7, mean 15, stdev 20). Moreover, comparison of novel genes with the current genes did not reveal any consistent abnormalities. Thus, we conclude that proteogenomics fulfills a yet to be understood deficiency in gene prediction. With the adoption of new sequencing technologies which have higher error rates than Sanger-based methods and the advances in proteomics, proteogenomics may become even more important in the future.
The potential for bi-lateral agreements in medical tourism: A qualitative study of stakeholder perspectives from the UK and India
Melisa Martínez álvarez, Rupa Chanda, Richard D Smith
Globalization and Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8603-7-11
Abstract: 30 semi-structured interviews were carried out with stakeholders, 20 in India and 10 in the UK, to assess their views on the potential offered by a bi-lateral relationship on medical tourism between both countries. Issues discussed include data availability, origin of medical tourists, quality and continuity of care, regulation and litigation, barriers to medical tourism, policy changes needed, and prospects for such a bi-lateral relationship.The majority of stakeholders were concerned about the quality of health services patients would receive abroad, regulation and litigation procedures, lack of continuity of care, and the effect of such trade on the healthcare available to the local population in India. However, when considering trade from a bi-lateral point of view, there was disagreement on how these issues would apply. There was further disagreement on the importance of the Diaspora and the validity of the UK's 'rule' that patients should not fly more than three hours to obtain care. Although the opinion on the prospects for an India-UK bi-lateral relationship was varied, there was no consensus on what policy changes would be needed for such a relationship to take place.Whilst the literature review previously carried out suggested that a bi-lateral relationship would be best-placed to address the concerns regarding medical tourism, there was scepticism from the analysis provided in this paper based on the over-riding feeling that the political 'cost' involved was likely to be the major impediment. This makes the need for better evidence even more acute, as much of the current policy process could well be based on entrenched ideological positions, rather than secure evidence of impact.In an increasingly globalised world, countries are assessing their position on trade in health services [1]. Debates on the subject often centre on the World Trade Organisation's General Agreement on Trade in Services [2]. This is removed from the reality, however, where most trad
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