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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 19280 matches for " Richard Crouch "
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Ellipsis and Quantification: a substitutional approach
Richard Crouch
Computer Science , 1995,
Abstract: The paper describes a substitutional approach to ellipsis resolution giving comparable results to Dalrymple, Shieber and Pereira (1991), but without the need for order-sensitive interleaving of quantifier scoping and ellipsis resolution. It is argued that the order-independence results from viewing semantic interpretation as building a description of a semantic composition, instead of the more common view of interpretation as actually performing the composition
Report of the Study Group on Assessment and Evaluation
Richard Crouch,Robert Gaizauskas,Klaus Netter
Computer Science , 1996,
Abstract: This is an interim report discussing possible guidelines for the assessment and evaluation of projects developing speech and language systems. It was prepared at the request of the European Commission DG XIII by an ad hoc study group, and is now being made available in the form in which it was submitted to the Commission. However, the report is not an official European Commission document, and does not reflect European Commission policy, official or otherwise. After a discussion of terminology, the report focusses on combining user-centred and technology-centred assessment, and on how meaningful comparisons can be made of a variety of systems performing different tasks for different domains. The report outlines the kind of infra-structure that might be required to support comparative assessment and evaluation of heterogenous projects, and also the results of a questionnaire concerning different approaches to evaluation.
CLARE: A Contextual Reasoning and Cooperative Response Framework for the Core Language Engine
Hiyan Alshawi,David Carter,Richard Crouch,Steve Pulman,Manny Rayner,Arnold Smith
Computer Science , 1994,
Abstract: This report describes the research, design and implementation work carried out in building the CLARE system at SRI International, Cambridge, England. CLARE was designed as a natural language processing system with facilities for reasoning and understanding in context and for generating cooperative responses. The project involved both further development of SRI's Core Language Engine (Alshawi, 1992, MIT Press) natural language processor and the design and implementation of new components for reasoning and response generation. The CLARE system has advanced the state of the art in a wide variety of areas, both through the use of novel techniques developed on the project, and by extending the coverage or scale of known techniques. The language components are application-independent and provide interfaces for the development of new types of application.
Back to the Future: Vilém Flusser’s Into the universe of technical images
David Crouch
Digital Culture & Education , 2012,
Abstract:
Review: Schr ter, Susanne (ed.): Christianity in Indonesia: Perspectives of Power
Melissa Crouch
Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs , 2011,
Abstract: Review of the edited volume: Schr ter, Susanne (ed.) (2011), Christianity in Indonesia: Perspectives of Power, Münster: LIT VERLAG. ISBN: 978-3-643-10798-5, 420 pages
Surfactant protein-D and pulmonary host defense
Erika C Crouch
Respiratory Research , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/rr19
Abstract: Surfactant protein-D (SP-D) is a member of the collagenous subfamily of calcium-dependent lectins (collectins) that includes pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) and the serum mannose-binding lectin [1,2,3]. Collectins interact with a wide variety of microorganisms, lipids, and organic particulate antigens, and can modulate the function of immune effector cells and their responses to these ligands. This article reviews what is currently known about the sites of production, structure, function, and regulated expression of SP-D. Emphasis will be placed on functional attributes, known ligand interactions, and structure-function relationships believed to be important for host defense. For additional information on SP-A and other members of the collectin family, the reader is referred to other recent reviews [4,5,6].SP-D is synthesized and secreted into the airspaces of the lung by the respiratory epithelium [1]. At the alveolar level, SP-D is constitutively synthesized and secreted by alveolar type II cells. More proximally in the lung, SP-D is secreted by a subset of bronchiolar epithelial cells, the non-ciliated Clara cells. Because SP-D is stored within the secretory granules of Clara cells [7,8], it seems likely that SP-D is subject to regulated secretion via granule exocytosis at this level of the respiratory tract. In some species, SP-D is also synthesized by epithelial cells and/or submucosal glands associated with the bronchi and trachea [9]. Although many alveolar macrophages show strong cytoplasmic and/or membrane labeling with antibody against SP-D, they do not contain detectable SP-D message.The lung seems to be the major site of SP-D production. However, there is increasing evidence for extrapulmonary sites of expression as assessed with monoclonal or affinity-purified antibodies, reverse-transcriptase-mediated PCR (RT-PCR), and/or hybridization assays of tissues from humans and other large mammals [10,11,12,13,14] (summarized in Table 1). It is difficult
Trial by fire: social spider colony demographics in periodically burned grassland
Yael Lubin,Tanza Crouch
African Zoology , 2011,
Abstract: Nature conservation authorities in southern Africa burn the grassland in nature reserves to reduce the incursion of woody plants and to encourage the growth of new grass for grazing.Studies have shown significant negative effects of burning on the abundance, species diversity and community composition of smaller vertebrates and invertebrates. Social arthropods are likely to suffer from repeated burning, as destruction of the colony means a permanent loss of the entire reproductive unit. Nests of social spiders of the genus Stegodyphus (Eresidae) are a prominent feature of African savannas and their size and visibility make them potentially good indicators of ecological consequences of fire. The colonies are sedentary and their nests may persist for several years, although individuals have an annual life cycle. We explored the mortality patterns and the effects of burning on survival of colonies of two species of social spider, Stegodyphus mimosarum and S. dumicola that live sympatrically. We compared colony mortality in burned and unburned areas to determine if colony mortality was due to burning or, alternatively, to natural senescence. Analysis of five years of nest mortality data together with information on the burning regime in Spioenkop Nature Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal province (South Africa), indicates that colony extinction in S. mimosarum is independent of
Sudáfrica: Acceso antes que calidad, y qué hacer ahora?
Luis Crouch,Penny Vinjevold
PROFESORADO , 2006,
Abstract: Este texto argumentará que, aunque la tensión entre acceso masivo y calidad media en la Educación Secundaria existe en potencia o como tendencia, la evidencia parece indicar que la mayoría de países, en realidad, afrontan la responsabilidad de esta elección de modo razonablemente satisfactorio. La reconciliación del acceso (o equidad) con la calidad es un asunto de una política guiadas con propósitos, y es algo que ha sido logrado cuando los países ponen en práctica políticas donde el debate y la experimentación dan como resultado mejoras conjuntas en el acceso y la calidad. Este desequilibrio resalta el hecho de que la tensión entre acceso y calidad es real y que solo puede ser superado con unos cambios de política conscientes y trabajados y con esfuerzos en la implementación. La región en cuestión es el sur de áfrica. Sin embargo en esa región, Sudáfrica parece paradigmático. El texto investigará el típico desequilibrio en el sur de áfrica (y sudafricano especialmente) entre acceso y calidad, se sugerirá que este desequilibrio pueda ser un ejemplo cautelar para otros países que se adentran en la masificación secundaria, explicando lo que está haciendo Sudáfrica actualmente para solventar el desequilibrio entre acceso y calidad.
Resolving the Azimuthal Ambiguity in Vector Magnetogram Data with the Divergence-Free Condition: Implementations for Disambiguating Each Height Independently
Ashley D. Crouch
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1007/s11207-015-0770-4
Abstract: We continue the investigation of how to use the divergence-free condition to resolve the azimuthal ambiguity present in vector magnetogram data. In previous articles, by Crouch, Barnes, and Leka (Solar Physics, 260, 271, 2009) and Crouch (Solar Physics, 282, 107, 2013), all methods used an expression for the divergence of the magnetic field that involves differentiation of quantities that depend on the choice of azimuthal angle. As a result, all heights used to approximate line-of-sight derivatives should generally be disambiguated simultaneously. In this article, we investigate a set of methods that use an expression for the divergence that involves differentiation of quantities that do not depend on the choice of azimuthal angle. This results in an expression for the divergence that can be used to disambiguate each height independently. We test two methods using synthetic and find that the two-step, hybrid method, adapted to disambiguate each height independently, generally produces reasonable results. Moreover, the time required to compute solutions is substantially decreased in comparison to the corresponding method that disambiguates all relevant heights simultaneously.
Resolving the Azimuthal Ambiguity in Vector Magnetogram Data with the Divergence-Free Condition: the Effects of Noise and Limited Spatial Resolution
Ashley D. Crouch
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s11207-012-0149-8
Abstract: We investigate how the azimuthal ambiguity in solar vector magnetogram data can be resolved by using the divergence-free property of magnetic fields. In a previous article, by Crouch, Barnes, and Leka (Solar Phys. 260, 271, 2009), error-free synthetic data were used to test several methods that each make a different assumption about how the divergence-free property can be used to resolve the ambiguity. In this paper this testing is continued with an examination of the effects of Poisson photon noise and limited instrumental spatial resolution. We find that all currently available methods based on the divergence-free property can produce undesirable results when photon noise or unresolved structure are present in the data. We perform a series of experiments aimed at improving the performance of the global minimisation method, which is the most promising of the methods. We present a two-step approach that produces reasonable results in tests using synthetic data. The first step of this approach involves the global minimisation of a combination of the absolute value of the approximation for the divergence and a smoothness constraint, which is designed to minimise the difference between the magnetic field in neighbouring pixels. In the second step, pixels with measurements known to be strongly affected by photon noise are revisited with a smoothing algorithm that also seeks to minimise the difference between the magnetic field in neighbouring pixels.
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