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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 161980 matches for " Richard B. Felson "
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Violence, Crime, and Violent Crime
Richard B. Felson
International Journal of Conflict and Violence , 2009,
Abstract: I propose a dual conceptualization of violent crime. Since violent crime is both violence and crime, theories of aggression and deviance are required to understand it. I argue that both harm-doing and rule breaking are instrumental behaviors and that a bounded rational choice approach can account for both behaviors. However, while some of the causes of harm-doing and deviance (and violent and nonviolent crime) are the same, some are different. Theories of crime and deviance cannot explain why one only observes individual and group differences in violent crime and theories of aggression and violence cannot explain why one observes differences in all types of crimes. Such theories are “barking up the wrong tree.”
Assessing the Effects of the Urban Forest Restoration Effort of MillionTreesNYC on the Structure and Functioning of New York City Ecosystems
P. Timon McPhearson,Michael Feller,Alexander Felson,Richard Karty
Cities and the Environment , 2010,
Abstract: Current forest restoration practices for New York City’s (NYC) MillionTreesNYC Initiative on public parkland include site preparation with extensive invasive species removal and tree and shrub planting with the goal of creating new multi-layered forests. We have launched a long-term investigation of these sites in order to understand the primary physical, chemical, and biological responses of urban ecosystems to MillionTreesNYC forest restoration practices. This research will examine high and low diversity tree and understory planting combinations in permanent experimental forest restoration plots across NYC. The study assesses how the interactions between soil heterogeneity, plant population dynamics, and forest restoration management strategies drive urban forest ecosystem structure and functioning. Working in collaboration with the NYC Department of Parks & Recreation (NYC Parks) and the MillionTreesNYC tree planting campaign, we are examining different restoration strategies to assess how restoration practices affect the ecological development trajectories of newly established forests in NYC.
Developments in the clinical understanding of osteoarthritis
David T Felson
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/ar2531
Abstract: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and remains one of the few chronic diseases of aging for which there is little, if any, effective treatment. It accounts for more mobility disability in the elderly than any other disease. Symptomatic knee OA affects roughly 12% of persons 60 years old or older and, despite medical advances, remains for many a major source of pain and function limitation. Hip OA, though less prevalent than disease in the knee, is common and frequently disabling, and hand OA causes pain and function loss in a large percentage of the elderly. Given the aging of the population and the increasing occurrence of obesity in our population, a major risk factor for disease, estimates suggest a doubling in prevalence from 2000 to 2020 [1].We will focus on developments in our clinical understanding of OA in the last 10 years. This period has seen major changes in our conceptualization of the disease, the widespread introduction of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in clinical studies (a tool that has permitted us to better visualize structural changes within OA joints), and the emergence of large-scale clinical studies investigating mechanical and loading abnormalities as risk factors for disease. The results of these studies have led to changes in our approach to treatment. The discussion will target knee OA, which has been the best studied of all joints affected. Advances in the medical understanding of hip and hand OA will also be reviewed.While the signature pathologic feature of OA is hyaline articular cartilage loss, it is increasingly recognized that OA is a disease of the whole joint and that all structures are affected [2]. Not only is hyaline cartilage lost, but bone remodeling and attrition occur relatively early in the disease process [3]. Fibrocartilage degeneration including the meniscus and labrum (in the hip) is integral to disease, and changes in the load-distributing function of this fibrocartilage may induce injury to a
Comparing the prevalence of rheumatic diseases in China with the rest of the world
David T Felson
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/ar2369
Abstract: In the present issue of Arthritis Research and Therapy Zeng and colleagues comprehensively review studies evaluating the prevalence of rheumatic disease in China [1]. Their report suggests variations in the prevalence of symptomatic osteoarthritis throughout China, consistent prevalences for ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis, an absence of fibromyalgia, and a temporal increase in the prevalence of gout. What should we make of all of these estimates and why are they important to us outside China?Estimates of the prevalence of rheumatic disease provide information about the burden of disease and suggest a need for provision of health services. For knee osteoarthritis, where the prevalence in China is high and knee replacements are not widely available [2], there may be a need for additional provision of health services.Comparing the prevalence of disease from one region with another often provides insights into disease etiology. For example, coronary heart disease rates increased as Japanese migrated from Japan to Hawaii to mainland United States, suggesting that diet and environment were major causes of coronary heart disease. For systemic lupus, which was not evaluated by Zeng and colleagues, a prevalence gradient exists with low prevalence of lupus occurring in Africans, moderate rates along the slave trade route among African descendents living in the Caribbean, and high rates in the United States [3]. Using data from the article by Zeng and colleagues, we can make inferences about differences in disease prevalence that might provide clues regarding rheumatic disease etiology.Zeng and colleagues reviewed diverse studies, many of them using the Community Oriented Program for the Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) protocol. The COPCORD has been a joint initiative by the World Health Organization and the International League of Associations for Rheumatology whose goal was to provide information about the epidemiology of rheumatic disease in develop
Could Sequential Residual Centering Resolve Low Sensitivity in Moderated Regression? Simulations and Cancer Symptom Clusters  [PDF]
Richard B. Francoeur
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2013.36A004

Multicollinearity constitutes shared variation among predictors that inflates standard errors of regression coefficients. Several years ago, it was proven that the common practice of mean centering in moderated regression cannot alleviate multicollinearity among variables comprising an interaction, but merely masks it. Residual centering (orthogonalizing) is unacceptable because it biases parameters for predictors from which the interaction derives, thus precluding interpretation of moderator effects. I propose and validate residual centering in sequential re-estimations of a moderated regression—sequential residual centering (SRC)—by revealing unbiased multicollinearity conditioning across the interaction and its related terms. Across simulations, SRC reduces variance inflation factors (VIF) regardless of distribution shape or pattern of regression coefficients across predictors. For any predictor, the reduced VIF is used to derive a lower standard error of its regression coefficient. A cancer sample illustrates SRC, which allows unbiased interpretations of symptom clusters. SRC can be applied efficiently to alleviate multicollinearity after data collection and shows promise for advancing synergistic frontiers of research.

A surplus of positive trials: weighing biases and reconsidering equipoise
David T Felson, Leonard Glantz
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/ar1189
Abstract: In this issue Fries and Krishnan [1] raise provocative new ideas that account for the surfeit of positive industry controlled trials evaluating new drugs. Furthermore, they suggest that equipoise is a 'paternalistic' and outdated concept that should be replaced by new approaches to ethical choice in designing clinical trials and obtaining consent from potential participants.There are two fundamental and independent concepts presented by Fries and Krishnan. First, design bias – the process of using preliminary data to design studies with a high likelihood of being positive – partly accounts for the remarkably high percentage of trials sponsored by industry that yield results favoring the sponsored drug. If design bias is indeed present, then the treasured concept of clinical equipoise, which demands that subjects entering a trial have an equal likelihood of experiencing benefits regardless of the treatment group to which they were randomized, is violated. Those authors then propose a second concept, namely that equipoise is an outdated concept and should be replaced by concepts of positive expected value (the positive sum of benefits of the two trial treatment arms), and even that subjects could enter a trial with a negative expected value as long as they are honestly informed of this likelihood.Let us consider these concepts in order. First, Fries and Krishnan report that all 45 of the industry sponsored clinical trials presented at the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) meetings in 1 year found positive results that favor the industry product. This finding is not new, although it is more dramatic than has been seen in other investigations of this topic. In a meta-analysis of 370 trials from a large number of medical fields, Als-Nielsen and colleagues [2] reported that an experimental drug was found to be the treatment of choice in 16% of trials funded by nonprofit organizations, in 30% of trials not reporting funding, and in 51% of trials funded by for-profit o
Estimating Potential Nitrogen Mineralisation Using the Solvita Soil Respiration System  [PDF]
Richard L. Haney, Elizabeth B. Haney
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2015.512030
Abstract: Nitrogen (N) mineralisation contributes considerably to crop growth in fertilized and unfertilized fields. It is useful to be able to assess potential N mineralisation to increase fertilizer application efficiency, prevent excessive N runoff, and improve environmental system models. The microbes present in soil mineralize N based on many factors, including soil temperature and moisture, tillage, and levels of organic C and N. The measurement of soil’s ability to mineralize N is considered a good indicator of soil quality. Many methods have been developed to estimate N mineralisation in the laboratory and field. The 7-day anaerobic N mineralisation method developed in the 1960’s is considered reliable and is often used to compare new N-mineralisation testing methods. This study examines the use of soil CO2 evolution as determined using the Solvita Soil Respiration System (Solvita) for estimating N mineralisation by comparing it directly to the anaerobic N mineralisation test. Measured CO2 using Solvita was strongly correlated with anaerobic N mineralisation (r2 = 0.82). Results indicate that the Solvita Soil Respiration System can be used to rapidly assess soil respiration and relative N mineralisation potential in any given soil and is considerably faster and easier to perform in a laboratory setting than the anaerobic N mineralisation test.
Cerebellar Involvement in Clumsiness and Other Developmental Disorders
Richard B. Ivry
Neural Plasticity , 2003, DOI: 10.1155/np.2003.141
Abstract: Cerebellar abnormalities have been linked to a number of developmental disorders. Much evidence is based on the analysis of highresolution MRI scans. Imaging and behavioral studies have led researchers to consider functional contributions of the cerebellum beyond that associated with motor control. I review this literature, providing an analysis of different ways to consider the relation between cerebellar abnormalities and developmental disorders. Interestingly, although clumsiness is a problem of coordination, the contribution of cerebellar dysfunction to this developmental problem has received little attention. Select studies indicate that some clumsy children have difficulties on tasks requiring precise timing, similar to that observed in adult patients with cerebellar lesions. I suggest that the underlying neural bases of clumsiness are heterogeneous, with cerebellar dysfunction likely a major contributor for a subpopulation of such children.
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition: a new era begins
Richard B Kreider
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1550-2783-4-1
Abstract: The Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition (JISSN) is the official journal of the ISSN. The goal of the JISSN is to keep ISSN members, the scientific and medical community, and the general public up to date on the latest advances in exercise and sports nutrition in a well referenced but easy to understand format. In addition, to provide a quality publication outlet for exercise and sport nutrition related research. The JISSN has published reviews, original research manuscripts, case-reports, and editorials related to the role of exercise and nutrition on health, disease, rehabilitation, training, and performance.For the first three years of publication, the JISSN was published as a peer-reviewed open access electronic journal accessible through the ISSN's website. While this format has been successful, the ISSN's Board of Directors [2] sought to increase the visibility, credibility, and impact of the JISSN. As a result, the ISSN decided to convert the JISSN from a society-based electronic journal to a BioMed Central journal. BioMed Central [3] is an independent publishing house committed to ensuring peer-reviewed biomedical research is open access – immediately and permanently available online without charge or any other barriers to access. Publishing the JISSN through BioMed Central provides an automated online submission and peer-review process; publication preparation services; the ability to publish articles online within a few days of acceptance; and, automatic indexing through PubMed [4], PubMed Central [5], Scirus [6], Google [7], Citebase [8], and OAIster [9]. Additionally, it allows for citation tracking through Thomson Scientific (ISI) [10] which will help establish and build a strong impact factor for the JISSN. While there is an article-processing charge [11] associated with publishing through BioMed Central, the ISSN Board of Directors believes that converting JISSN to a BioMed Central journal will make it more convenient for authors t
Introduction - language planning: where have we been? where might we be going?
Baldauf Jr, Richard B.;
Revista Brasileira de Linguística Aplicada , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1984-63982012000200002
Abstract: this paper provides a brief overview of the development and state of language policy and planning and examines some of the directions that language planners have been taking to engage with issues of importance to their discipline. the papers in this volume of rbla are linked to the overview and the directions being taken by scholars in the field.
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