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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 19975 matches for " Richard Ayuk II Akoachere "
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Hydrogeology of Abuja FCT-Nigeria: A GIS Evaluation  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk II Akoachere, Omogbemi Omoloju Yaya, Areakpoh Thomson Eyong, Elizabeth Orock Ayuk, Ebot Sonia Egbe
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105649
Abstract:
Groundwater has been recognized as playing a very important role in the development of Abuja FCT Nigeria’s capital, as many private and government establishments depend solely on wells for their water needs. Exploitation of groundwater is delicate due to its potency to contamination and difficulty to remediate aquifers. This study is to evaluate the input of the rock formations to the groundwater solute chemistry and groundwater domestic quality using hydrogeochemical tools and physicochemical parameters: pH, EC, Temperature, TDS, Chloro-alkaline indices, Ionic ratios, Gibbs diagrams, Piper diagrams, Durov diagrams and water quality index. From physicochemical parameters: pH ranged from, 4.8 - 7.9; EC, 13.4 - 1634 μS/cm; Temperature, 26℃ - 36.1℃ and TDS, 17.42 - 1094.78 mg/L. The major ions fell below WHO acceptable limits. The sequences of abundance of major ions were, K > Ca2 > Na > Mg2 for cations and Cl-> HCO3->NO3->SO42- for anions. Borehole depths range from 19.5 - 34.5 m with static water levels between 3 - 12 m.a.m.s.l. Yields were between 3.2 - 7.2 m3/Hr. Ionic ratios show ninety-five (95%) percent of the groundwater chemistry resulting from chemical weathering of rock-forming minerals through the dissolution of the host rock. The Chloro-alkaline indices: CAI1 87.23% are positive indicating exchange of Na and K from water with Mg and Ca of the rocks and 12.77% are negative, indicating reverse softening of groundwater in rocks by infiltrating rainwater while CAI2 85.11% are positive indicating exchange of Na and K from water with Mg and Ca of the rocks and 14.89% are negative, indicating reverse softening of groundwater in rocks by infiltrating rainwater. Thus chloro-alkaline indices indicate the dominance of alkaline earth elements over alkalis in majority of samples due to direct exchange of Ca2 and Mg2 from the aquifer matrix with Na and K from the groundwater. Gibbs diagram revealed groundwater ionic content was as a result of ion exchange from rock-weathering. Piper diagrams give three water types: 75% are CaHCO3, 21.20% are of MgHCO3 and 3.19% are of Na KHCO3 water types respectively. Piper diagrams also give three hydrogeochemical facies in Abuja FCT: 54.25% are of Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4, 42.56% are of Ca-Mg-HCO3 and 3.19% are of Na-K-Cl-SO4 hydrogeochemical facies respectively. Durov plot shows 20.21% are anion discriminate Ca dominant; mixed water and 63.83% had no dominant ion; simple dissolution. Water quality indices (WQI) values were between -220 - 180, Total hardness (TH) values were between 0 - 519.12. These WQI and TH values indicate that 69.2% and 47.37% of the groundwater respectively are suitable for domestic purpose. The groundwater in Abuja FCT is acidic to slightly alkaline in nature, soft to moderately hard and of low to high salinity. Major processes controlling the water quality are the weathering of the host rock through mineral dis-solution, cation exchange and inverse cation exchange processes. Ion-exchange, simple dissolution and uncommon dissolution processes determined groundwater character.
Geogenic Imprint on Groundwater and Its Quality in Parts of the Mamfe Basin, Manyu Division, Cameroon  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk II Akoachere, Thomson Areapkoh Eyong, Sonia Ebot Egbe, Regina Engome Wotany, Michael Obiekwe Nwude, Omagbemi Omoloju Yaya
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2019.75016
Abstract:
Groundwater studies in parts of the Mamfe basin are sparse and the Mamfe area has the highest population density in the Mamfe basin. An in-depth study of groundwater rock interaction and groundwater quality is of vital importance. This same part of the basin is the economic centre and as such development of businesses in this area requires knowledge of the groundwater quality. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the input of the rock formations on the groundwater solute chemistry and groundwater domestic-agro-industrial quality using hydrogeochemical tools and physicochemical parameters: Ionic ratios, Gibbs diagrams, Piper diagrams, Durov diagrams and water quality indices. From physicochemical parameters, in the rainy season, pH ranged from, 4.3 - 8.6; EC, 3 - 1348 μS/cm; Temperature, 24.4 - 30.1
GIS-Hydrogeochemical Model of the Yaoundé Fractured Rock Aquifer, Cameroon: Aquifer Setting, Seasonal Variations in Groundwater-Rock Interaction and Water Quality  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk II Akoachere, Omabgemi Omoloju Yaya, Sonia Ebot Egbe, Thomson Areakpoh Eyong, Bihmimihney Nelly Nji, Diana Besem Tambe
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2019.75018
Abstract:
This study of the gneiss-fractured-rock aquifer in Yaoundé capital of Cameroon determines: the aquifer setting-flow systems, the aquifer type, seasonal variations in rock-water interactions, evolution of the hydrogeochemical processes, physicochemical parameters and the suitability for domestic-agro-industrial use of the groundwater. Physicochemical field tests were carried out on 445 wells during four seasons for EC, pH, TDS, Temperature and static water level from July 2016 to May 2017. 90 well samples were analyzed 45 samples per season: wet/dry. 38 borewell logs were used together with structural data to determine the aquifer setting. The field physico-chemical and laboratory analysis data of well samples were mounted unto various GIS software platforms: Global mapper, AqQa, Aquachem, Rockworks, Logplot7, Surfer and ArcGIS, to get indices/parameters/figures, by use of Durov’s, Piper’s and Gibbs diagrams, Water quality index WQI, USSL ratio, Sodium Absorption ratio SAR, Percent sodium %Na, Kelly Ratio KR, Magnesium Absorption Ratio MAR, Total Hardness TH, Residual Sodium Carbonate RSC and Permeability Index PI that were determined. The process of groundwater ions acquisition is three-fold: by recharge through atmospheric precipitation, by ion exchange/simple dissolution between the rock-groundwater and by groundwater mixing in its flow path. Water types are Ca-HCO3, Mg-HCO3 and Mg-Cl while hydrogeochemical facies are Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4. Most water samples are
Agro-Industrial Groundwater Quality Abuja FCT, Nigeria: An Evaluation for Urban and Peri-Urban (UPA) Agricultural Irrigation  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk II Akoachere, Omogbemi Omoloju Yaya, Areakpoh Thomson Eyong, Marcelle-Carole Pami Ngassam, Ernest Lytia Molua, Raymond Ndip Nkongho, Elizabeth Orock Ayuk, Tom Tabi Oben
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105698
Abstract:
From the declaration made by the African Mayors in Senegal; the Mayors and Municipal Health Officers of the Americas in Columbia; the City Executives of Cities and Local Governments of the World in Spain and in the context of the Millennium Development Goals MDG 1&7; there is a need for increased food production in urban and peri-urban areas UPA in the world. Sub-Saharan Africa faces more development challenges than any other major region of the world with most of the people living in slums, without access to adequate food, water, or sanitation. UPA contributes to increased food security, nutrition and livelihoods in a combination of ways giving access to consumer markets; less need for packaging, storage and transportation of food; potential agricultural-related jobs and incomes; non-market access to food for poor consumers; availability of fresh, perishable food. In Abuja FCT, 40% of the populations in UPA are farmers, a reason why the agricultural quality of its groundwater which is used for irrigation begs for our attention. 33% of the fresh vegetables in the Abuja Federal Capital Territory (FCT) are produced in Abuja UPA. In order to assess groundwater for agro-industrial suitability the following were used: Physicochemical parameters (pH, Temperature, Electrical Conductivity), Sodium Adsorption Ratio SAR, Permeability Index PI, Magnesium Adsorption Ratio MAR, Percent Sodium %Na, Kelly’s Ratio KR and Residual Sodium Carbonate RSC and the Wilcox diagram. pH ranged from, 4.8 - 7.9; EC, 13.4 - 1634 μS/cm; Temperature, 26℃ - 36.1℃ and TDS, 17.42 - 1094.78 mg/L.SAR (0.1 > SAR < 2.1), Percent Sodium (7.11 > %Na < 100), KR (0 > KR < 0.68), RSC (-9.8 > RSC < 0.55), PI (13.9 > PI < 932.4), and MAR (0 > MAR < 80.1). Comparing these values to WHO and the Nigerian Water Quality guidelines, SAR, %Na, KR, RSC, values are 100% suitable, while PI, 96.81% suitable, and MAR 56.46% unsuitable respectively for irrigational purposes in agriculture. The quality classifications of irrigation water based on the values: Sodium Adsorption Ratio SAR, Wilcox, Kelley Ratio KR, Residual Sodium Carbonate RSC, Permeability Index PI and Percent Sodium %Na; indicate that groundwater of Abuja FCT is suitable for irrigation purpose on all soil types and that the groundwater will not degrade the soil. However, United States Soil Salinity USSL Index of Abuja FCT groundwater fall in “very low to high salinity” and “low sodium hazard zone” and Magnesium Adsorption Ratio MAR indicates half of the groundwater as “not suitable”. Hence the groundwater in Abuja FCT should be used only on soils that are well drained.
Seasonal Variations in Groundwater of the Phreatic Aquiferous Formations in Douala City-Cameroon: Hydrogeochemistry and Water Quality  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk Akoachere, Sonia Ebot Egbe, Thomson Areapkoh Eyong, Sophie Ngomune Edimo, Simon Ngomba Longonje, Diana Besem Tambe, Nji Bihmimihney Nelly
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105328
Abstract:
This study was to determine the seasonal variations of groundwater, the influence of the rock formations on the groundwater solute chemistry and groundwater domestic-agro-industrial quality using hydrogeochemical tools and physicochemical parameters; Ionic ratios, Gibbs diagrams, Piper diagrams, Durov diagrams and water quality indices. From physicochemical parameters; in the rainy season, pH ranged from, 4.6-7.1; EC, 0.023-1.63 mS/cm; Temperature, 26.3-290C andTDS, 0.015-1.09 mg/L and in the dry season pH ranged from 5-7.2; EC, 0.01-1.61 mS/cm; Temperature, 24.4-29.50C andTDS, 0.01-1.08 mg/L. Forty groundwater samples; 20 per season, wet and dry were analysed. Themajor ions fell below WHO acceptable limits for both seasons. The sequences of abundance of major ions were, Ca2 >K >Mg2 >NH4 >Na , HCO3->Cl->SO42->NO3->HPO42- in wet season and Ca2 >Mg2 >K >Na >NH4 , HCO3->Cl->SO42->HPO42->NO3- in dry season. Ion-exchange, simple dissolution and uncommon dissolution processes determined groundwater character. Groundwater ionic content was as a result of ion exchange from rock-weathering. Water types are; MgCl and MgHCO3 in both seasons. Hydrogeochemical facies are; Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4, characteristic of groundwater some distance along its flow path and Ca-Mg-HCO3, characteristic of freshly recharged groundwater from precipitation. The groundwater indices of; Sodium Percent (% Na), Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) , Kelley’s ratio (KR), Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), USSL? and Wilcox index were determined, evaluated and found to be suitable for agro-industrial uses in all seasons. Permeability Index (PI) , Water quality index (WQI) and Magnesium Adsorption Ratio (MAR) were not suitable in some areas and in some seasons.
Trace Metals in Groundwater of the South Eastern Piedmont Region of Mount Cameroon: Quantification and Health Risk Assessment  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk Akoachere, Edwin Ngwene Etone, Roy Lyonga Mbua, Marcelle Pami Ngassam, Simon Ngomba Longonje, Pius Mbu Oben, Regina Wotany Engome
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105327
Abstract:
The South Eastern Piedmont Region of Mount Cameroon is getting in-creasingly populated. Groundwater is the main resource for drinking in this area; hence, the quantification of trace metals, suitability and quality of the groundwater resources for drinking, domestic and agro-industrial uses is of public and scientific concern. In this study, 10 samples were collected from 10 sites in September 2017. Field measurement of physicochemical parameters and investigation of the levels of trace metal content in groundwater was determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy ICP-MS. R-mode statistical analysis has been done and traces metals elements correlated with the physicochemical parameters and cluster analysis PCA carried out. The paper also highlights and determines the average daily dose ADD, the carcinogenic risks CR and the non-carcinogenic risk hazard quotient HQ which yields the hazard indices HI. The general trend of mean trace metal concentration in the sampled groundwater was in the order of: Zn > Fe > Al > V > Mn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > As > Co > Cd > Sb. All the groundwater risk indices; ADD, CR, HQ and HI were less than 1 in categories of insignificant health risk. The severity of metal toxicity is governed by several factors, such as dose, nutrition, age, and even life style. Therefore, this low trend might not guarantee the complete absence of human health risk. Generally, from risk assessment on trace metals using risk indices, the analyzed water samples might not be at an alarming health risk. However, due to an increasing level of environmental pollution that might be imposed by increasing human activity in this region, water sources might become a potential sink of contaminants; this is significant reason that makes constant monitoring, implementation and treatment of groundwater for drinking purposes obligatory.
The trigger-tube: A new apparatus and method for mixing solutes for injection tests in boreholes
RA Akoachere II, G Van Tonder
Water SA , 2011,
Abstract: The trigger-tube apparatus and method was developed for mixing solutes and tracers for injection tests. The apparatus is a cap-trigger tube segment and the technique mixes solutes in boreholes in 2 min. Trigger-tube with solute/tracer is introduced into the well, the trigger is released, the tube is withdrawn and the solute/tracer mixes with well water instantaneously to give a homogeneous mixture. Field tests using this method and apparatus for point dilution tests gave a Darcy velocity of 4.06 m/d, seepage velocity of 122.89 m/d and effective porosity of 0.33. Natural gradient tests gave a Darcy velocity of 4.06 m/d and natural velocity of 123 m/d, using tracer, for the same fracture at 21 m in borehole UO5, University of the Free State campus test site. The apparatus enables a comparatively shorter time for carrying out SWIW tests than is possible using the pump mixing method. Field tests gave results of 13 min for the trigger-tube method and 25 min for the pump mixing method, for a point dilution test using NaCl as a conservative tracer. The trigger-tube apparatus can be used for any borehole test that requires the introduction of a homogenous mixture.
Caring for hepatitis C patients: Reflections on pharmacy and anthropology
Richard H. Parrish II, BSPharm, PhD
INNOVATIONS in Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract:
Bacterial Contamination of Blood and Blood Products at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank in Rural South Western Uganda  [PDF]
G. B. Matte Aloysius, Bazira Joel, Richard Apecu, Boum Yap II, Frederick Byarugaba
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2013.33030
Abstract:

Background: Screening blood donors has practically eliminated viral and bacterial pathogens in blood used for transfusion. However, transfusion-associated bacterial sepsis remains an important health-care concern and the commonest cause of transfusion-related fatality in resource limited settings. Data on bacterial contamination of blood are scarce while the demand of blood transfusion is continuously growing. Therefore we conducted a study to determine the prevalence and type of bacterial contamination in donor blood and blood products, at the Mbarara Regional Blood Bank. Methodology: A total of 510 units of screened blood and blood products consisting of refrigerated whole blood and packed cells were randomly sampled following aseptic procedures from Mbarara Regional Blood Bank. Two samples from each unit were collected in universal containers containing Brain Heart Infusion Broth and incubated at 37 for up to 7 days. Subcultures were carried out on Blood agar, Chocolate agar and MacConkey agar. Isolates were identified by standard microbiologic techniques and drug susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: Of the 510 samples collected between June and October 2012, 18 (3.5%) samples showed growth. The contaminants were Staphylococcus aureus 17/18 (94.4%) and Streptococcus viridans 1/18 (5.6%). Isolates were sensitive to erythomycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin and resistant to penicillin and cloxacillin. Conclusion: Blood and blood products from Mbarara Regional Blood have unacceptable levels of bacterial contamination that can affect patient safety especially in an area with high malaria endemicity. Therefore it is critical to improve hygiene precautions in order to minimize bacterial contamination and ensure patient safety.

Growth Performance of West African Dwarf (WAD) Sheep Fed Biodegraded Enterolobium cyclocarpum Based Diets  [PDF]
A. A. Ayuk, E. A. Iyayi, B. I. Okon, J. O. Ayuk
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.58074
Abstract:

The performance and economics of production of West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep was investigated in an experiment that lasted for 70 days. Twelve male sheep averaging 9.9 kg in liveweight and aged 7 - 9 months were randomly assigned to four treatment groups in a completely randomized design with three animals per treatment. Chemical composition of diets, intake, liveweight gain and cost implication of feeding WAD sheep with grass, a conventional concentrate, an autoclaved and biodegraded Enterolobium cyclocarpum based diet were determined. The crude protein content of Guinea grass (4.43%) was relatively low compared to that of biodegraded Enterolobium cyclocarpum (14.13%). Total consumption and liveweight change were not significantly different (P < 0.05). The growth rate of animals fed concentrates were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those on the grass diet. Cost per Kg of feed was the highest for control and least for guinea grass diet. However, cost per unit gain was

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