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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1989 matches for " Riccardo Hertel "
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Oersted fields and current density profiles in spin-torque driven magnetization dynamics -- Finite element modelling of realistic geometries
Riccardo Hertel
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: The classical impact of electrical currents on magnetic nanostructures is analyzed with numerical calculations of current-density distributions and Oersted fields in typical contact geometries. For the Oersted field calculation, a hybrid finite element / boundary element method (FEM/BEM) technique is presented which can be applied to samples of arbitrary shape. Based on the FEM/BEM analysis, it is argued that reliable micromagnetic simulations on spin-tranfer-torque driven magnetization processes should include precise calculations of the Oersted field, particularly in the case of pillar contact geometries. Similarly, finite-element simulations demonstrate that numerical calculations of current-density distributions are required, e.g., in the case of magnetic strips with an indentation. Such strips are frequently used for the design of devices based on current-driven domain-wall motion. A dramatic increase of the current density is found at the apex of the notch, which is expected to strongly affect the magnetization processes in such strips.
Analytic form of head-to-head domain walls in thin ferromagnetic cylinders
Riccardo Hertel,Attila Kakay
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: The one-dimensional problem of a static head-to-head domain wall structure in a thin soft-magnetic nanowire with circular cross-section is treated within the framework of micromagnetic theory. A radius-dependent analytic form of the domain wall profile is derived by decomposing the magnetostatic energy into a monopolar and a dipolar term. We present a model in which the dipolar term of the magnetostatic energy resulting from the transverse magnetization in the center of the domain wall is calculated with Osborn's formulas for homogeneously magnetized ellipsoids [Phys. Rev. 67, 351 (1945)]. The analytic results agree almost perfectly with simulation data as long as the wire diameter is sufficiently small to prevent inhomogeneities of the magnetization along the cross-section. Owing to the recently demonstrated negligible D\"oring mass of these walls, our results should also apply to the dynamic case, where domain walls are driven by spin-transfer toque effects and/or an axial magnetic field.
Numerical micromagnetism of strong inhomogeneities
Christian Andreas,Sebastian Gliga,Riccardo Hertel
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmmm.2014.02.097
Abstract: The size of micromagnetic structures, such as domain walls or vortices, is comparable to the exchange length of the ferromagnet. Both, the exchange length of the stray field $l_s$ and the magnetocrystalline exchange length $l_k$ are material-dependent quantities that usually lie in the nanometer range. This emphasizes the theoretical challenges associated with the mesoscopic nature of micromagnetism: the magnetic structures are much larger than the atomic lattice constant, but at the same time much smaller than the sample size. In computer simulations, the smallest exchange length serves as an estimate for the largest cell size admissible to prevent appreciable discretization errors. This general rule is not valid in special situations where the magnetization becomes particularly inhomogeneous. When such strongly inhomogeneous structures develop, micromagnetic simulations inevitably contain systematic and numerical errors. It is suggested to combine micromagnetic theory with a Heisenberg model to resolve such problems. We analyze cases where strongly inhomogeneous structures pose limits to standard micromagnetic simulations, arising from fundamental aspects as well as from numerical drawbacks.
Multiscale and multimodel simulation of Bloch point dynamics
Christian Andreas,Attila Kákay,Riccardo Hertel
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.134403
Abstract: We present simulation results on the structure and dynamics of micromagnetic point singularities with atomistic resolution. This is achieved by embedding an atomistic computational region into a standard micromagnetic algorithm. Several length scales are bridged by means of an adaptive mesh refinement and a seamless coupling between the continuum theory and a Heisenberg formulation for the atomistic region. The code operates on graphical processing units and is able to detect and track the position of strongly inhomogeneous magnetic regions. This enables us to reliably simulate the dynamics of Bloch points, which means that a fundamental class of micromagnetic switching processes can be analyzed with unprecedented accuracy. We test the code by comparing it with established results and present its functionality with the example of a simulated field-driven Bloch point motion in a soft-magnetic cylinder.
Ultrafast dynamics of a magnetic antivortex - Micromagnetic simulations
Sebastian Gliga,Ming Yan,Riccardo Hertel,Claus M. Schneider
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.77.060404
Abstract: The antivortex is a fundamental magnetization structure which is the topological counterpart of the well-known magnetic vortex. We study here the ultrafast dynamic behavior of an isolated antivortex in a patterned Permalloy thin-film element. Using micromagnetic simulations we predict that the antivortex response to an ultrashort external field pulse is characterized by the production of a new antivortex as well as of a temporary vortex, followed by an annihilation process. These processes are complementary to the recently reported response of a vortex and, like for the vortex, lead to the reversal of the orientation of the antivortex core region. In addition to its fundamental interest, this dynamic magnetization process could be used for the generation and propagation of spin waves for novel logical circuits.
Spectral analysis of topological defects in an artificial spin-ice lattice
Sebastian Gliga,Attila Kákay,Riccardo Hertel,Olle Heinonen
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.117205
Abstract: Arrays of suitably patterned and arranged magnetic elements may display artificial spin-ice structures with topological defects in the magnetization, such as Dirac monopoles and Dirac strings. It is known that these defects strongly influence the quasi-static and equilibrium behavior of the spin-ice lattice. Here we study the eigenmode dynamics of such defects in a square lattice consisting of stadium-like thin film elements using micromagnetic simulations. We find that the topological defects display distinct signatures in the mode spectrum, providing a means to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze monopoles and strings which can be measured experimentally.
The magnonic limit of domain wall propagation in ferromagnetic nanotubes
Ming Yan,Christian Andreas,Attila Kákay,Felipe Garcia-Sanchez,Riccardo Hertel
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: We report a study on the field-driven propagation of vortex-like domain walls in ferromagnetic nanotubes. This particular geometry gives rise to a special feature of the static wall configuration, which significantly influences its dynamics. Unlike domain walls in flat strips, the left-right symmetry of domain wall propagation is broken. Furthermore, the domain wall velocity is not limited by the Walker breakdown. Under sufficiently large magnetic fields, the domain wall velocity reaches the velocity of spin waves (about 1000 m/s) and is thereafter connected with a direct emission of spin waves. The moving domain wall maintains its main structure but has characteristic spin-wave tails attached. The spatial profile of this topological soliton is determined by the spin-wave dispersion.
Spin-Transfer Torque Induced Vortex Dynamics in Fe/Ag/Fe Nanopillars
Volker Sluka,Attila Kakay,Alina M. Deac,Daniel E. Bürgler,Riccardo Hertel,Claus M. Schneider
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0022-3727/44/38/384002
Abstract: We report experimental and analytical work on spin-transfer torque induced vortex dynamics in metallic nanopillars with in-plane magnetized layers. We study nanopillars with a diameter of 150 nm, containing two Fe layers with a thickness of 15 nm and 30 nm respectively, separated by a 6 nm Ag spacer. The sample geometry is such that it allows for the formation of magnetic vortices in the Fe disks. As confirmed by micromagnetic simulations, we are able to prepare states where one magnetic layer is homogeneously magnetized while the other contains a vortex. We experimentally show that in this configuration spin-transfer torque can excite vortex dynamics and analyze their dependence on a magnetic field applied in the sample plane. The center of gyration is continuously dislocated from the disk center, and the potential changes its shape with field strength. The latter is reflected in the field dependence of the excitation frequency. In the second part we propose a novel mechanism for the excitation of the gyrotropic mode in nanopillars with a perfectly homogeneously magnetized in-plane polarizing layer. We analytically show that in this configuration the vortex can absorb energy from the spin-polarized electric current if the angular spin-transfer efficiency function is asymmetric. This effect is supported by micromagnetic simulations.
Quenched Slonczewski-Windmill in Spin-Torque Vortex-Oscillators
Volker Sluka,Attila Kákay,Alina M. Deac,Daniel E. Bürgler,Riccardo Hertel,Claus M. Schneider
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.214422
Abstract: We present a combined analytical and numerical study on double-vortex spin-torque nano-oscillators and describe a mechanism that suppresses the windmill modes. The magnetization dynamics is dominated by the gyrotropic precession of the vortex in one of the ferromagnetic layers. In the other layer the vortex gyration is strongly damped. The dominating layer for the magnetization dynamics is determined by the current polarity. Measurements on Fe/Ag/Fe nano-pillars support these findings. The results open up a new perspective for building high quality-factor spin-torque oscillators operating at selectable, well-separated frequency bands.
Herpesviruses and Intermediate Filaments: Close Encounters with the Third Type
Laura Hertel
Viruses , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/v3071015
Abstract: Intermediate filaments (IF) are essential to maintain cellular and nuclear integrity and shape, to manage organelle distribution and motility, to control the trafficking and pH of intracellular vesicles, to prevent stress-induced cell death, and to support the correct distribution of specific proteins. Because of this, IF are likely to be targeted by a variety of pathogens, and may act in favor or against infection progress. As many IF functions remain to be identified, however, little is currently known about these interactions. Herpesviruses can infect a wide variety of cell types, and are thus bound to encounter the different types of IF expressed in each tissue. The analysis of these interrelationships can yield precious insights into how IF proteins work, and into how viruses have evolved to exploit these functions. These interactions, either known or potential, will be the focus of this review.
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