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Researches on Methodologies to Verify Reduced Sensitivities of Venturia inaequalis in Field to Difenoconazole and First Indications of a Survey in Italy  [PDF]
Riccardo Fiaccadori
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.89138
Abstract: Resistance of Venturia inaequalis to the first IBS triazoles occurred in the 80’s in Italy and other countries. Successively number of applications sensibly decreased and problems of resistance to IBS generally disappeared. In 2010 suspects of resistance to the newer IBS difenoconazole, the actually most used IBS, appeared in several countries. In vitro tests the results confirmed the previous researches: the monoconidia from populations which were poorly controlled showed moderate reduced sensitivity respect to well controlled and wild-types. New in vivo tests were realized with preventive and curative applications on seedlings. No different activity among the three types of populations (poorly, well-controlled and wild-types) was found in preventive applications. On the contrary, in curative applications, wild-types and well controlled populations showed a visible and statistically significant activity respect to the poorly controlled. A survey of sensitivity to difenoconazole was carried out in two Italian apple areas in 2013-2015 and showed the presence of populations resistant to difenoconazole. Probably the cause of the resistance spread was the increase of the number of applications of this IBS in the last years. However the problem appears more complex because nowadays resistance regards about all fungicides and with a higher severity respect previous decades. An increase of virulence of V. inaequalis strains appears to be the cause of this situation also for the high presence of cultivars with high or moderate susceptibility to scab. Foreseeable remedies consist in
Persistence of Venturia inaequalis Populations Resistant to Strobilurins in the Field and in the Glasshouse  [PDF]
Riccardo Fiaccadori
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2018.94042
Abstract: The research was focused on the persistence of resistance of V. inaequalis to strobilurins from resistant populations occurring in the field. It was studied with two types of experiments: the first in apple orchards where resistance occurred in 2005 and employ of these fungicides was suspended from 2006 to 2011, realizing every year sensitivity/resistance assays on strobilurins. In the second was verified the sensitivity/resistance of the same 2015 populations, repeatedly multiplied (ten inoculations) in glasshouse on apple seedlings. Results showed that the resistance survived in orchards all the years of tests (six years), despite sensitivity fluctuations occurred on infected leaves due to sexual crosses, competition with sensible strains and soil management. In glasshouse, the level of resistance of all populations increased quickly in first inoculations and values remained high (EC50 > 10 mg·L-1) in all the following inoculations, until the last, the 10th. V. inaequalis resistant strains seemed to show high fitness: relevant persistence in the field, and a capacity of prevail on sensible ones in absence of factors of field variability.
In Vitro, in Vivo and in Field Sensitivity of Venturia inaequalis to Anilinopyrimidine Fungicides with Different Types of Scab Management and Degree of Control  [PDF]
Riccardo Fiaccadori
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105092
Abstract:
The sensitivity of Venturia inaequalis to anilino-pyrimidine (AP) fungicides (pyrimethanil and cyprodinil) was studied on populations sampled from apple trees with different fungicide and APs histories: 1) apple trees in uncultivated areas never exposed to fungicides (wild types), 2) commercial orchards with many years of good scab control with APs (well-controlled); 3) populations in experimental Centre where an initial good activity decreased after several years of intensive use (poorly controlled). The in vitro sensitivity tests were performed on monoconidial isolates, while those in vivo with curative or preventive applications on populations inoculated on apple seedlings. In the field, the infection on apple trees was assessed as severity of attack on leaves. The results evidenced that the sensitivity in vitro to pyrimethanil and cyprodinil showed a progressive lower reduction from wild types to well controlled, ending with poorly controlled populations. In vivo tests the same moderate decrease of sensitivity and activity (with a wide range) was more evident with curative, respect preventive applications, as noticed also with an important DMI (difenoconazole). In field trials, the populations intensively treated with APs showed, after some years, a reduction of control, that was confirmed in the following years. These activity reductions were sensibly less strong respect those evidenced by strobilurins, both in field and in vitro tests. The particular characteristic of resistance to AP fungicides is discussed.
Business Cycles and Recessions in the OECD Area  [PDF]
Riccardo Fiorito
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.43A022
Abstract:

Recessions are less frequent (10%), more volatile and less persistent than negative business cycles are (50%). In this article, OECD annual data are used to provide a taxonomy of postwar recessions, showing in particular the frequency, the features and the number of countries involved in major episodes. We shall also implement a simple way for inserting positive (or negative) growth cases into standard business cycle analysis, stressing in particular the importance of recessions for stabilization policies. This applies mostly to fiscal policies that risk otherwise to be more pro-cyclical than normally required.

THE RISK OF THERAPY-RELATED MYELODYSPLASIA/ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA IN HODGKIN LYMPHOMA HAS SUBSTANTIALLY DECREASED IN THE ABVD ERA ABOLISHING MECHLORETHAMINE AND PROCARBAZINE AND LIMITING VOLUMES AND DOSES OF RADIOTHERAPY
Ercole Brusamolino,Manuel Gotti,Valeria Fiaccadori
Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.4084/mjhid.2012.
Abstract: Patients with Hodgkin lymphoma treated with DNA-breaking alkylating agents such as mechlorethamine and procarbazine in the MOPP regimen and with topoisomerase II inhibitors, such as etoposide did show a long-term risk of developing therapy-related myelodysplasia and acute myelogenous leukaemia (MDS/AML). With the introduction of the ABVD (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) regimen, this risk has substantially been reduced. In this review, different experiences are discussed to determine whether and how modifications of treatment in different cohorts of patients have reduced the overall risk of secondary MDS/AML. These data are drawn from large cohorts of patients treated over time with different therapies with an adequate follow-up.
Diminishing Returns in the Treatment of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Are Patients Reaching a Survival Plateau  [PDF]
Lencioni Riccardo, Chen James
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2010.14030
Abstract: Despite the evolution of treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer (MCRC) over the past decade, improvements in survival endpoints have appeared to reach a plateau. The addition of expensive targeted biologic agents to the therapeutic armamentarium against MCRC have not drastically increased survival, particularly in the realm of second and third line patients, as tumor resistance remains an issue. Original approaches to treating MCRC are needed in order to raise the apparent survival ceiling in these patients.
A Decision-Support System for the Car Pooling Problem  [PDF]
Riccardo Manzini, Arrigo Pareschi
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2012.22011
Abstract: The continuous increase of human mobility combined with a relevant use of private vehicles contributes to increase the ill effects of vehicle externalities on the environment, e.g. high levels of air pollution, toxic emissions, noise pollution, and on the quality of life, e.g. parking problem, traffic congestion, and increase in the number of crashes and accidents. Transport demand management plays a very critical role in achieving greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. This study demonstrates that car pooling (CP) is an effective strategy to reduce transport volumes, transportation costs and related hill externalities in agreement with EU programs of emissions reduction targets. This paper presents an original approach to solve the CP problem. It is based on hierarchical clustering models, which have been adopted by an original decision support system (DSS). The DSS helps mobility managers to generate the pools and to design feasible paths for shared vehicles. A significant case studies and obtained results by the application of the proposed models are illustrated. They demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach and the supporting decisions tool.
Linear Predictive Detection for Power Line Communications Impaired by Colored Noise
Pighi Riccardo,Raheli Riccardo
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing , 2007,
Abstract: Robust detection algorithms capable of mitigating the effects of colored noise are of primary interest in communication systems operating on power line channels. In this paper, we present a sequence detection scheme based on linear prediction to be applied in single-carrier power line communications impaired by colored noise. The presence of colored noise and the need for statistical sufficiency requires the design of an optimal front-end stage, whereas the need for a low-complexity solution suggests a more practical suboptimal front-end. The performance of receivers employing both optimal and suboptimal front-ends has been assessed by means of minimum mean square prediction error (MMSPE) analysis and bit-error rate (BER) simulations. We show that the proposed optimal solution improves the BER performance with respect to conventional systems and makes the receiver more robust against colored noise. As case studies, we investigate the performance of the proposed receivers in a low-voltage (LV) power line channel limited by colored background noise and in a high-voltage (HV) power line channel limited by corona noise.
Linear Predictive Detection for Power Line Communications Impaired by Colored Noise
Riccardo Pighi,Riccardo Raheli
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing , 2007, DOI: 10.1155/2007/32818
Abstract: Robust detection algorithms capable of mitigating the effects of colored noise are of primary interest in communication systems operating on power line channels. In this paper, we present a sequence detection scheme based on linear prediction to be applied in single-carrier power line communications impaired by colored noise. The presence of colored noise and the need for statistical sufficiency requires the design of an optimal front-end stage, whereas the need for a low-complexity solution suggests a more practical suboptimal front-end. The performance of receivers employing both optimal and suboptimal front-ends has been assessed by means of minimum mean square prediction error (MMSPE) analysis and bit-error rate (BER) simulations. We show that the proposed optimal solution improves the BER performance with respect to conventional systems and makes the receiver more robust against colored noise. As case studies, we investigate the performance of the proposed receivers in a low-voltage (LV) power line channel limited by colored background noise and in a high-voltage (HV) power line channel limited by corona noise.
Signals of single particle production at the earliest LHC
Riccardo Barbieri,Riccardo Torre
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1016/j.physletb.2010.11.037
Abstract: Based on simple phenomenological Lagrangians, fulfilling reasonable consistency conditions, we consider under which circumstances the production of a single particle might be an early signal of new physics at the LHC. Effective final states are $\gamma \gamma $ and $\gamma +jet$ already with tens of inverse picobarns of integrated luminosity at 7 TeV.
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