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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1881 matches for " Riccardo Cusinato "
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The Complex Epidemiological Scenario of West Nile Virus in Italy
Luisa Barzon,Monia Pacenti,Elisa Franchin,Laura Squarzon,Enrico Lavezzo,Margherita Cattai,Riccardo Cusinato,Giorgio Palù
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph10104669
Abstract: Entomological, veterinary, and human surveillance systems for West Nile virus (WNV) infection have been implemented in Italy since the first detection of the virus in 1998. These surveillance activities documented a progressive increase of WNV activity and spread in different regions and the emergence of new WNV lineages and strains. Italy is a paradigmatic example of the complex epidemiology of WNV in Europe, where sporadic cases of WNV infection, clusters, and small outbreaks have been reported in several regions. In addition, different strains of both WNV lineage 1 and lineage 2 have been identified, even co-circulating in the same area.
Sistemi personali e sistemi autopoietici
Guido Cusinato
S&F_scienzaefilosofia.it , 2009,
Report of two cases of influenza virus A/H1N1v and B co-infection during the 2010/2011 epidemics in the Italian Veneto Region
Arianna Calistri, Cristiano Salata, Marina Cosentino, Samuele Asnicar, Elisa Franchin, Riccardo Cusinato, Monia Pacenti, Isabella Donatelli, Giorgio Palù
Virology Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-8-502
Abstract: The influenza epidemic in the 2010/2011 season has been characterized in Italy, as in the rest of the world, by a significant co-circulation of influenza A (mostly H1N1v) and influenza B viruses [1]. 1403 nasopharyngeal swabs from hospitalized patients displaying influenza-like illness underwent virological evaluation at the Microbiology and Virology Unit of the Padova Hospital, the Italian Veneto Region reference laboratory for the diagnosis of influenza and other respiratory diseases. In particular, the viral RNA was extracted from the specimens (NucliSENS? easyMAG?, Biomerieux, Lyon, France) and a standardized controlled real time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was performed [2]. This method allows the detection of influenza A and B viruses and the analysis of influenza A specific sub-types. In more details, roughly 70 ng of RNA extracted from each sample were assayed with 5 different primer and probe sets specific for influenza A, influenza B, A/H1N1v, A/H3N2 and the housekeeping gene RNasi-P. Overall 327 (23, 3%) samples were positive for influenza virus. Among the positive samples 62 were positive for influenza B virus (25%) and 265 for influenza A virus (75%) with a sharp prevalence of A/H1N1v (183 samples, 69%) over the A/H3N2 (6 samples, 2.2%). It has to be mentioned that 28.8% of influenza A virus positive samples could not be sub-typed, likely due to a low efficiency of the H1N1v specific real time adopted. A similar observation was reported during last influenza season by different European laboratories, adopting this same controlled diagnostic system [1]. The age distribution shows a prevalence of positive patients in the > 60 year old category, as expected during and epidemic season of influenza. Interestingly these data, that are in line with the results reported by different laboratories in the northern hemisphere [1], show a significant co-circulation of influenza A and influenza B viruses, with in general higher prevalence
Genome Sequencing of West Nile Virus from Human Cases in Greece, 2012
Luisa Barzon,Anna Papa,Monia Pacenti,Elisa Franchin,Enrico Lavezzo,Laura Squarzon,Giulia Masi,Thomas Martello,Theodolinta Testa,Riccardo Cusinato,Giorgio Palù
Viruses , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/v5092311
Abstract: A West Nile Virus (WNV) lineage 2 strain, named Nea Santa-Greece-2010, has been demonstrated to be responsible for the large outbreaks of neuroinvasive disease (WNND) that have been occurring in Greece since 2010, based on sequence similarities of viral isolates identified between 2010–2012. However, knowledge on the evolution of this strain is scarce because only partial WNV genome sequences are available from Greece. The aim of this study was to get the complete genome sequence of WNV from patients with infection. To this aim, plasma and urine samples collected during the 2012 Greek outbreak were retrospectively investigated. Full WNV genome sequence was obtained from a patient with WNND. The genome had 99.7% sequence identity to Nea Santa, higher than to other related WNV lineage 2 strains, and five amino acid changes apparently not relevant for viral pathogenicity or fitness. In addition, infection by WNV lineage 2 was confirmed in additional nine patients with WNND; in three of them the infection with WNV Nea Santa was demonstrated by sequencing. In conclusion, this study characterized for the first time a WNV full genome from a patient with WNND from Greece, demonstrated the persistence of the Nea Santa strain, and suggested that the virus might have locally evolved.
Large Human Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection in North-Eastern Italy in 2012
Luisa Barzon,Monia Pacenti,Elisa Franchin,Silvana Pagni,Enrico Lavezzo,Laura Squarzon,Thomas Martello,Francesca Russo,Loredana Nicoletti,Giovanni Rezza,Concetta Castilletti,Maria Rosaria Capobianchi,Pasquale Salcuni,Margherita Cattai,Riccardo Cusinato,Giorgio Palù
Viruses , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/v5112825
Abstract: Human cases of West Nile virus (WNV) disease have been reported in Italy since 2008. So far, most cases have been identified in north-eastern Italy, where, in 2012, the largest outbreak of WNV infection ever recorded in Italy occurred. Most cases of the 2012 outbreak were identified in the Veneto region, where a special surveillance plan for West Nile fever was in place. In this outbreak, 25 cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease and 17 cases of fever were confirmed. In addition, 14 WNV RNA-positive blood donors were identified by screening of blood and organ donations and two cases of asymptomatic infection were diagnosed by active surveillance of subjects at risk of WNV exposure. Two cases of death due to WNND were reported. Molecular testing demonstrated the presence of WNV lineage 1 in all WNV RNA-positive patients and, in 15 cases, infection by the novel Livenza strain was ascertained. Surveillance in other Italian regions notified one case of neuroinvasive disease in the south of Italy and two cases in Sardinia. Integrated surveillance for WNV infection remains a public health priority in Italy and vector control activities have been strengthened in areas of WNV circulation.
Business Cycles and Recessions in the OECD Area  [PDF]
Riccardo Fiorito
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.43A022

Recessions are less frequent (10%), more volatile and less persistent than negative business cycles are (50%). In this article, OECD annual data are used to provide a taxonomy of postwar recessions, showing in particular the frequency, the features and the number of countries involved in major episodes. We shall also implement a simple way for inserting positive (or negative) growth cases into standard business cycle analysis, stressing in particular the importance of recessions for stabilization policies. This applies mostly to fiscal policies that risk otherwise to be more pro-cyclical than normally required.

Researches on Methodologies to Verify Reduced Sensitivities of Venturia inaequalis in Field to Difenoconazole and First Indications of a Survey in Italy  [PDF]
Riccardo Fiaccadori
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.89138
Abstract: Resistance of Venturia inaequalis to the first IBS triazoles occurred in the 80’s in Italy and other countries. Successively number of applications sensibly decreased and problems of resistance to IBS generally disappeared. In 2010 suspects of resistance to the newer IBS difenoconazole, the actually most used IBS, appeared in several countries. In vitro tests the results confirmed the previous researches: the monoconidia from populations which were poorly controlled showed moderate reduced sensitivity respect to well controlled and wild-types. New in vivo tests were realized with preventive and curative applications on seedlings. No different activity among the three types of populations (poorly, well-controlled and wild-types) was found in preventive applications. On the contrary, in curative applications, wild-types and well controlled populations showed a visible and statistically significant activity respect to the poorly controlled. A survey of sensitivity to difenoconazole was carried out in two Italian apple areas in 2013-2015 and showed the presence of populations resistant to difenoconazole. Probably the cause of the resistance spread was the increase of the number of applications of this IBS in the last years. However the problem appears more complex because nowadays resistance regards about all fungicides and with a higher severity respect previous decades. An increase of virulence of V. inaequalis strains appears to be the cause of this situation also for the high presence of cultivars with high or moderate susceptibility to scab. Foreseeable remedies consist in
Persistence of Venturia inaequalis Populations Resistant to Strobilurins in the Field and in the Glasshouse  [PDF]
Riccardo Fiaccadori
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2018.94042
Abstract: The research was focused on the persistence of resistance of V. inaequalis to strobilurins from resistant populations occurring in the field. It was studied with two types of experiments: the first in apple orchards where resistance occurred in 2005 and employ of these fungicides was suspended from 2006 to 2011, realizing every year sensitivity/resistance assays on strobilurins. In the second was verified the sensitivity/resistance of the same 2015 populations, repeatedly multiplied (ten inoculations) in glasshouse on apple seedlings. Results showed that the resistance survived in orchards all the years of tests (six years), despite sensitivity fluctuations occurred on infected leaves due to sexual crosses, competition with sensible strains and soil management. In glasshouse, the level of resistance of all populations increased quickly in first inoculations and values remained high (EC50 > 10 mg·L-1) in all the following inoculations, until the last, the 10th. V. inaequalis resistant strains seemed to show high fitness: relevant persistence in the field, and a capacity of prevail on sensible ones in absence of factors of field variability.
Labor Market Policies in Matching Models: Do Externalities Matter?  [PDF]
Riccardo Tilli
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2019.94054
This paper analyzes the role played by five labor policy instruments (firing tax, hiring subsidies, taxation, unemployment benefits and tax structure) in a matching model with endogenous job destruction, when search externalities are not internalized and the market solution is inefficient. Since the theoretical model does not show univocal effects on equilibrium unemployment of some policy tools (such as hiring subsidies and firing tax), we propose a calibration and a numerical simulation of the model, in order to verify their real impact on unemployment and labor market structure. Results show that if, as is reasonable to assume, there are frictions on the labor market that generate search externalities, a labor market regulation becomes desirable and can be aimed at the internalization of externalities through an appropriate combination of labor policy instruments. In particular, our results have highlighted the crucial role of hiring subsidies and progressive taxation, not only for the achievement of the optimal solution, but also for supporting some forms of passive labor policies, mainly unemployment benefits and employment protection.
Diminishing Returns in the Treatment of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Are Patients Reaching a Survival Plateau  [PDF]
Lencioni Riccardo, Chen James
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2010.14030
Abstract: Despite the evolution of treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer (MCRC) over the past decade, improvements in survival endpoints have appeared to reach a plateau. The addition of expensive targeted biologic agents to the therapeutic armamentarium against MCRC have not drastically increased survival, particularly in the realm of second and third line patients, as tumor resistance remains an issue. Original approaches to treating MCRC are needed in order to raise the apparent survival ceiling in these patients.
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