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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 477372 matches for " Ricardo Oviedo-Oca?a "
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Intervenciones priorizadas en plantas de manejo de residuos sólidos mediante la aplicación del análisis estructural
Oviedo-Ocaa,édgar Ricardo; Marmolejo-Rebellón,Luis Fernando; Torres-Lozada,Patricia;
Ingeniería y Universidad , 2011,
Abstract: in colombia, materials recovery in municipal solid wastes (msw) and their reincorporation into the productive cycle have been carried out in productive units known as material recovery facilities (mrfs), which have been implemented especially on small municipalities. the effectiveness of mrfs has been questioned. in order for them to be sustainable, it is important to identify the aspects that influence the raw materials, processes and products of these productive units. as a reference, this work takes five mrfs in valle del cauca, colombia, where 18 variables related to the system performance were identified. the structural analysis allowed the identification of factors external to the mrfs, such as the generation of msw, as well as a number of practices such as classification, storage, and waste presentation. they have an impact on the quality and quantity of raw materials. work on these key elements will make it possible to improve the design of facilities, will optimize process operation, will increase the quality of the products and will reduce rejections. prioritized interventions to improve performance in mrfs include the formulation and adaptation of methodologies to characterize the msw, the promotion of solid waste segregation at the source for the users, the implementation of technologies adapted to the local context, and the training of operators and professionals involved in the selection, design, operation and monitoring of technologies.
PERSPECTIVAS DE APLICACIóN DEL COMPOSTAJE DE BIORRESIDUOS PROVENIENTES DE RESIDUOS SóLIDOS MUNICIPALES. UN ENFOQUE DESDE LO GLOBAL A LO LOCAL PERSPECTIVE OF APPLICATION OF BIOWASTE COMPOSTING FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES: AN APPROACH FROM GLOBAL TO LOCAL
Ricardo Oviedo-Ocaa,Luis Marmolejo-Rebellon,Patricia Torres-Lozada
Revista Ingenierías Universidad de Medellín , 2012,
Abstract: De los residuos sólidos municipales (RSM), los biorresiduos son la fracción más alta y de mayor potencial de contaminación; el compostaje permite disminuir el impacto ocasionado por su manejo y contribuye con la sostenibilidad de la producción agrícola. Aspectos como el alto grado de contaminación de la materia prima, el uso de tecnologías inadecuadas, mínimas actividades operativas y de control del proceso, baja calidad del producto y la poca comercialización y mercadeo del mismo, han limitado la implementación del compostaje en mayor escala en países en desarrollo como Colombia. En este artículo se plantea una reflexión sobre las perspectivas de aplicación del compostaje en Colombia y se proponen estrategias como la separación en la fuente y recolección selectiva, el posicionamiento del aprovechamiento de biorresiduos en el marco político y normativo, la investigación aplicada sobre ciencia e ingeniería del compostaje, la capacitación profesional, técnica y operativa, y el establecimiento de alternativas para impulsar el producto. Biowaste represents the highest proportion from municipal solid wastes (MSW) and its major pollution potential. Composting allows to reduce the impact of MSW management and contributes to sustainability in agricultural production. In developing countries such as Colombia, aspects such as the high pollution levels in raw materials, the use of inappropriate technologies, the minimum operational and process control activities, the low product quality and the scarce commercialization and marketing have represented limited possibilities for scaling up composting implementation. This paper provides a reflection on application perspectives for biowaste composting in Colombia. Strategies like: 1) source separation and selective collection, 2) inclusion of biowaste recovery within political and legal frameworks, 3) applied research about science and engineering of composting, 4) professional, technical and operational capacity development, and 5) setting options to product promotion, are also formulated.
Intervenciones priorizadas en plantas de manejo de residuos sólidos mediante la aplicación del análisis estructural
Edgar Ricardo Oviedo-Ocaa,Luis Fernando Marmolejo-Rebellón,Patricia Torres-Lozada
Ingeniería y Universidad , 2011,
Abstract: In Colombia, materials recovery in municipal solid wastes (MSW) and their reincorporation into the productive cycle have been carried out in productive units known as material recovery facilities (MRFs), which have been implemented especially on small municipalities. The effectiveness of MRFs has been questioned. In order for them to be sustainable, it is important to identify the aspects that influence the raw materials, processes and products of these productive units. As a reference, this work takes five MRFs in Valle del Cauca, Colombia, where 18 variables related to the system performance were identified. The structural analysis allowed the identification of factors external to the MRFs, such as the generation of MSW, as well as a number of practices such as classification, storage, and waste presentation. They have an impact on the quality and quantity of raw materials. Work on these key elements will make it possible to improve the design of facilities, will optimize process operation, will increase the quality of the products and will reduce rejections. Prioritized interventions to improve performance in MRFs include the formulation and adaptation of methodologies to characterize the MSW, the promotion of solid waste segregation at the source for the users, the implementation of technologies adapted to the local context, and the training of operators and professionals involved in the selection, design, operation and monitoring of technologies.
Modelos de Markov aplicados a la investigación en Ciencias de la Salud
Ocaa-Riola,Ricardo;
Interciencia , 2009,
Abstract: many variables of interest in health sciences change with time. understanding their evolution and predicting their future status under certain initial conditions provide key information that is extremely useful in health research, health management and health care. stochastic processes are sequences of random variables which change over time and markov models study the evolution of any process where its future status will depend on its present status alone, but not on its past history. since the beginning of the xx century there have been numerous applications of this type of processes in health sciences. today, these kinds of models are an interesting theoretical and applied research line. this paper shows some of the markov models that are currently the most widely used in the fields of health sciences. the content has been drafted with particular emphasis on the main techniques for analysis, interpretation of results, the usefulness of the models and software available for applications. from a practical standpoint, four essential aspects are taken into account in data analysis based on markov models: definition of the process states and their transitions, selection of the best model, estimation of transition probabilities between states, and description of the process temporal evolution.
ANáLISIS DEL FUNCIONAMIENTO DE PLANTAS DE MANEJO DE RESIDUOS SóLIDOS EN EL NORTE DEL VALLE DEL CAUCA, COLOMBIA ANáLISE DO DESEMPENHO DE PLANTAS DE GEST O DE RESíDUOS SóLIDOS NO NORTE DO VALLE DEL CAUCA, COL MBIA PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF SOLID WASTE RECOVERY FACILITIES IN NORTHERN VALLE DEL CAUCA, COLOMBIA
Luis F. Marmolejo,Patricia Torres,Ricardo Oviedo,Mariela García
Revista EIA , 2011,
Abstract: El aprovechamiento de residuos sólidos municipales (RSM) tiene cada día mayor aceptación en Colombia. Dos hechos evidencian esta situación: su inclusión en los planes de gestión integral de residuos sólidos de numerosos municipios y el incremento en el número de plantas de manejo de residuos sólidos (PMRS) que se han construido. De ahí que el análisis de las experiencias existentes y la investigación y desarrollo alrededor del tema son indispensables para avanzar en este campo. En el presente artículo se analiza el funcionamiento de cinco PMRS de cabeceras municipales del norte del Valle del Cauca, en las cuales se encontró que, aunque presenten deficiencias en su operación, aspectos como la existencia de mercado para sus productos, las posibilidades de generación de empleo y los costos evitados al no tener que enviar residuos a rellenos sanitarios regionales justifican su continuidad. Como elementos clave para fortalecer el funcionamiento de las PMRS, se identificaron la sensibilización continua de los usuarios del servicio de aseo, la adaptación de las tecnologías al contexto, el fortalecimiento de la gestión administrativa y el mayor impulso al aprovechamiento en el marco político nacional. O aproveitamento de resíduos sólidos municipais (RSM) tem a cada dia maior aceita o na Col mbia. Dois fatos evidenciam esta situa o: sua inclus o nos planos de gerenciamento integral de resíduos sólidos de numerosos municípios e o incremento no número de plantas de manejo de resíduos sólidos (PMRS) que se construíram. Daí que a análise das experiências existentes e a pesquisa e desenvolvimento ao redor do tema s o indispensáveis para avan ar em este campo. No presente artigo analisa-se o funcionamento das cinco PMRS de cabeceiras municipais do norte do departamento de Valle del Cauca, nas quais se encontrou que, ainda que apresentem deficiências em sua opera o, aspectos como a existência de mercado para seus produtos, as possibilidades de gera o de emprego e os custos evitados ao n o ter que enviar resíduos a recheados sanitários regionais justificam sua continuidade. Como elementos-chave para fortalecer o funcionamento das PMRS, se identificaram a sensibiliza o contínua dos usuários do servi o de asseio, a adapta o das tecnologias ao contexto, o fortalecimento do gerenciamento administrativo e o maior impulso ao aproveitamento no marco político nacional. In Colombia, the acceptance of resource recovery is demonstrated through the high number of municipalities which have introduced this alternative in their integrated solid waste management plans, together w
Spatio-temporal trends of mortality in small areas of Southern Spain
Ricardo Ocaa-Riola, José Mayoral-Cortés
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-26
Abstract: A small-area ecological study was devised using the municipality as the unit for analysis. Two spatio-temporal hierarchical Bayesian models were estimated for each age group and gender. One of these was used to estimate the specific mortality rate, together with its time trends, and the other to estimate the specific rate ratio for each municipality compared with Spain as a whole.More than 97% of the municipalities showed a diminishing or flat mortality trend in all gender and age groups. In 2006, over 95% of municipalities showed male and female mortality specific rates similar or significantly lower than Spanish rates for all age groups below 65. Systematically, municipalities in Western Andalusia showed significant male and female mortality excess from 1981 to 2006 only in age groups over 65.The study shows a dynamic geographical distribution of mortality, with a different pattern for each year, gender and age group. This information will contribute towards a reflection on the past, present and future of mortality in Andalusia.Disease mapping is currently a major research area in Epidemiology. Advances in computer systems, the availability of powerful Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and the implementation of complex mathematical models in specialised software have all encouraged the publication of many ecological small-area studies over the past decade [1]. Here, Hierarchical Bayesian models have played a leading role over the past few years, particularly the Besag-York-Mollié autoregressive conditional model [2].Since 1970, many atlases have been published around the world describing the geographical distribution of mortality. However, in spite of its popularity, most epidemiological small-area studies show misuse of disease mapping methods. Firstly, nearly all of them describe the geographical distribution of mortality by grouping year on year data into a single period. Some studies have even used periods spanning over 20 years, providing a very static v
ANáLISIS DEL FUNCIONAMIENTO DE PLANTAS DE MANEJO DE RESIDUOS SóLIDOS EN EL NORTE DEL VALLE DEL CAUCA, COLOMBIA
Marmolejo,Luis F.; Torres,Patricia; Oviedo,Ricardo; García,Mariela; Díaz,Luis F.;
Revista EIA , 2011,
Abstract: in colombia, the acceptance of resource recovery is demonstrated through the high number of municipalities which have introduced this alternative in their integrated solid waste management plans, together with the increasing number of solid waste management facilities (swmfs) that have been established. this situation also highlights the need for a comprehensive evaluation of the existing experiences as well as research and development around this topic. in this paper, the performance of five swmfs located in municipalities in northern valle del cauca is analyzed. the analysis shows that, despite the fact that swmfs have operational deficiencies, features such as markets for their products, employment generation and avoided costs in waste disposal in landfills show sufficient grounds for their continuity. key elements to strengthen swmfs performance are long-term awareness of service users, adaptation of technologies to the context, enhancement of managerial capacity and better support to resource recovery within the national political framework.
Plagiocefalia frontal sinostósica: Resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico
Hodelín Tablada,Ricardo; Goyenechea Gutiérrez,Francisco; Zarrabeitía Oviedo,Luis; Fuentes Pelier,Damaris;
Revista Cubana de Cirug?-a , 1996,
Abstract: a retrospective study of 10 children with frontal synostotic plagiocephaly like craniosynostosis operated on at the children's neurosurgery department of the institute of neurology and neurosurgery was carried out. it was used the surgical technique of linear craniectomy in the site of the coronal synostotic fissure extended to the pterion region. all children evoluted with orbital hypoplasia and frontal convexity. more than a half underwent surgery during the first six months of life. there was an important cephalic index variation, as well as anaesthetic improvement after the operation
Variables perinatales en 34 casos con craneosinostosis. Importancia de la compresión fetal intrauterina
Hodelín Tablada,Ricardo; Toirac Lamarque,Abelardo; Goyenechea Gutiérrez,Francisco; Zarrabeitía Oviedo,Luis;
Revista Cubana de Obstetricia y Ginecolog?-a , 1995,
Abstract: la craneosinostosis es una entidad propia de la infancia, caracterizada por el cierre precoz de las suturas craneales. su causa se desconoce, pero algunos la atribuyen a la compresión fetal intrauterina. los autores analizan diversas variables perinatales en 34 pacientes con esta afección. todas las madres de ni?os escafocefálicos eran primíparas y en un elevado número de ellas predominó la forma de presentación de vértice. de los ni?os nacidos por vía vaginal, casi la tercera parte procedían de un parto distócico, y en éstos, la creaneosinostosis fue variedad escafocefálica.
Plagiocefalia frontal sinostósica: Resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico
Ricardo Hodelín Tablada,Francisco Goyenechea Gutiérrez,Luis Zarrabeitía Oviedo,Damaris Fuentes Pelier
Revista Cubana de Cirugía , 1996,
Abstract: Se estudiaron de forma retrospectiva 10 ni os con craneosinostosis tipo plagiocefalia frontal sinostósica, operados en el Servicio de Neurocirugía Infantil del Instituto de Neurología y Neurocirugía. Como técnica quirúrgica se empleó la craniectomía lineal en el sitio de la hemisura coronal sinostosada, ampliada hasta la región del pterión. La totalidad de los infantes evolucionaron con hipoplasia orbitaria y abombamiento frontal y a más de la mitad se les realizó operación en los primeros 6 meses de la vida. Hubo importante variación del índice cefálico, así como mejoría estética comparativamente, antes de la operación y después de ésta A retrospective study of 10 children with frontal synostotic plagiocephaly like craniosynostosis operated on at the Children's Neurosurgery Department of the Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery was carried out. It was used the surgical technique of linear craniectomy in the site of the coronal synostotic fissure extended to the pterion region. All children evoluted with orbital hypoplasia and frontal convexity. More than a half underwent surgery during the first six months of life. There was an important cephalic index variation, as well as anaesthetic improvement after the operation
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