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A New Approach for Isochrone Mapping in One Dimensional Flow for Using in Time Area Method
Ali Reza Shokoohi
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: This research investigated isochrone delineation methods as the most important component of Time-Area method. The Time-Area method is one of the most suitable and the simplest techniques of watershed routing and can be potentially used as a distributed model. In this research Kinematic wave theory was used for validation of isochrone delineation methods. Almost in all of the mentioned methods, it was shown that time of concentration is proportional to wave travel length raised to a power. Obtained results showed that using approximate or empirical methods for determining location of isochrones, if one wants to route the flow on watersheds by time-area method, HEC-1 proposed approach is recommended. However the best result for one dimensional (parallel) flow, achieved by using a power equal to 0.67. This was the power which kinematics wave theory yields.
Assessment of Urban Basins Flood Control Measures Using Hydrogis Tools
Ali Reza Shokoohi
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Effects of constructing feasible detention dams in urban basins, immediately upstream an urban area, were studied. Comparisons were made between this practice and conventional localized river engineering countermeasures regarding socio-economic aspects. For assesment of the effects of detentions dams, 3 scenarios were tested. To evaluate the scenarios, ARCVIEW GIS with GEO-HMS extension, linked with HEC-HMS as mathematical model were used. The study was conducted in an urban basin in south of IRAN. Upon determination of design flood, the effects of flood magnitude on conveyance canal dimensions, with and without detention dams, were compared. Total costs of both flood control alternatives were estimated and compared. Results showed that incorporation of detention dams in urban basins for flood control purposes was superior to conventional localized Urbam Basin, localized river engineering.
Comparison of performance evaluation of aluminium sulfate and ferric chloride for removal of Disperse Blue 56 from synthetic wastewater
Reza Shokoohi,Fateme Samiee,Salah Azizi
Pajouhan Scientific Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Introduction: Industries are textile wastewater contains large amounts of color can create a lot of pollution. There are different methods for decolorization of textile industries, for example the methods of coagulation, flocculation, chemical oxidation, biological treatment, electrochemical techniques, including ion exchange and other processes. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of alum and ferric chloride is used to remove dye Disperse Blue 56.Material and Methods: The research was according to the method Jar test. The sample pH was adjusted using NaOH and sulfuric acid 0.1 normal. Coagulants with different concentrations were added to each sample. A minute of high speed and slow speed were mixed for 15 minutes and after deposition, sample pH and absorbance values were measured. The dye concentration in the samples was measured by spectrometry method using a UV-1700 Pharmaspec Shimadzo spectrophotometer at 550 nm wavelengh.Results: Coagulation by alum to remove dye Disperse Blue has a pH optimum of 6 and optimal dose of 130 milligrams per liter, which is the pH and the optimal dose has a removal efficiency of 93 percent, while for Chloroferric the pH optimum of 9 and optimal dose of 120 milligrams per liter with removal efficiency over 98 percent.Conclusion: The results showed that the coagulation process using a lot of blue disperses dyes in textile wastewater removed from the wastewater. The results showed that the coagulant is alum Chloroferric has better removal efficiency.
Adsorption of Acid Red 18 (AR18) by Activated Carbon from Poplar Wood- A Kinetic and Equilibrium Study
Reza Shokoohi,Vahid Vatanpoor,Mansuor Zarrabi,Akram Vatani
Journal of Chemistry , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/958073
Abstract:
Research collaboration in Tehran University of Medical Sciences: two decades after integration
Reza Majdzadeh, Saharnaz Nedjat, Jaleh Gholami, Sima Nedjat, Katayoun Maleki, Mostafa Qorbani, Mostafa Shokoohi, Mahnaz Ashoorkhani
Health Research Policy and Systems , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4505-7-8
Abstract: The question here is how the researchers behavior in the biggest medical university of the country towards collaboration is, i.e. how much do decision makers participate in different stages of research? Which factors affect it?The samples under study were all Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) completed research projects that had gotten grants in 2004 and were over by the time this study was done. Two questionnaires were designed for this study: i) the research checklist which was filled for 301 projects, ii) the researcher's questionnaire, which was sent to principle investigators, 208 of which were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used for evaluating the potential factors affecting individuals 'collaboration score'.Only 2.2 percent of TUMS' projects initiated in 2004 have had collaboration as a joint PI or co-investigator from non-academic organizations. The principle investigators mean collaboration score was 2.09, where 6 was the total score. So the collaboration score obtained was 35%. The 'type of research' had significant association with the collaboration score which is shown in the linear regression; collaboration was seen more in clinical (p = 0.007) and health system researches (p = 0.001) as compared to basic research.The present study shows that not many individuals collaborated as co-investigators from outside the university. This finding shows that research policy makers need to introduce interventions in this field. And assessment of barriers to collaboration and its facilitating factors should be considered in order to make it actually happen."Cooperation between researchers and decision makers throughout the research process i.e. choosing the research topic up to its implementation, and not just securing grants is considered as collaboration in research". Collaboration in research is one of the ways which strengthens the possibility of utilizing research findings [1-3]. One of the solutions put forth in confronting the b
Knowledge transfer in Tehran University of Medical Sciences: an academic example of a developing country
Saharnaz Nedjat, Reza Majdzadeh, Jaleh Gholami, Sima Nedjat, Katayoun Maleki, Mostafa Qorbani, Mostafa Shokoohi, Mahnaz Ashoorkhani
Implementation Science , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1748-5908-3-39
Abstract: All TUMS research projects that had received grants from inside and outside the university in 2004, and were completed by the end of 2006, were included in the study. In total, 301 projects were examined, and data on each of the projects were collected by the research team using a standardized questionnaire. The projects' principle investigators filled out a second questionnaire. In all, 208 questionnaires were collected.Researchers stated being more engaged in the passive strategies of knowledge transfer, especially those publishing in peer-reviewed journals. The mean score for the researchers' performance in passive and active strategies were 22% and 9% of the total score, respectively. Linear regression analysis showed that the passive strategy score decreased with the increase in the number of years working as a professional (p = 0.01) and personal interest as the only reason for choosing the research topic (p = 0.01). Regarding the active strategies of knowledge transfer, health system research studies significantly raised the score (p = 0.02) and 'executive responsibility' significantly lowered it (p = 0.03).As a study carried out in a Middle Eastern developing country, we see that, like many other universities in the world, many academicians still do not give priority to active strategies of knowledge transfer. Therefore, if 'linking knowledge to action' is necessary, it may also be necessary to introduce considerable changes in academic procedures and encouragement policies (e.g., employment and promotion criteria of academic members).'What happens to research-based findings after they are completed and published?' This is a question heard more often with the qualitative and quantitative development of research. In the 2004 World Health Organization report on 'knowledge for better health', 'linking research to action' was emphasized, and countries were asked to take serious steps in transferring research-based knowledge [1]. Knowledge transfer methods have b
Sexual Knowledge among High School Students in Northwestern Iran
Ayyoub Malek,Ali Reza Shafiee-Kandjani,Abdolrasool Safaiyan,Hamid Abbasi-Shokoohi
ISRN Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/645103
Abstract:
Sexual Knowledge among High School Students in Northwestern Iran
Ayyoub Malek,Ali Reza Shafiee-Kandjani,Abdolrasool Safaiyan,Hamid Abbasi-Shokoohi
ISRN Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/645103
Abstract: Objectives. Regarding the importance of sexual desire in adolescence period and public and parental concerns about it and considering the lack of studies on sexual knowledge especially in adolescents in Iran, this study was conducted to evaluate the sexual issues in high school girls and boys. Patients and Methods. The cross-sectional study was performed on 2700 high school students. Students were selected through a multi-staged randomized sampling method in Tabriz and by the convenience method in Ardabil and Urmia. Data collection tool was a questionnaire including knowledge questions and measured by a three-point scale. Data were statistically analyzed with SPSS version 11.5 software. Results. 11.8% of the students had a low sexual knowledge, 46.7% had average and 41.5% had a high one. There was no significant difference between male and female students' general sexual knowledge. The highest knowledge was about being aware of the religious rules concerning sex. Conclusion. Adolescents should be trained and acquire information about the different aspects of sexual issues. Female adolescents especially need to be educated about puberty physiology, fertility physiology and STDs. 1. Introduction Sexual drive is a part of natural development initiating with sexual curiosity in childhood followed by a sudden interest in exploring his/her sexual organs and peers’ bodies in adolescence as well. During this period, there may be societal and parental concerns in which lack of sufficient education about adolescents’ sexual issues may be mentioned. In religious communities like Iran, there are specific sexual norms and morality. Therefore, it seems that Muslim parents or individuals and the media, which communicate with teenagers, cannot pose sexual issues among them conveniently or they may feel uncomfortable to give sexual training to their children and teenagers. Transcultural studies show that human sexual behavior, in addition to biological factors, is strongly affected by culture [1]. In a study among African-American adolescents with a mean age of 15.3 years, 70 percent were reported to be sexually active and the mean age of first sexual intercourse was 11.7 years. Also, it was demonstrated that girls compared with boys had more information about AIDS, less sexual partners, more positive attitude about careful sexual behavior, and assessed themselves with higher control in comparison with boys [2]. Ina study among adolescent males in Tehran, Iran, 28 percent of the sample reported having engaged in sexual activity. Sexual experience was associated with
Tension Pneumothorax, Pneumoperitoneum, and Cervical Emphysema following a Diagnostic Colonoscopy
Ali Pourmand,Hamid Shokoohi
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/583287
Abstract: Colonoscopy is currently a widespread procedure used in screening for colorectal cancer. Iatrogenic colonic perforation during colonoscopy is a serious and potentially life-threatening complication that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. “Triple pneumo” (a combination of pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and pneumoperitoneum) following colonoscopy is a rare but a serious condition requiring immediate diagnosis and emergent intervention. In majority of these cases a colonic perforation is the initial injury that is followed by pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum through the potential anatomical connection with retroperitoneal and mediastinal spaces. In this rare case report we are presenting a case of “triple pneumo” with no evidence of colonic perforation. This patient developed a simultaneous pneumoperitoneum, pneumomediastinum, and a tension pneumothorax requiring immediate tube thoracostomy. This case may raise the awareness on the likelihood of these serious complications after colonoscopy. 1. Introduction Colonoscopy has been used as a safe diagnostic method in gastroenterology for the last four decades [1]. Routine screening for colorectal cancer and evaluating high risk patients with family history of colorectal polyps or colon cancer are among the most common indications to perform a diagnostic colonoscopy [2–5]. Gastrointestinal perforation is one of the most serious and potentially life-threatening complications of colonoscopy that may result in a combination of pneumoperitoneum, pneumothoraces, and pneumomediastinum (“triple pneumo”). In this report, we present a rare case of tension pneumothorax with a simultaneous pneumoperitoneum and subcutaneous emphysema following a diagnostic colonoscopy who presented to the emergency department (ED) in a critical condition. The purpose of this report is to raise the awareness on the likelihood of these complications after colonoscopy. 2. Case Report The patient was an 84-year-old woman who was presented to the ED by emergency medical services (EMS), with acute onset of abdominal pain, changes in mental status, and tachycardia after outpatient diagnostic colonoscopy. Upon completion of the procedure, the patient reported that she had abdominal pain, chest pain, and shortness of breath. The physician’s reevaluation at that time revealed an altered mental status and persistent tachycardia. On EMS arrival, patient was tachypneic with a respiratory rate of 32, and hypoxic with an oxygen saturation of 88% on room air. The patient was placed on oxygen mask and transported to the ED. On ED arrival,
False Passage to the Trachea after Emergency Intubation in a Victim of Near Hanging
Ali Pourmand,Hamid Shokoohi
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/281307
Abstract: Emergency medicine physicians should have enough knowledge and experience to deal with emergent and traumatic difficult airway. In this paper, we present a case of near hanging with neck soft tissue injury, tracheal and esophageal rupture that is complicated by a displaced intubation and false passage to the trachea. 1. Introduction Recent studies showed that hanging has become the third most cause of suicide attempts among young adults [1]. Victims of near hanging have a wide variety of clinical manifestations and complications [2]. Emergency physicians and trauma surgeons commonly encounter theses complications. We describe a case of near hanging with neck soft tissue injury that is complicated by a displaced intubation and false passage to the trachea. 2. Case Report A 20-year-old Caucasian man was brought to the emergency department (ED) after having a suicidal attempt. He had a long history of depression and obsessive/compulsive disorder and came to Virginia with the stated intent to buy a gun because the gun laws were lenient in Virginia, and the intent of buying the gun was to kill himself. However, he did not buy a gun but did attempt suicide by cutting his wrists, then tying a rope around his neck, tying the other end of the rope to a tree, getting in his car, and driving away. The patient then got out of the car, walked to a nearby building, complained that he could not breathe, and then subsequently collapsed. When EMT arrived, he was intubated at the scene and then transferred to the hospital by air care. Upon arrival and evaluation in the ED, he was noted to have massive subcutaneous emphysema in the neck (Figure 1). The anesthesiologist present at the bedside felt that the endotracheal tube was not in the correct position, therefore, he decided to change the endotracheal tube with a new tube. The patient went under portable chest X-ray,and the radiologist mentioned that tip of tracheal tube is at thoracic inlet (Figure 1). The patient then went to radiology and had a CT scan of the head, neck, and chest which showed that the endotracheal tube is entering through the oropharynx, but in the hypopharynx, the tube appears to enter into the left piriform sinus, at which it would appear to leave the airway in the soft tissues of the neck on the left side and to reenter the trachea at the thoracic inlet. As visualized on the coronal images, the endotracheal tube had bypassed the area of vocal cords and upper trachea. This implies a disruption of the airway. There is diffuse subcutaneous air within the neck dissecting bilaterally and anteriorly as
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