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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1400 matches for " Reniers Georges "
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Divorce and Remarriage in Rural Malawi
Reniers Georges
Demographic Research , 2003,
Abstract: The demographic study of nuptiality in African countries is not very developed and often of secondary interest in a discussion of the proximate determinants of fertility. This paper uses unusual marriage history data to examine divorce and remarriage in rural Malawi. Life table probabilities of divorce range from 40 to 65 percent and are among the highest on the continent. An investigation into the determinants of marital instability using proportional hazards models confirms the importance of kinship systems and female empowerment, but the mechanism underlying the high divorce rates in Malawi seems to be more complicated than that. This is, for example, illustrated in the effect of the polygyny variables. Marriage, divorce, and remarriage are further considered as empowering strategies that women deploy throughout their lives.
Polygyny and HIV in Malawi
Georges Reniers,Rania Tfaily
Demographic Research , 2008,
Abstract: We review the relationship between polygyny and HIV and identify a positive individual-level correlation, and a negative ecological correlation. We subsequently examine two mechanisms that contribute to the individual-level correlation. First, we find that men in polygynous marriages have more extramarital sex than men in monogamous unions (both in terms of self reports and in terms of spousal reports of the suspicion of adultery). Second, we find evidence of adverse selection of HIV positive women into polygynous unions via an investigation of the relationship between marriage order and polygyny status. We conclude with reflections about possible explanations for the distinct individual and ecological correlations.
HIV Status Awareness, Partnership Dissolution and HIV Transmission in Generalized Epidemics
Georges Reniers, Benjamin Armbruster
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050669
Abstract: Objectives HIV status aware couples with at least one HIV positive partner are characterized by high separation and divorce rates. This phenomenon is often described as a corollary of couples HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC) that ought to be minimized. In this contribution, we demonstrate the implications of partnership dissolution in serodiscordant couples for the propagation of HIV. Methods We develop a compartmental model to study epidemic outcomes of elevated partnership dissolution rates in serodiscordant couples and parameterize it with estimates from population-based data (Rakai, Uganda). Results Via its effect on partnership dissolution, every percentage point increase in HIV status awareness reduces HIV incidence in monogamous populations by 0.27 percent for women and 0.63 percent for men. These effects are even larger when the assumption of monogamy can be relaxed, but are moderated by other behavior changes (e.g., increased condom use) in HIV status aware serodiscordant partnerships. When these behavior changes are taken into account, each percentage point increase in HIV status awareness reduces HIV incidence by 0.13 and 0.32 percent for women and men, respectively (assuming monogamy). The partnership dissolution effect exists because it decreases the fraction of serodiscordant couples in the population and prolongs the time that individuals spend outside partnerships. Conclusion Our model predicts that elevated partnership dissolution rates in HIV status aware serodiscordant couples reduce the spread of HIV. As a consequence, the full impact of couples HTC for HIV prevention is probably larger than recognized to date. Particularly high partnership dissolution rates in female positive serodiscordant couples contribute to the gender imbalance in HIV infections.
Life table estimates of adult HIV/AIDS mortality in Addis Ababa
Georges Reniers, Tekebash Araya, Eduard J Sanders
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2006,
Abstract: Background: With the expansion of antiretroviral treatment in the country, HIV prevalence figures alone, are expected to become insufficient for monitoring the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Objective: To develop life table method for estimating AIDS mortality based on surveillance of deaths at burial sites in Addis Ababa. Methods: An empirical life table for 2001 based on observed deaths and the projected population is matched with model life table on an age range where AIDS mortality is minimal. Excess mortality in adulthood is attributed to AIDS. Results: Between 54.7 and 62.4% of adult deaths in Addis Ababa (age 2064) are attributed to AIDS. The absolute numbers of AIDS deaths for the year 2001 is estimated between 7,000 and 9,000. Estimates of the absolute number of deaths are sensitive to underreporting of burials and therefore on the conservative side. In terms of the share of AIDS attributable mortality, women are worse affected than men. The absolute number of AIDS deaths is higher for men than for women. Conclusion: Life table methods corroborate earlier estimates of AIDS mortality based on other methodologies. Burial surveillance data used as an input to life table methods may be used for monitoring the demographic impact of AIDS as well as the population level effects of the provision of antiretroviral treatment. The Ethiopian Journal of Health Development Vol. 20(1) 2006: 3-9
An Assessment of the KDICP and MDICP Data Quality
Bignami-Van Assche Simona,Reniers Georges,Weinreb Alexander A.
Demographic Research , 2003,
Abstract: This paper evaluates the quality of the data collected as part of the Kenya and Malawi Diffusion and Ideational Change Projects, two longitudinal household surveys that examine the role of social networks in influencing attitudes and behavior regarding family size, family planning, and HIV/AIDS in, respectively, rural Kenya and Malawi. We investigate three sources of non-sampling error: interviewer effects, response reliability and sample attrition, highlighting the interaction between them, and paying particular attention to their implications for AIDS-related behavioral research.
Implications of the HIV testing protocol for refusal bias in seroprevalence surveys
Georges Reniers, Tekebash Araya, Yemane Berhane, Gail Davey, Eduard J Sanders
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-163
Abstract: Data come from a nine-month prospective study of hospital admissions in Addis Ababa during which patients were approached for an HIV test. Patients had the choice between three consent levels: testing and post-test counseling (including the return of HIV test results), testing without post-test counseling, and total refusal. For all patients, information was collected on basic sociodemographic background characteristics as well as admission diagnosis. The three consent levels are used to mimic refusal bias in serosurveys with different post-test counseling study protocols. We first investigate the covariates of consent for testing. Second, we quantify refusal bias in HIV prevalence estimates using Heckman regression models that account for sample selection.Refusal to be tested positively correlates with admission diagnosis (and thus HIV status), but the magnitude of refusal bias in HIV prevalence surveys depends on the study protocol. Bias is larger when post-test counseling and the return of HIV test results is a prerequisite of study participation (compared to a protocol where test results are not returned to study participants, or, where there is an explicit provision for respondents to forego post-test counseling). We also find that consent for testing increased following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in Ethiopia. Other covariates of refusal are age (non-linear effect), gender (higher refusal rates in men), marital status (lowest refusal rates in singles), educational status (refusal rate increases with educational attainment), and counselor.The protocol for post-test counseling and the return of HIV test results to study participants is an important consideration in HIV prevalence surveys that wish to minimize refusal bias. The availability of ART is likely to reduce refusal rates.Progress in medical technology has brought rapid HIV testing within reach of nationally representative surveys. This has generated new prospects for resolving bias in HIV
First experiences in the implementation of biometric technology to link data from Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems with health facility data
Adwoa Serwaa-Bonsu,Abraham J. Herbst,Georges Reniers,Wilfred Ijaa
Global Health Action , 2010, DOI: 10.3402/gha.v3i0.2120
Abstract: Background: In developing countries, Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs) provide a framework for tracking demographic and health dynamics over time in a defined geographical area. Many HDSSs co-exist with facility-based data sources in the form of Health Management Information Systems (HMIS). Integrating both data sources through reliable record linkage could provide both numerator and denominator populations to estimate disease prevalence and incidence rates in the population and enable determination of accurate health service coverage. Objective: To measure the acceptability and performance of fingerprint biometrics to identify individuals in demographic surveillance populations and those attending health care facilities serving the surveillance populations. Methodology: Two HDSS sites used fingerprint biometrics for patient and/or surveillance population participant identification. The proportion of individuals for whom a fingerprint could be successfully enrolled were characterised in terms of age and sex. Results: Adult (18–65 years) fingerprint enrolment rates varied between 94.1% (95% CI 93.6–94.5) for facility-based fingerprint data collection at the Africa Centre site to 96.7% (95% CI 95.9–97.6) for population-based fingerprint data collection at the Agincourt site. Fingerprint enrolment rates in children under 1 year old (Africa Centre site) were only 55.1% (95% CI 52.7–57.4). By age 5, child fingerprint enrolment rates were comparable to those of adults. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the feasibility of fingerprint-based individual identification for population-based research in developing countries. Record linkage between demographic surveillance population databases and health care facility data based on biometric identification systems would allow for a more comprehensive evaluation of population health, including the ability to study health service utilisation from a population perspective, rather than the more restrictive health service perspective.
Linearization of CIF Through SOS
Damian Nadales Agut,Michel Reniers
Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science , 2011, DOI: 10.4204/eptcs.64.6
Abstract: Linearization is the procedure of rewriting a process term into a linear form, which consist only of basic operators of the process language. This procedure is interesting both from a theoretical and a practical point of view. In particular, a linearization algorithm is needed for the Compositional Interchange Format (CIF), an automaton based modeling language. The problem of devising ef cient linearization algorithms is not trivial, and has been already addressed in literature. However, the linearization algorithms obtained are the result of an inventive process, and the proof of correctness comes as an afterthought. Furthermore, the semantic speci cation of the language does not play an important role on the design of the algorithm. In this work we present a method for obtaining an ef cient linearization algorithm, through a step-wise re nement of the SOS rules of CIF. As a result, we show how the semantic speci cation of the language can guide the implementation of such a procedure, yielding a simple proof of correctness.
Proceedings Eight Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics 2011
M. A. Reniers,P. Sobocinski
Computer Science , 2011, DOI: 10.4204/EPTCS.62
Abstract: This volume contains the proceedings of SOS 2011, the Eight Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics, held on the 5th of September 2011 in Aachen, Germany as an affiliated workshop of CONCUR 2011, the 22nd International Conference on Concurrency Theory. Structural operational semantics (SOS) provides a framework for giving operational semantics to programming and specification languages. A growing number of programming languages from commercial and academic spheres have been given usable semantic descriptions by means of structural operational semantics. Because of its intuitive appeal and flexibility, structural operational semantics has found considerable application in the study of the semantics of concurrent processes. It is also a viable alternative to denotational semantics in the static analysis of programs, and in proving compiler correctness. Moreover, it has found application in emerging areas of computing such as probabilistic systems and systems biology. Structural operational semantics has been successfully applied as a formal tool to establish results that hold for classes of process description languages. This has allowed for the generalization of well-known results in the field of process algebra, and for the development of a meta-theory for process calculi based on the realization that many of the results in this field only depend upon general semantic properties of language constructs. The workshop is a forum for researchers, students and practitioners interested in new developments and directions for future investigations. One of the specific goals of the workshop is to provide a meeting point for the concurrency and programming language communities. Another goal is the dissemination of the theory and practice of SOS amongst postgraduate students and young researchers worldwide.
Proceedings Combined 19th International Workshop on Expressiveness in Concurrency and 9th Workshop on Structured Operational Semantics
Bas Luttik,Michel A. Reniers
Computer Science , 2012, DOI: 10.4204/EPTCS.89
Abstract: This volume contains the proceedings of the Combined 19th International Workshop on Expressiveness in Concurrency and the 9th Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics (EXPRESS/SOS 2012), which took place on 3rd September 2012 in Newcastle upon Tyne, as a satellite workshop of CONCUR 2012. The EXPRESS workshop series aims at bringing together researchers interested in the expressiveness of various formal systems and semantic notions, particularly in the field of concurrency. The SOS workshop series aims at being a forum for researchers, students and practitioners interested in new developments, and directions for future investigation, in the field of structural operational semantics. In 2012, the EXPRESS and SOS communities organized a joint EXPRESS/SOS 2012 workshop on the formal semantics of systems and programming concepts, and on the expressiveness of mathematical models of computation.
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