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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 13852 matches for " Renewable systems "
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Quantitative Analysis of the Fishing Activity in the Gulf of Manfredonia (Gargano, South-Italy)  [PDF]
Luca Grilli, Pasquale Marcello Falcone
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2010.12015
Abstract: The Manfredonia City Marine is the third in Italy both for its size and for its nation-wide importance, in the last decade a considerable crisis has been registered in this economic sector as shown by the always decreasing number of fishing boats registered in the Harbour-Office. As a result of such a reduction in the number of fishing boats, a remarkable fall-off in the production occurs. The fishing activity registers a deep legislative, organizational and operational transformation. The European Community, in order to face the indiscriminate impoverishment of the ichthyic inheritance, has provided incentives for the fishing boats’ casting off, by mean of an adequate reward. This paper aims to quantitatively analyze the fishing activity in the Gulf of Manfredonia in order to present a significant picture of the forthcoming situation on the basis of real data. To this end, we adopt a Prey-Predator model in discrete time that is suitable to describe properly the dynamics of an ecosystem in which just two species interact: predator and prey. The results show worrying forecasts. The fishing boats’ number presents a decreasing dynamic and, above all, we record a remarkable reduction in the stock of fishes in the Gulf of Manfredonia. The quantity of fishes, in twenty years, will be reduced of 28%. The Gulf sea, once rich in codfishes, mullets, cuttlefishes, octopus etc., runs the risk (on the basis of the results obtained in this paper) of making such species rare. The situation should be much more critical if the fishing activity in the Gulf runs at the rhythms of one decade ago. We apply the model at data from 1995, and we obtain catastrophical results; the number of fishing boats in the sector in 2015 should be 107 units (77% less) and the ichthyic inheritance about 16345 tons (45% less).
Deployment Challenges of Offshore Renewable Energy Systems for Sustainability in Developing Countries  [PDF]
Arif Sari, Ali Karaduman, Altay Firat
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2015.75037
Abstract: This research aims to expose deployment challenges of offshore renewable energy systems in developing countries. The investigation of the deployment model covers climate conditions, economic conditions, necessary infrastructure services and wind power by considering the case of Cyprus Island which is one of the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) countries. The convenience of Offshore Energy Systems to the territory and their systematic proper work is an important issue. Because of that, the setting up of Offshore Wind Energy Tribunes in Cyprus, the planning process, structuring of cost values and necessary resources, the investigation of the geographic conditions for obtaining the energy flow and assessment of these conditions for Offshore Wind Tribunes are the prime objectives of this study. The orientation period and the applicable qualifications of the offshore energy systems were evaluated on the basis of the world wide references. The study is concluded by the estimation of the advantages and disadvantages of the system for Cyprus.
Impact of the Fermeuse Wind Farm on Newfoundland Grid  [PDF]
Seyedali Meghdadi, Tariq Iqbal
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2015.76025
Abstract: This paper aims to study the impact of the Fermeuse wind farm (46°58'42\"N 52°57'18\"W) through simulation of wind turbines driven by doubly fed induction generator which feed AC power to the isolated utility grid of Newfoundland. The focus is on the determination of both voltage and system stability constraints. The complete system is modeled and simulated in Matlab Simulink environment.
Adoption and Use of Household Microgeneration Heat Technologies  [PDF]
Sally Caird, Robin Roy
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2010.12008
Abstract: The development and rapid household adoption of smallscale, low and zero carbon microgeneration technologies are key elements of UK and EU strategies to meet the challenge of climate change. Microgeneration heat technologies, including solar thermal hot water, heat pumps and biomass heating systems, have an especially important role in reducing the carbon emissions from buildings. But despite government policies to promote microgeneration, adoption by UK householders is very slow. Surveys by the Open University and Energy Saving Trust examined why over 900 UK householders decided to adopt these technologies and why many do not. These surveys describe the niche market for microgeneration heat as largely confined to environmentally concerned, older, middleclass householders, mainly living in larger properties off the mains gas network. Although these pioneer adopters are generally highly satisfied, for microgeneration heat to expand beyond its market niche, several issues need to be addressed, including: price reductions and subsidies? independent information on the suitability, performance, payback and effective use of equipment? ‘one- stop’ support from consideration to operation? improved system compatibility with smaller properties and existing buildings and heating systems? and more userfriendly and informative controls.
A Low Cost Concept for Data Acquisition Systems Applied to Decentralized Renewable Energy Plants
Sandro C. S. Jucá,Paulo C. M. Carvalho,Fábio T. Brito
Sensors , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/s110100743
Abstract: The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS) and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE) plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows? operating systems.
Emergía de tres sistemas agroforestales en el sur del municipio de Lempira, Honduras
Ferreira C.,óscar I.; Hurtado S.,María del Pilar; García,Edwin; Bonilla Correa,Carmen Rosa; Rao,Idupulapati M;
Acta Agronómica , 2010,
Abstract: resource use and sustainability of three agroforestry systems (secondary woods - bs; fell and burn - tq; and quesungal conservation mode - saq) were evaluated by analyzing data from fifteen 200 m2 plots (14° 05' n; 88° 30' w), making use of transformity values reported in other related studies. the highest emergy values were observed for the variable rain (1.35e15 sej/ha per year); and the largest emergy differences were found in eroded soils, especially those of tq. bs and saq exhibited a greater environmental load ratio than tq (0.63, 0.14 and 0.02, respectively). tq showed the largest ecological footprint index value, followed by saq and bs. emergy sustainability index for tq was 34.8, whereas saq and bs reached respective values of 135.6 and 4,123.8. the latter two data, as compared to the former, reveal how these systems (saq and bs) favor the use of local renewable resources.
Santos Basin Wind Patterns for Planning Offshore Pre-Salt Activities  [PDF]
Otto M. Machado Filho, Nelson F. F. Ebecken, Marilia M. F. de Oliveira
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.610100
Abstract: Santos Basin contains the major hub of oil and gas exploration in Brazil. Consequently, knowledge of ocean surface winds in this area is very important for operational and planning activities. In addition, the importance of renewable energies is nowadays unquestionable, specifically in the case of the wind energy. In this paper, a data clustering technique is applied in order to obtain representative local wind patterns in Santos Basin. Reanalysis data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) have been used in this study.
Modeling and Simulation of a Hybrid Energy Storage System for Residential Grid-Tied Solar Microgrid Systems  [PDF]
Abdrahamane Traore, Allan Taylor, M. A. Zohdy, F. Z. Peng
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2017.55003
Abstract: Present-day power conversion and conditioning systems focus on transferring energy from a single type of power source into a single type of load or energy storage system (ESS). While these systems can be optimized within their specific topology (e.g. MPPT for solar applications and BMS for batteries), the topologies are not easily adapted to accept a wide range of power flow operating conditions. With a hybrid approach to energy storage and power flow, a system can be designed to operate at its most advantageous point, given the operating conditions. Based on the load demand, the system can select the optimal power source and ESS. This paper will investigate the feasibility of combining two types of power sources (main utility grid and photovoltaics (PV)) along with two types of ESS (ultra-capacitors and batteries). The simulation results will show the impact of a hybrid ESS on a grid-tied residential microgrid system performance under various operating scenarios.
Complementarity Maps of Wind and Solar Energy Resources for Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  [PDF]
Gilberto Pianezzola, Arno Krenzinger, Fausto A. Canales
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2017.99034
Abstract: If two or more renewable energy sources are available in the same region, their complementary can be advantageous in a hybrid power system. Three indices are defined in this work for assessing the complementarity of solar and wind resources for energy production. Based on existing data of solar radiation and wind speed, these complementarity indices were calculated and represented in the form of maps for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil. The results found suggest that there are some areas of the state where the use of hybrid wind-solar power systems could be more effective than single photovoltaic or wind systems.
Optimal Configuration for Design of Stand-Alone PV System  [PDF]
Khaled Bataineh, Doraid Dalalah
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2012.32020
Abstract: This paper presents a design for a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system to provide the required electricity for a single residential household in rural area in Jordan. The complete design steps for the suggested household loads are carried out. Site radiation data and the electrical load data of a typical household in the considered site are taken into account during the design steps. The reliability of the system is quantified by the loss of load probability. A computer program is developed to simulate the PV system behavior and to numerically find an optimal combination of PV array and battery bank for the design of stand-alone photovoltaic systems in terms of reliability and costs. The program calculates life cycle cost and annualized unit electrical cost. Simulations results showed that a value of loss of load probability LLP can be met by several combinations of PV array and battery storage. The method developed here uniquely determines the optimum configuration that meets the load demand with the minimum cost. The difference between the costs of these combinations is very large. The optimal unit electrical cost of 1 kWh for LLP = 0.049 is $0.293; while for LLP 0.0027 it is $0.402. The results of the study encouraged the use of the PV systems to electrify the remote sites in Jordan.
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