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Estudio de resistencia de Aedes aegypti a Bacillus thuringiensis var: israelensis Study of Aedes aegypti resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis var: israelensis
René Gato Armas,Manuel Díaz Pérez,Rosa Bruzón águila,Zulema Menéndez Díaz
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical , 2008,
Abstract: INTRODUCCIóN: el uso prolongado de insecticidas ha conducido al desarrollo de resistencia en diferentes especies de mosquitos incluido el Aedes aegypti, aunque hasta el momento no existen reportes de resistencia a Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis. OBJETIVOS: evaluar la resistencia a Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis en poblaciones de Aedes aegypti provenientes de sitios donde se ha aplicado la formulación líquida Bactivec (Labiofam) y en cepas de laboratorio bajo presión de selección. MéTODOS: se realizaron colectas de larvas en 3 municipios de Ciudad de La Habana y se establecieron las colonias de Aedes aegypti en el laboratorio, las cuales se compararon en susceptibilidad a Bacillus thuringiensis con la cepa de referencia Rockefeller. El experimento de selección se realizó exponiendo generaciones sucesivas de una cepa susceptible a la dosis letal 90 del biolarvicida. RESULTADOS: el índice de resistencia 50 para las cepas de los municipios Plaza, Cerro y Boyeros fue de 1,07, 0,66 y 0,81, respectivamente, por lo cual pueden considerarse susceptibles. La cepa expuesta a intensa presión de selección con el biolarvicida mostró índices de resistencia 50 y 95 de 2,7 y 4,6, respectivamente. La menor pendiente de la línea de regresión correspondió a la cepa bajo selección, lo que indica mayor variabilidad genética de esta población. CONCLUSIONES: estos resultados justifican la utilización de Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis como una alternativa para el control de estadios inmaduros de Aedes aegypti sin que exista evidencia hasta el presente de aparición de resistencia en poblaciones de campo, pero deben trazarse estrategias de manejo adecuadas ante la potencialidad del vector de adquirirla. INTRODUCTION: Prolonged use of insecticides has led to resistance development in different mosquito species including Aedes aegypti, although there is no report of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis so far. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis in Aedes aegypti populations from places where fluid preparation Bactivec (made in Labiofam company) has been applied, and in lab strains under selection. METHODS: Larvae were collected in three municipalities of the City of Havana province to settle Aedes aegypti colonies in the laboratory, which were compared with reference strain called Rockefeller in terms of susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis. The selection experiment was performed by exposing successive generations of a strain susceptible to lethal dose 90 of this biolarvicide. RESULTS: Resista
Susceptibilidad de cepas de Aedes aegypti (L.) a Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis en La Habana Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti (L.) strains from Havana to a Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis
Zulema Menéndez Díaz,Jinnay Rodríguez Rodríguez,René Gato Armas,Ariamys Companioni Iba?ez
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical , 2012,
Abstract: Introducción: entre las estrategias promovidas para el control vectorial se encuentra la integración de los métodos químicos y biológicos, debido a los problemas ambientales e inquietudes en la comunidad provocadas por la acción de los insecticidas orgánicos sintéticos. La bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis en formulación líquida ha sido utilizada ampliamente en programas de control en diversos países y en Cuba ha mostrado alta eficacia a nivel de laboratorio contra Aedes aegypti. Objetivo: determinar la susceptibilidad al Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis de Aedes aegypti colectados en los municipios de La Habana, Cuba. Métodos: se emplearon 15 cepas de Aedes aegypti, una de cada municipio de La Habana, a partir de larvas y pupas colectadas en 2010 y una cepa de referencia: Rockefeller. Se utilizó Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, en formulación de tipo suspensión acuosa (Bactivec, Labiofam, Cuba). Para la realización de los bioensayos se siguieron las guías de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para larvicidas bacterianos de uso en salud pública. La mortalidad larvaria se leyó a las 24 h y los resultados se procesaron en el sistema informático estadístico SPSS (11.0) mediante análisis Probit. Resultados: las cepas de mosquitos evaluadas mostraron elevada susceptibilidad al biolarvicida, no se registraron diferencias significativas entre los valores de CL50 de las cepas de Aedes aegypti, ni de éstas comparadas con la cepa de referencia. Conclusiones: los resultados presentados sugieren que la aplicación de Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis sigue siendo una alternativa para el control de poblaciones larvales de Aedes aegypti en la provincia de La Habana. Introduction: the integration of chemical and biological methods is one of the strategies for the vector control, due to the existing environmental problems and the concerns of the community as a result of the synthetic organic insecticide actions. The bacterium called Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis in liquid formulation has been widely used in the vector control programs in several countries and has shown high efficacy at lab in Cuba. Objective: to determine the susceptibility of Aedes aegypti collected in the municipalities of La Habana province to Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis. Methods: fifteen Aedes aegypti strains, one from each municipality, were used including larvae and pupas collected in 2010 and one reference strain known as Rockefeller. The aqueous formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bactivec, Labiofam, Cuba) was used. T
Efecto del anticuerpo monoclonal 4B3 en la infección experimental por Cryptococcus neoformans Effect of 4B3 monoclonal antibody on the experimental Cryptococcus neoformans infection
María Teresa Illnait-Zaragozí,René Gato Armas,Gerardo Félix Martínez Machín,Anselmo Otero González
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical , 2011,
Abstract: Introducción: las frecuencias de recaídas y elevada letalidad de la criptococosis se mantienen altas, lo cual incentiva la búsqueda de nuevas estrategias terapéuticas. Objetivos: evaluar el efecto del anticuerpo monoclonal 4B3 sobre la infección criptocócica en ratones BALB/c. Métodos: se determinó la cinética de la concentración sérica del anticuerpo monoclonal para su administración intraperitoneal (500 μg), que fue medida por ELISA cuantitativo de doble anticuerpo. La capacidad protectora se observó mediante el registro de supervivencia de ratones BALB/c administrados con 500 μg de anticuerpo monoclonal 4B3 e inoculados con 2 x 10(2,2) células/mL de Cryptococcus neoformans, así como por evaluación de la diseminación de la levadura a los principales órganos diana. Se identificó el efecto del anticuerpo monoclonal 4B3 sobre la fagocitosis y lisis del microorganismo por células de la línea de macrófagos P338.D1. Resultados: la dosis empleada fue suficiente para mantener valores séricos elevados del 4B3 (38 μg/mL) durante al menos 46 d. Se determinó que el 4B3 no confiere protección, lo cual potencia la diseminación del microorganismo y disminuye el tiempo de vida de los animales. El ensayo de fagocitosis mostró que el anticuerpo evaluado incrementa la actividad fagocítica de los macrófagos sin lograr un efecto fungicida. Conclusiones: el anticuerpo monoclonal 4B3 estimula la fagocitosis de C. neoformans por macrófagos, pero sin efecto fungicida. Con ello favorece la diseminación de la levadura y disminuye el tiempo de vida de los ratones a la infección. Introduction: frequent relapses and high lethality of criptococcosis has encouraged the search for new therapeutic strategies. Objectives: to evaluate the effect of the monoclonal antibody 4B3 on the cryptococcal infection in Balb/c mice. Methods: the kinetics in serum concentration of the studied monoclonal antibody was determined for intraperitoneal administration (500 μg) by quantitative sandwich ELISA. In order to assess its protective capability, were administered 500 μg of 4B3 and innoculated 2 x 10(2.2) cells/mL of Cryptococcus neoformans. The survival of mice was recorded and the yeast dissemination to the main target organs was evaluated. Macrophages P338.D1 cell lines were used to measure the effect of the monoclonal antibody 4B3 on the phagocytosis and lysis of the microorganism. Results: the used dose helped to keep high values (38 μg/m) of 4B3 in serum for at least 46 days. It was found that the monoclonal antibody does not give protection, which makes the microorganism dissemination possibl
Reconocimiento de células intactas de Cryptococcus neoformans por el AcM 4B3 antiglucuronoxilomanano Recognition of intact cells from Cryptococcus neoformans by the anti-glucuronoxylomannan 4B3 monoclonal antibody
René Gato Armas,Gerardo Martínez Machín,Hermis Rodríguez Sánchez,Anselmo Otero González
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical , 2006,
Abstract: Se estudió la capacidad del anticuerpo monoclonal 4B3, obtenido mediante inmunización de ratones BALB/c con el polisacárido capsular de Cryptococcus neoformans, para reconocer a dicha estructura como parte de la célula intacta de esta levadura. Con este propósito el anticuerpo 4B3 fue evaluado mediante ELISA celular e inmunofluorescencia indirecta empleando como antígeno una suspensión de células de la cepa 028 LMIPK de Cryptococcus neoformans. Se usó como control positivo suero del ratón empleado en la fusión para la obtención del anticuerpo monoclonal 4B3 y como control negativo un anticuerpo monoclonal anti-dengue. Ambos métodos demostraron que este anticuerpo monoclonal es capaz de reconocer al antígeno nativo, lo que permitirá su posterior evaluación con fines diagnósticos y terapéuticos. The capacity of the 4B3 monoclonal antibody, previously obtained by immunization of BALB/c mice with the capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans was studied to recognize this structure as part of the intact cell of this yeast. With this aim, 4B3 was evaluated by cellular ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence, using as an antigen a cell suspension of the 028 LMIPK C. neoformans strain. Serum from the mouse used in the fusion for obtaining 4B3 monoclonal antibody was used as a positive control, whereas an anti-dengue monoclonal antibody was used as a negative control. Both methods demonstrated that the above mentioned monoclonal antibody is capable of recognizing the native antigen, which will allow its future evaluation for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
Conducta de oviposición de Aedes aegypti (L.) en presencia de Macrocyclops albidus (J.) y Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis en condiciones de laboratorio
Rodríguez Rodríguez,Jinnay; Menéndez Díaz,Zulema; García García,Israel; Díaz Pérez,Manuel; Sánchez,Jesús E.; Gato Armas,René;
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical , 2007,
Abstract: the behaviour of the oviposition of pregnant females of aedes aegypti in the presence of biological agents: macrocyclops albidus (copepoda: cyclopoidea) or bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (bti) was evaluated under lab conditions. recipients containing 225 ml of dechlorinated water were placed for oviposition with three variants: water with copepods, water with bti, and water. the average of eggs layed in the recipients with copepods and bti were 1 227.9 and 1 200.8, respectively, a figure higher than the 887.4 eggs of the recipient containing only water, although the differences observed were not statistically significant (p >0.05). the oviposotion activity index (oai) estimated showed values over 0 for copepods and for bti, which indicated that females did not avoid to deposit their eggs in these recipients. the results suggested that in nature, these recipients with biological controllers may be oviposition sites for pregnant females of aedes aegypti, which may have positive implications on its effectiveness to control this vector.
Efectividad de formulaciones de insecticidas para el control de adultos de Aedes aegypti en La Habana, Cuba
Bisset Lazcano,Juan A; Rodríguez Coto,María Magdalena; Moya Hernández,Maira; Ricardo Leyva,Yanelys; Montada Dorta,Domingo; Gato De Armas,René; Pérez Insueta,Omayda;
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical , 2011,
Abstract: introduction: the vector control remains the sole sustainable measure to prevent dengue transmission in which the key role goes to adulticides in case of high rates of infestation by the vector, outbreaks or dengue epidemics. pyrethroids are the most used whereas organophosphorous chloripirifos has been occasionally used because of the cost. objectives: to determine the effectiveness of insecticides in their commercial formulation that is applied today by the national unit of anti-vector control and surveillance in cuba for the control of ae aegypti adults such as chlorpirifos (terfos 48 ce) and pyrethroids, lambda-cyhalothrin (icon 2.5 ce) and cypermethrin (galgotrin 25 ce). methods: fifteen ae. aegypti strains from the 15 municipalities of la habana province, collected in 2008, and the rockefeller reference strain were used. the level of effectiveness of these products against the adult vector was determined through who-recommended bioassays. results: in situ effectiveness bioassays, terphos 48 ce was the most effective in causing 100% mortality of all the strains, followed by icon 2.5 ce and galgotrin 25 ce which reached 98% and 100% mortality rates respectively. conclusions: the field tests showed that the insecticides currently in use in the aedes aegypti eradication program are still highly effective in la habana province. the combined use of chlorpirifos and pyrethroids are recommended to delay the evolution of resistance to this last group of insecticides.
Reconocimiento de células intactas de Cryptococcus neoformans por el AcM 4B3 antiglucuronoxilomanano
Gato Armas,René; Martínez Machín,Gerardo; Rodríguez Sánchez,Hermis; Otero González,Anselmo; Sarracent Pérez,Jorge; Illnait Zaragozí,María T.;
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical , 2006,
Abstract: the capacity of the 4b3 monoclonal antibody, previously obtained by immunization of balb/c mice with the capsular polysaccharide of cryptococcus neoformans was studied to recognize this structure as part of the intact cell of this yeast. with this aim, 4b3 was evaluated by cellular elisa and indirect immunofluorescence, using as an antigen a cell suspension of the 028 lmipk c. neoformans strain. serum from the mouse used in the fusion for obtaining 4b3 monoclonal antibody was used as a positive control, whereas an anti-dengue monoclonal antibody was used as a negative control. both methods demonstrated that the above mentioned monoclonal antibody is capable of recognizing the native antigen, which will allow its future evaluation for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
Estudio de resistencia de Aedes aegypti a Bacillus thuringiensis var: israelensis
Gato Armas,René; Díaz Pérez,Manuel; Bruzón águila,Rosa; Menéndez Díaz,Zulema; González Rizo,Aileen; Hernández González,Yenín; García ávila,Israel;
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical , 2008,
Abstract: introduction: prolonged use of insecticides has led to resistance development in different mosquito species including aedes aegypti, although there is no report of resistance to bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis so far. objectives: to evaluate resistance to bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis in aedes aegypti populations from places where fluid preparation bactivec (made in labiofam company) has been applied, and in lab strains under selection. methods: larvae were collected in three municipalities of the city of havana province to settle aedes aegypti colonies in the laboratory, which were compared with reference strain called rockefeller in terms of susceptibility to bacillus thuringiensis. the selection experiment was performed by exposing successive generations of a strain susceptible to lethal dose 90 of this biolarvicide. results: resistance index 50 for strains from plaza, cerro and boyeros was 1.07, 0.66 and 0.81 respectively, so they may be considered as susceptible strains. the strain exposed to intensive selection pressure with the biolarvicide showed resistance indexes 50 and 95 equal to 2.7 and 4.6 respectively. the smallest regression line slope was found in the selection strain, which indicated a greater genetic variability in this population. conclusions: these results support the use of bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis as an alternative for management of immature aedes aegyptis without any evidence whatsoever of emerging resistance in the field population, but some adequate management strategies should be drawn, taking into account the vector′s potentialities to acquire it.
Efecto del anticuerpo monoclonal 4B3 en la infección experimental por Cryptococcus neoformans
Illnait-Zaragozí,María Teresa; Gato Armas,René; Martínez Machín,Gerardo Félix; Otero González,Anselmo; Sarracent Pérez,Jorge; Rodríguez Sánchez,Hermis; Fernández Andreu,Carlos Manuel; del Carmen Valdés Hernández,Iliana;
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical , 2011,
Abstract: introduction: frequent relapses and high lethality of criptococcosis has encouraged the search for new therapeutic strategies. objectives: to evaluate the effect of the monoclonal antibody 4b3 on the cryptococcal infection in balb/c mice. methods: the kinetics in serum concentration of the studied monoclonal antibody was determined for intraperitoneal administration (500 μg) by quantitative sandwich elisa. in order to assess its protective capability, were administered 500 μg of 4b3 and innoculated 2 x 102.2 cells/ml of cryptococcus neoformans. the survival of mice was recorded and the yeast dissemination to the main target organs was evaluated. macrophages p338.d1 cell lines were used to measure the effect of the monoclonal antibody 4b3 on the phagocytosis and lysis of the microorganism. results: the used dose helped to keep high values (38 μg/m) of 4b3 in serum for at least 46 days. it was found that the monoclonal antibody does not give protection, which makes the microorganism dissemination possible, along with the reduction in the survival of mice. finally, the phagocytosis test showed that 4b3 increased the phagocytic activity of macrophages without any fungicidal effect. conclusions: the monoclonal antibody 4b3 stimulates c. neoformans phagocytosis by macrophages without fungicidal effect, thus favoring yeast dissemination and decreasing the survival of mice due to cryptococcal infection.
Cerebrospinal fluid: a rising subject in brain development
Angel Gato
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fnmol.2013.00030
Abstract:
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