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Regaining Normalcy in Relatives of Patients with a Pacemaker  [PDF]
Dan Malm, Anna Sandgren
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.43018

Patients with chronic diseases, such as those with pacemakers, have shown that they have a worsened well-being, which means an increased interest in investigating how relatives of patients with pacemakers experience their situations and how the disease affects their life situations. The aim of this study was to explore the main concerns for the relatives of patients with a pacemaker and how they resolve these issues. A classic grounded theory was used throughout the study for data collection and analysis. Interviews were conducted with ten participants. Striving for normalcy emerged as the main concern for relatives of patients with a pacemaker and was handled through a process of regaining normalcy where the relatives strive to find a way to live as normal as possible. Regaining normalcy is done through developing trust, dwindling and finally life stabilizing, in which they are either holding back or new normalizing. Distinguishing signs are constantly done during the process to quickly notice possible symptoms of the patient. Increased knowledge and understanding of how the relatives of patients with a pacemaker regain normalcy can be used as a guide in order to support and inform the patient as well as their relatives in conjunction with implantation occasions but also in connection with recurring and lifelong follow-up occasions.

Burden, Health and Sense of Coherence among Relatives of Depressed Inpatients  [PDF]
Hege Skundberg-Kletthagen, Birgitta Hedelin, Sigrid Wangensteen, Marie Louise Hall-Lord
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.53020
Abstract: In Europe, there are an increasing number of persons suffering from depression, which also affects many relatives. The burden and health when being the relative of an inpatient suffering from severe depression has been less examined. The aim of the study was to describe burden, health and sense of coherence among relatives of inpatients with severe depression. Furthermore, the aim was to investigate relatives’ burden in relation to their health and sense of coherence. A cross-sectional design was performed, with a questionnaire consisting of background questions and three instruments; Burden Assessment Scale, General Health Questionnaire and Sense of Coherence scale. The participants consisted of 68 relatives recruited from a sample of inpatients diagnosed with depression in the psychiatric specialist health services in one hospital trust in Norway. The Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics, Norway South East, gave approval to the study. The relatives reported burden to a various degree, with some reporting a significantly greater burden, poorer health and a weaker sense of coherence than others. With regard to subjective burden eight out of ten relatives reported “Worry about future”, and almost six out of ten were “Upset by change in patient”. Regarding objective burden, more than half the relatives reported having “Less time for friends” and “Reduced leisure time”. In conclusion the relatives with a high level of burden reported more mental distress, poorer health and weaker sense of coherence than those with lower level of burden. Further research should focus on identification of factors predicting burden and health of relatives of inpatients with severe depression.
The effects of ethical dilemmas regarding the use of physical restraints in eldercare on female nurses who care for their relatives in Japan  [PDF]
Miwa Yamamoto
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2012.22006
Abstract: Purpose: This study sought to clarify the relationship between a nurse’s exposure to elderly relatives and their perspective in using restraints on the elderly in health care situations. Methods: We approached nursing staff supervisors at 17 general hospital wards and explained the objectives of the study. Supervisors at 14 hospitals agreed to participate, giving us a sampling pool of 1929 nurses. We used a chi square test to compare nurses who had spent time with elderly relatives and those who had not on several variables related to using restraints on elderly patients. Results and Conclusion: This study found that nurses who live with elderly family members were significantly more likely to believe that restraints cause diseases (including chronic diseases) based on a chi square test (p < 0.05). Therefore it would be important that essential was the experiences of individuals with elderly family members when making programs of decreasing nurse’s dilemma to restraining the elderly.
Attitudes and burden in relatives of patients with schizophrenia in a middle income country
Alejandra Caqueo-Urízar, José Gutiérrez-Maldonado, Marta Ferrer-García, Claudia Pe?aloza-Salazar, David Richards-Araya, Alejandro Cuadra-Peralta
BMC Family Practice , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-12-101
Abstract: We assessed attitudes towards schizophrenia (including affective, cognitive and behavioural components) and burden (including subjective distress, rejection and competence) in 41 main caregivers of patients with schizophrenia, all of whom were users of Public Mental Health Services in Arica.Attitude measures differed significantly according to socio-demographic variables, with parents (mainly mothers) exhibiting a more negative attitude towards the environment than the rest of the family (t = 4.04; p = 0.000).This was also the case for caregivers with a low educational level (t = 3.27; p < 0.003), for the oldest caregivers (r = 0.546; p = 0.000) and for those who had spent more time with the patient (r = 0.377; p = 0.015). Although attitudes had significant association with burden, their explanatory power was modest (R2 = .104, F = 4,55; p = .039).Similar to finding developed countries, the current study revealed a positive and significant relationship between the attitudes of caregivers and their burden. These findings emphasize the need to support the families of patients with schizophrenia in this social context.In Chile, with a population of 16 million people, the prevalence of schizophrenia ranges between 1.4-4.6 persons for every hundred thousand people, with the annual incidence rate being 12 new cases for every hundred thousand inhabitants [1]. The prevalence of this disorder is higher in the Arica-Parinacota region and in the capital, Santiago [2]. Further, a National Health Survey carried out in 2004 recorded 917,939 Chileans (5.7% of the population) as being moderately/severely disabled, with 68.71% of these being taken care of by relatives [1].At the beginning of the 1990s, and together with the return to democracy in Chile, mental health reforms began to be implemented and the country witnessed a progressive increase in government investment in the area, the development of psychiatric and mental health service networks, and the creation of user groups.
Información posquirúrgica a la familia: un área de mejora: Estudio prospectivo tras cirugía urológica
Argüelles,E.; Ortega,C.; San Juan,A.; Congregado,C.B.; Campoy,P.; Medina,R.A.;
Actas Urológicas Espa?olas , 2010, DOI: 10.4321/S0210-48062010000900003
Abstract: objectives: analyzing and quantifing the postoperative retention of information, checking if it could be improved been delivered in an organized way. material and methods: after the basic information to relatives of 50 post-surgical patients operated for bladder or prostate, we deliver a questionnaire about what has just been told. it must be completed by a family member. the information is distributed differently: group 1 (30 patients) reported to the family following a script designed by us, written in simple and natural language. in group 2 (20 patients) the doctor informed as usual, not knowing that he is participating in the research. then the relative is interviewed by one of the researchers. results: only 3 (6%) family members matched all the right answers, and 25 (50%) did not hit more than 70% of the issues. the best known concept was the organ involved: 46 (92%). 21(42%) of respondents did not know if the process is basically benign or malignant, getting better results in group 1 but without significan 20/30 (66.7%) vs 9/20 (45%) (p>0.05). the only item in which there are differences in success rate depending on the group is if a catheter have been set: 29 (96.7%) of successes in group 1, 13(65%) in 2. we found no difference in success rate according to number of family members informed, education, age or number of previous interventions. conclusions: relatives do not retain everything that was said. organizing the information provided may improve, but other factors have influence. we must improve issues such as personal identification. it may be useful to repeat the information later.
Relatives’ experiences of everyday life when receiving day care services for persons with dementia living at home  [PDF]
Gunn Eva Solum Myren, Ingela Enmarker, Ellen Saur, Ove Hellzen
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.58166

Relatives often become involved in the care of people with dementia who are living at home. The caregivers’ burdens are extensively described in several studies, and one of the most common, unmet needs of the caregivers is the opportunity for daytime activities. The aim in this qualitative study is therefore to explore the everyday lives of eight relatives of people with dementia who are receiving day care services. A content analysis is used, and three major themes emerge and are discussed: 1) when life becomes chaotic; 2) rebuilding a new, everyday life; and 3) the agonies of choice. The findings indicate that day care service offers respite care, and, at the same time, it gives both the relatives and those with dementia a meaningful day. These findings can also be described as relatives traveling a route from a situation characterized by chaos and suffering to a new life situation that has meaning through day care services. It is important to note that despite this new meaning in the relatives’ lives, the relatives continue to struggle with decisions about the futures of their loves ones in regard to the dilemma of placing them in an institution versus aging in place.

Prevalence of open angle glaucoma in accompanying first degree relatives of patients with glaucoma
Vegini, Franciele;Figueiroa Filho, Natanael;Lenci, Raphael Furlan;Garcia Neto, Diogo;Susanna Junior, Remo;
Clinics , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1807-59322008000300007
Abstract: objective: the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of open angle glaucoma in first-degree relatives accompanying poag patients during routine examination in a reference hospital. method: first-degree relatives of primary open angle glaucoma patients who accompanied their relatives to the glaucoma service of a reference hospital were screened for glaucoma. results: one-hundred and one first-degree relatives were examined, of which 56.4% had never had their intraocular pressure measured. 10.9% had previously been diagnosed with glaucoma, and 5.9% were newly diagnosed during this study. conclusions: the eye examination of first-degree relatives identified a significant percentage of individuals with glaucoma. despite being first-degree relatives of glaucoma patients, 56.4% of the companions had never had their eye pressure measured, demonstrating a lack of awareness about this disease.
A Behavioral Self-recording Procedure in the Management of Breast Cancer: A Field Test with Disadvantaged Participants
Sánchez-Sosa, Juan José;Alvarado Aguilar, Salvador;
Revista mexicana de análisis de la conducta , 2008,
Abstract: breast cancer prevalence in many developing nations such as those in latin america continues to grow at a pace that deserves serious attention, since cancer accounts for high morbidity and mortality rates among relatively young women (lavecchia & bosetti, 2005). from a clinical standpoint, breast cancer patients suffer not only from the symptoms of cancer itself but from side-effects of invasive treatments (burish, shartner & lyles, 1981; donovan, small, andrykowski, munster & jacobsen, 2007; falleti, sanfilippo, maruff, weih, & phillips, 2005). in addition to dealing with distress, the home-care component of breast cancer treatment demands complex routines and behaviors which patients with little or no schooling and other socioeconomic disadvantages have serious difficulty implementing. the purpose of the present study was to field test a behavioral self recording procedure with the first six patients who completed treatment, and to probe preliminary effects of a behavioral intervention to support healthcare and reduce distress. results point toward a reliable, low-cost and practical recording system; as well as improvement in most behavioral and emotional categories for practically all participants.
A survey of hypertension and hyperandrogenemia in the first degree relatives of women with polycystic ovarian syndrome referring to gynecology clinics of Shiraz Medical University
Marzieh Akbarzadeh,Fereshteh Moradi,Mohamad Hosein Dabbaghmaneh,Peyman Jafari
Journal of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction:Polycystic ovarian (pco) syndrome is one of the most prevalent (4-8%) endocrine glands disorders among women15-45 years old. In women with polycystic ovary syndrome (pcos), increased blood pressure and abnormal androgen are prevalent. In addition to the patients, their first degree relatives are exposed to some risk factors such as hypertension and hyperandrogenemia. Due to the high prevalence of pcos among women and its outcomes among their first degree relatives, it is necessary to recognize the high risk people. This study was conducted to survey hypertension and hyperandrogenemia in the first degree relatives of patients with polycystic ovarian syndromeMaterial and Methods:This is a case-control study in which 107 individuals as case group and 107 individuals as control group were selected from among the first degree relatives of women with polycystic ovarian syndrome in 2008. The participants filled in a questionnaire on demographics. Then their blood pressure was measured and blood samples were taken from all the participants in order to assay their serum androgens. After performing biochemical tests, data were gathered and analyzed by Chi square and Kapa tests with 95% confidence intervals and alpha coefficients 0.05. Results:The mean of the total androgens and high level blood pressure of the control group were much different from those of the case group (P<0.05).Conclusion:The first degree relatives of women suffering from polycystic ovarian syndrome are probably exposed to abnormal blood pressure and hyperandrogenemia.
Help received from relatives and services to satisfy needs of adults with severe mental disorders  [PDF]
Marie-Josée Fleury, Guy Grenier, Jean-Marie Bamvita
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.52028

Background: Few studies have considered the impact of demographic and clinical variables on help received respectively from services and relatives to satisfy needs of adults with severe mental disorders (SMD). Purposes: To identify major needs receiving help and, using the Andersen’s Behavioural Model of Health Service Use, to identify and compare predisposing, enabling and need factors associated with help given respectively by services and relatives. Methods: 352 adults with SMD from Montreal (Canada) were interviewed using six standardized instruments. Clinical records were consulted. Multiple linear regression analyses were processed to measure level of help received from relatives and services. Results: Factors significantly associated with help from relatives were: higher number of perceived needs; fewer diagnoses; better community functioning; being younger, and in a conjugal relationship; living autonomously; having social support and better quality of life; and, marginally, being an immigrant. Factors significantly associated with help from services were: higher number of perceived needs, better quality of life, supervised housing, adjustment disorder and schizophrenia. Conclusions: Help overall is insufficient to meet users’ needs. Services are more helpful than relatives, in particular regarding health needs. Comparatively to help from services, help from relatives is associated with predisposing factors like age, marital status and nationality.

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