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Asepsis in ophthalmic operating room
Sharma Savitri,Bansal Aashish,Gyanchand Rekha
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1996,
Comparison of Sensitivity and Specificity of ZN and Fluorescent Stain Microscopy with Culture as Gold Standard  [PDF]
Rekha Bansal, Parveen Kumar Sharma, Subhash Chand Jaryal, Puneet Kumar Gupta, Dinesh Kumar
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2017.52013
Abstract: Introduction: Reports indicate that fluorescent staining of smears increases sensitivity of direct microscopy; so ZN staining is being replaced with fluorescent microscopy in RNTCP in India. Chemical processing and sputum concentration may also improve sensitivity of microscopy. Objective: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of microscopy for AFB using ZN and fluorescent stains in direct and concentrated specimen with culture as gold standard. Methods: Morning sputum specimen of patients, suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis, over a period of 6 months was subjected to direct microscopy using fluorescent stain; the same slide was over-stained with ZN stain. Same sputum sample was concentrated by Petroff’s method and subjected to fluorescent microscopy followed by ZN microscopy and finally to culture for AFB. Results: Sensitivity of fluorescent stained concentrated sputum samples was maximum and of ZN stained unprocessed sputum samples was minimum. Specificity of three of the methods was equal at 0.96 but of ZN stained concentrated sputum smears was 0.97. Sensitivity of total fluorescent stains was 0.85 (Specificity 0.96) and sensitivity of total ZN stained smears was 0.80 (Specificity 0.96). Discussion: We used same smear for fluorescent and ZN stains, so smear related variability is decreased. Blinding for microscopy was practically complete. Conclusion: The sensitivity of sputum microscopy for AFB can be increased by concentrating the sputum and using fluorescent microscopy. The specificity remains high in all the methods.
Adverse Drug Reactions in Patients on Second Line Anti-Tubercular Drugs for Drug Resistant Tuberculosis in Rural Tertiary Care Hospital in North India  [PDF]
Anita Kumari, Parveen Kumar Sharma, Dinesh Kansal, Rekha Bansal, Rajan Negi
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2018.63019
Abstract: Introduction: The adverse drug events (ADEs) to second-line anti-TB drugs are one of the major reasons for the patients default on treatment. A general awareness of various adverse drug events (ADE) and their management is essential for the effective management of tuberculosis. Identification of adverse drug reaction profile of patients can be useful for the early detection, management and prevention of adverse drug events. Material and methods: It was a prospective observational study conducted after approved Institutional Ethics Committee. A total of 104 drug resistant tuberculosis patients registered from 1st November 2012 to 31st October 2013 started with second line anti-tubercular drugs under PMDT-RNCP after taking written informed consent. Adverse drug reaction during treatment recorded and assessed by Hart wig and WHO scale. Results: 87% patients experienced adverse drug reactions. Total 346 ADR were reported. Most common were gastritis (65%) and arthralgia (60.6%), others were nausea (35.6%), vomiting (32.7%), hyperuricemia (30.8%), giddiness (27%), anorexia (17.3), generalized weakness (15.4), insomnia (10.6%), psychosis (8.6%), hearing impairment (6.7%), hypersensitivity reaction (5.8%), peripheral neuropathy (4.8%), visual disturbance (3.8%), nephrotoxicity (2.9%), forgetfulness (2.9%), gynaecomastia (1.9%), hypothyroidism (1%), seizure (1%), and thrombocytopenia (1%). Conclusion: Majority of patients experienced wide range adverse drug reactions. Most of patients faced the problem within 2 - 3 months of initiation of treatment and managed by symptomatic. Early identification, prompt management and standardized reporting adverse drug reactions at all the level of healthcare are needed.
Constant Modulus Blind Equalization for Time-Varying MIMO-FIR Channels with Pulse Estimation
International Journal of Advanced Computer Research , 2012,
Abstract: The constant modulus (CM) property of sourcesignal can be mostly utilized to equalize the singleinputmultiple-output and finite impulse response(FIR) channels. In existing, the channels areblindly equalized and the equalization methods arebased on higher order statistics that estimates allnon-zero channel pulsation under time-invarianceassumption. However, the assumption cannot besatisfied time varying multiple input multiple output(MIMO) applications ex. Mobile communication. Inthis paper, the proposed algorithm which extendsthe CM criterion to blind equalization usingcomplex exponential basic expansion model (CEBEM)and the channel is assumed as time varyingMIMO-FIR. The method only employ the Secondorder statistics (SOS) and finally, it estimates onlyone pulsation. In this way, the system increases theSNR of the transmitted symbols and produces mostbeneficial result in time-varying channels. The fastconvergence is also achieved through zero forcingequalization.
Mathematical Model of Blood Flow in Small Blood Vessel in the Presence of Magnetic Field  [PDF]
Rekha Bali, Usha Awasthi
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/am.2011.22031
Abstract: A mathematical model for blood flow in the small blood vessel in the presence of magnetic field is presented in this paper. We have modeled the two phase model for the blood flow consists of a central core of suspended erythrocytes and cell-free layer surrounding the core. The system of differential equations has been solved analytically. We have obtained the result for velocity, flow rate and effective viscosity in presence of peripheral layer and magnetic field .All the result has been obtained and discussed through graphs.
A Casson Fluid Model for Multiple Stenosed Artery in the Presence of Magnetic Field  [PDF]
Rekha Bali, Usha Awasthi
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.35066
Abstract: The flow of blood through a multistenosed artery under the influence of external applied magnetic field is studied. The artery is modeled as a circular tube. The effect of non-Newtonian nature of blood in small blood vessels has been taken into account by modeling blood as a Casson fluid. The effect of magnetic field, height of stenosis, parameter determin- ing the shape of the stenosis on velocity field, volumetric flow rate in stenotic region and wall shear stress at surface of stenosis are obtained and shown graphically. Some important observations regarding the flow of blood in multi stenosed artery are obtained leading to medical interest.
Near-Lossless Compression Based on a Full Range Gaussian Markov Random Field Model for 2D Monochrome Images  [PDF]
K. Seetharaman, V. Rekha
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2013.41002

This paper proposes a Full Range Gaussian Markov Random Field (FRGMRF) model for monochrome image compression, where images are assumed to be Gaussian Markov Random Field. The parameters of the model are estimated based on Bayesian approach. The advantage of the proposed model is that it adapts itself according to the nature of the data (image) because it has infinite structure with a finite number of parameters, and so completely avoids the problem of order determination. The proposed model is fitted to reconstruct the image with the use of estimated parameters and seed values. The residual image is computed from the original and the reconstructed images. The proposed FRGMRF model is redefined as an error model to compress the residual image to obtain better quality of the reconstructed image. The parameters of the error model are estimated by employing the Metropolis-Hastings (M-H) algorithm. Then, the error model is fitted to reconstruct the compressed residual image. The Arithmetic coding is employed on seed values, average of the residuals and the model coefficients of both the input and residual images to achieve higher compression ratio. Different types of textured and structured images are considered for experiment to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed model. The results obtained by the FRGMRF model are compared to the JPEG2000. The proposed approach yields higher compression ratio than the JPEG whereas it produces Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) with little higher than the JPEG, which is negligible.

Critical Evaluation of Linear Dimensionality Reduction Techniques for Cardiac Arrhythmia Classification  [PDF]
Rekha Rajagopal, Vidhyapriya Ranganathan
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.79225
Abstract: Embedding the original high dimensional data in a low dimensional space helps to overcome the curse of dimensionality and removes noise. The aim of this work is to evaluate the performance of three different linear dimensionality reduction techniques (DR) techniques namely principal component analysis (PCA), multi dimensional scaling (MDS) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) on classification of cardiac arrhythmias using probabilistic neural network classifier (PNN). The design phase of classification model comprises of the following stages: preprocessing of the cardiac signal by eliminating detail coefficients that contain noise, feature extraction through daubechies wavelet transform, dimensionality reduction through linear DR techniques specified, and arrhythmia classification using PNN. Linear dimensionality reduction techniques have simple geometric representations and simple computational properties. Entire MIT-BIH arrhythmia database is used for experimentation. The experimental results demonstrates that combination of PNN classifier (spread parameter, σ = 0.08) and PCA DR technique exhibits highest sensitivity and F score of 78.84% and 78.82% respectively with a minimum of 8 dimensions.
Insights on the structural characteristics of NDM-1: The journey so far  [PDF]
Avneet Saini, Rohit Bansal
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2012.24040
Abstract: New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) has created a medical storm ever since it was first reported; as it is active on virtually all clinically used β-lactam antibiotics. NDM-1 rampancy worldwide is now considered a nightmare scenario, particularly due to its rapid dissemination. An underlying theme in the majority of recent studies is structural characterization as knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of NDM-1 shall help find connections between its structure and function. Moreover, structural details are even critical in order to reveal the resistance mecha- nism to β-lactam antibiotics. In this perspective, we review structural characteristics of NDM-1 that have been delineated since its first report. We anticipate that these structure-function connections made by its characterization shall further serve as future guidelines for elucidating pathways towards de novo design of functional inhibitors.
Determinants of IPOs Initial Return: Extreme Analysis of Indian Market  [PDF]
Rohit Bansal, Ashu Khanna
Journal of Financial Risk Management (JFRM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jfrm.2012.14012
Abstract: This paper attempts to design and test empirical models, which integrate theoretical, institutional, and other factors, which interact to explain ownership structure. Ex-ante information at the level of under-pricing succeeds the Indian stock market crunch. The study is based on IPO that listed at Bombay stock exchange given that April 2000 to December 2011. Multiple linear regressions are used to distinguish the relationship between various independent variables with the dependent variable, i.e. level of underpricing. The outcomes of multiple regressions reveal that, firm’s age, IPO years, book building pricing mechanism, ownership structure, issue size, & market capitalization explained 44% of the variation in issuer under-pricing, Durbin Watson’s value subsisted 1.58, which indicates that, there is a positive sequential rela-tionship between variables. Number of share offered, issue size, market capitalization, subscription offer timing, book building mechanism and IPO years 2006, 2009 & 2011 are constructed to have important effect on the level of underpricing after the Indian market crisis. Nevertheless, firm’s age, IPOs year 2008, private issuing firms, non institutional promoters, Indian promoters and non institutional non promoters contain no significant difference in the level of underpricing after-market crisis.
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