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Effects of Positive Psychology Interventions in Depressive Patients—A Randomized Control Study  [PDF]
Reinhard Pietrowsky, Johannes Mikutta
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.312158
Abstract: Effects of Positive Psychology (PP) have been shown in several studies to alleviate depressive symptoms in patients suffering from major depression or dysthymia when administered within psychotherapy. The present study served to test for the effects of two interventions from PP (best possible self, three good things) when practised by depressive patients for three weeks without any other concomitant psychotherapy. Seventeen depressive patients were randomly assigned to either the PP group or the control group. Patients in the PP group wrote down the best possible self for one week and then three good things for another two weeks. Patients in the control group wrote down images of the future of mankind for one week and early memories for two weeks. Prior to the intervention and again after it had finished, depressive symptoms, satisfaction with life, positive and negative affect, optimism, and resilience were assessed. While in both groups of patients well-being and resilience increased and depressive symptoms declined, the decline of depressive symptoms and the increase of positive affect and resilience were more pronounced in the PP group. The results support the notion that even a short intervention using PP alone alleviates depressive symptoms and increases well-being. Although the effects were of marginal significance, this may be attributed to the relatively small sample size. Likewise, the use of an Intent-to-Treat analysis may have affected the PP group more than the control group, indicating an underestimation of the potency of PP in the present study.
Perspectives on Episodic-Like and Episodic Memory
Bettina M. Pause,Armin Zlomuzica,Kiyoka Kinugawa,Jean Mariani,Reinhard Pietrowsky,Ekrem Dere
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2013.00033
Abstract: Episodic memory refers to the conscious recollection of a personal experience that contains information on what has happened and also where and when it happened. Recollection from episodic memory also implies a kind of first-person subjectivity that has been termed autonoetic consciousness. Episodic memory is extremely sensitive to cerebral aging and neurodegenerative diseases. In Alzheimer’s disease deficits in episodic memory function are among the first cognitive symptoms observed. Furthermore, impaired episodic memory function is also observed in a variety of other neuropsychiatric diseases including dissociative disorders, schizophrenia, and Parkinson disease. Unfortunately, it is quite difficult to induce and measure episodic memories in the laboratory and it is even more difficult to measure it in clinical populations. Presently, the tests used to assess episodic memory function do not comply with even down-sized definitions of episodic-like memory as a memory for what happened, where, and when. They also require sophisticated verbal competences and are difficult to apply to patient populations. In this review, we will summarize the progress made in defining behavioral criteria of episodic-like memory in animals (and humans) as well as the perspectives in developing novel tests of human episodic memory which can also account for phenomenological aspects of episodic memory such as autonoetic awareness. We will also define basic behavioral, procedural, and phenomenological criteria which might be helpful for the development of a valid and reliable clinical test of human episodic memory.
Leading Multicultural Teams in the PR China  [PDF]
Reinhard Meckl, Matthias Johanning
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2013.31007

This paper examines the effect of transformational, transactional and passive leadership on the performance of multicultural teams in the People’s Republic (PR) of China. 42 multicultural teams with a total of 158 team members employed at German companies in the PR China completed a questionnaire which has been analyzed to show the extent to which these three leadership styles moderate the relationship between cultural diversity and social integration, satisfaction, communication effectiveness and conflict. To evince an explanation for discrepancies it has also been examined whether all three leadership styles justified mediating effects. The relationship between cultural diversity and several team variables has been explained through the resource-oriented theory, the information processing theory, the similarity-attraction theory and the social identity and social categorization theory. The effect of transformational, transactional and passive leadership is based on the theory of charismatic leadership from Bass and its related “Full Range of Leadership”. Results suggest transformational, transactional and passive leadership moderate the relationship between cultural diversity and conflict. In addition, it has been shown that transactional leadership mediates all four group variables. This study identifies practical implications and proposes an agenda for future research.

Optimizing the Timing of M&A Decisions—An Analysis of Pro- and Anticyclical M&A Behavior in Germany  [PDF]
Irmi Eisenbarth, Reinhard Meckl
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2014.49060
Abstract: If one looks at the market for corporate control from a research perspective, it is especially interesting to analyze whether the decision-makers in the companies take advantage of phases with low asset prices to buy out other companies (behaving anticyclically), or whether they tend to buy during phases with high asset prices—buying procyclically. The aim of this article is to test whether there is a correlation between a company’s M&A behavior and the situation in the capital market. Whether M&A success can be seen as dependent on different market valuations and whether differences in terms of the various factors which influence pro- and anticyclical M&A transactions can be determined. The analysis is done with regard to the development of the DAX, the German stock exchange market index. 78 transactions by German purchasing companies during the period 1998 to 2009 were analyzed. The results show that M&A behavior is a procyclical phenomenon and that anticyclical transactions are more successful than procyclical ones in the long term.
Comparison of the Clinical Efficacy of Four Different Liposomal Sprays for the Treatment of Dry Eye  [PDF]
Andreas Hueck, Reinhard Wehrmann
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2017.72015
Abstract: Purpose: To compare the clinical efficacy of four different liposomal sprays for dry eye treatment. Methods: Prospective randomized consecutive intraindividual comparison enrolling 166 patients (age, 18 - 93 years). Patients were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups, receiving one spray in their right eye and another one in their left eye: Ocuvers Hyaluron (OH) (87 eyes) and Ocuvers Lipostamin (OL) (80 eyes) (Innomedis AG), and Tears Again (TA) (80 eyes) and Tears Again Sensitive (TAS) (85 eyes) (Optima Pharmaceutical). Symptomatology was evaluated with the OSDI (Ocular Surface Disease Index) questionnaire. Subjective comfort, tear break up time (TBUT), redness, tear meniscus, application comfort and smell were evaluated during a 30-minute follow-up. Results: Smell for TA and TAS was significantly fattier compared to OH and OL (p < 0.001). After application of TA, patients reported significantly more burning sensations compared to the rest of the sprays (p < 0.001). At 10 minutes, subjective comfort (p ≤ 0.027) and TBUT (p ≤ 0.004) were significantly better with OH and OL compared to TA and TAS. At 30 minutes, the same trends were observed, with also significantly less ocular redness with OL compared to the rest (p = 0.043). Significant correlations were found between baseline OSDI and changes in ocular redness at 10 (r = -0.287, p = 0.011) and 30 minutes (r = -0.237, p = 0.037) after the application of OL. Conclusions: The four evaluated liposome sprays may be useful for dry eye treatment, with higher subjective comfort and less dry eye signs using the Ocuvers sprays. The use of OL may be a better treatment option for severe dry eye.
Current HIV Prevention Policies Are Jeopardizing the “End of AIDS” Project: Realities Counteract Liberal Visions  [PDF]
Reinhard H. Dennin
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2017.72012
Abstract: Here I discuss a series of in adequate decisions made by governments of, e.g., the European Union when designing strategies aimed at preventing the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although there have been minor successes in curbing the spread of HIV, here I focus on the multiple failings that have indirectly fostered the spread of HIV. I propose that a novel, programmatic set of strategies are needed to prevent the spread of HIV, which will be necessary to meet aims of the End of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) project. I also discuss barriers to the End of AIDS project, including financial burdens and noncompliance, in particular of the “at-risk” termed population in resource rich countries, with current prevention strategies. The aim is (i) to foster supporting for the UNAIDS project by customized prevention concepts; and (ii) to raise awareness for the challenges yet to come, should the UNAIDS project fail.
The Current HIV/AIDS Prevention Strategies—Widely Outsmarted by Omitting Realities: A Socio-Critical Analysis in the Context of Powerless Law, Ethics and Asymmetric Interpretation of Human Rights  [PDF]
Reinhard H. Dennin, Arndt Sinn
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2015.53031
Abstract: The HIV pandemic seems to be fading to some degree—but there are regional exceptions. The current liberal prevention strategy with programs aimed at risk reduction interventions in particular for sexual behavior and injecting drug use has been expanded by antiretroviral treatment approaches. It was expected to keep the prevalence of infectious individuals below a certain threshold to curb self-sustaining chains of HIV infections. The introduction of biomedical approaches by ART/HAART with regard to practicing risk reduction behavior has been received as an exemption of responsibility by certain populations who are defined as “at-risk” population. Certain parts of the hard-to-reach, high-risk population have returned to unsafe sex practices leading to careless behavior which in turn has promoted the spread of HIV. This is supported by modern trends in risk societies where with regard to HIV basic principles of ethics and tenets of the Human Rights like “don’t harm other people” have lost any normative power. In addition, with the support of NGOs, legal norms such as protecting the “bodily integrity of individuals” have been ignored, allowing the “passing of HIV to partners” to become socially acceptable behavior. As a whole, in defiance of the endeavors of prevention applied so far, certain societies are exposed to an ongoing spread of HIV.
M&A Due Diligence in China—Institutional Framework, Corporate Practice and Empirical Evidence  [PDF]
Lars Büttner, Reinhard Meckl
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2017.78072
Abstract: Western companies have established rigorous and robust processes to evaluate a target enterprise before its legal acquisition. This should allow the risks to be mitigated by adjusting purchase price or representations & warranties. In China, however, investors experience that conducting such M&A due diligence might be less effective. Based on neo-institutional economics, experience from corporate practice and empirical evidence, our paper explains the limitations of the approach. Our research concludes that following Western best-practice procedures does not necessarily reduce the uncertainty of an investor in China. Likewise, experts in China do not fully recognize typical M&A measures and indicators as informational substitutes (e.g. contractual terms like earn-out-agreements). Due to different cultural and institutional framework conditions, it takes further activities to overcome the asymmetric information between investor and seller.
The Solution of Embedding Problems in the Framework of GAPs with Applications on Nonlinear PDEs
Reinhard Starkl
Advances in Mathematical Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/120213
Abstract: The paper presents a special class of embedding problems whoes solutions are important for the explicit solution of nonlinear partial differential equations. It is shown that these embedding problems are solvable and explicit solutions are given. Not only are the solutions new but also the mathematical framework of their construction which is defined by a nonstandard function theory built over nonstandard algebraical structures, denoted as “GAPs”. These GAPs must not be neither associative nor division algebras, but the corresponding function theories built over them preserve the most important symmetries from the classical complex function theory in a generalized form: a generalization of the Cauchy-Riemannian differential equations exists as well as a generalization of the classical Cauchy Integral Theorem.
Receiver Design for Time-Based Ranging with IEEE 802.11b Signals
Reinhard Exel
International Journal of Navigation and Observation , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/743625
Abstract: This paper presents a ranging receiver architecture able to timestamp IEEE 802.11b Wireless LAN signals with sub-100 picosecond precision enabling time-based range measurements. Starting from the signal model, the performance of the proposed architecture is assessed in terms of statistical bounds when perturbed by zero-mean additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) as well as in case of multipath propagation. Results of the proposed architecture, implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array-(FPGA-) based prototype, are presented for different environments. For AWGN channels, the prototype system is able to attain an accuracy of 1.2?cm while the ranging accuracy degrades in dynamic multipath scenarios to about 0.6?m for 80% of the measurements due to the limited bandwidth of the signal. 1. Introduction Despite the fact that Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSes) cover nearly 100% of the planet, satellite-based localization is not available within buildings as the roofing and walls deteriorate the signal to a degree where an errorless decoding is no longer possible. Mounting pseudolites, devices transmitting the navigation signals, under the roofs are certainly not a valid solution, not only due to legal restrictions. The differences between indoor and outdoor localization are more substantial than just the received power. Radio propagation within complex environments, typical for indoor scenarios, are challenging for high-speed wireless communication, but even tougher for any form of localization service. Many localization concepts (e.g., based on ultrasonic, electromagnetic waves, inertial sensors) have been proposed to bridge the gap between GNSSes and the lack of indoor locating systems. Nevertheless, for indoor environments, there is still no general satisfactory solution available as different key factors, such as low power consumption and high refreshment rate are incompatible. One major reason why indoor radio localization systems are way behind satellite navigation solutions is that the majority of all current wireless communication standards have not been designed with position determination in mind. These signals are often referred to as Signals of Opportunity (SoO). In theory, adding a localization service upon an existing standard is always possible. However, the key parameters like accuracy, reliability, or cost depend on the restrictions of the wireless standard. As a result, retrofitting a localization service to an existing technology might turn out to be highly complex as, for example, the integration of the Enhanced 911 service into
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