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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2906 matches for " Rebecca Slingwine "
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Melanophore Migration and Survival during Zebrafish Adult Pigment Stripe Development Require the Immunoglobulin Superfamily Adhesion Molecule Igsf11
Dae Seok Eom equal contributor,Shinya Inoue equal contributor,Larissa B. Patterson,Tiffany N. Gordon,Rebecca Slingwine,Shigeru Kondo,Masakatsu Watanabe ,David M. Parichy
PLOS Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002899
Abstract: The zebrafish adult pigment pattern has emerged as a useful model for understanding the development and evolution of adult form as well as pattern-forming mechanisms more generally. In this species, a series of horizontal melanophore stripes arises during the larval-to-adult transformation, but the genetic and cellular bases for stripe formation remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the seurat mutant phenotype, consisting of an irregular spotted pattern, arises from lesions in the gene encoding Immunoglobulin superfamily member 11 (Igsf11). We find that Igsf11 is expressed by melanophores and their precursors, and we demonstrate by cell transplantation and genetic rescue that igsf11 functions autonomously to this lineage in promoting adult stripe development. Further analyses of cell behaviors in vitro, in vivo, and in explant cultures ex vivo demonstrate that Igsf11 mediates adhesive interactions and that mutants for igsf11 exhibit defects in both the migration and survival of melanophores and their precursors. These findings identify the first in vivo requirements for igsf11 as well as the first instance of an immunoglobulin superfamily member functioning in pigment cell development and patterning. Our results provide new insights into adult pigment pattern morphogenesis and how cellular interactions mediate pattern formation.
Pricing Currency Call Options  [PDF]
Rebecca Abraham
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.811148
Abstract: This paper presents a theoretical model to price foreign currency call options. Currency options are employed in international trade to reduce the risk of loss due to the reduction of revenues obtained in depreciating foreign currency for an exporter, or the escalation of expense from appreciating foreign currency for an importer. Other users include banks and hedge funds who engage in currency speculation. Given the fluctuation of option prices over time, the model describes the distribution of foreign currency as a Weiner process for macroeconomically constrained foreign currencies followed by a Laplace distribution for unconstrained currencies. In a departure from existing currency option models, this model expresses foreign currencies as dependent upon the change in macroeconomic variables, such as inflation, interest rates, and government deficits. The distribution of currency calls is described as a Levy process in the context of an option trader’s risk preferences to account for the multiple discontinuities of a jump process. The paper concludes with three models of price functions of the Weiner process for Euro-related currency options, a Weiner process for stable currency options, and a Levy-Khintchine process for volatile currency calls.
The Valuation of Currency Put Options  [PDF]
Rebecca Abraham
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.811165
Abstract: Investors who seek to profit from depreciating currencies may invest in put options. Upon option exercise, the currency is sold at a high price, and then purchased at the lower future currency value, resulting in a gain for the put buyer. A series of such transactions yields a stream of income for the put investor. Alternatively, the investor could short sell the currency, reaping gains from the difference between the high short sale price and the low future purchase price. This paper derives the theoretical formulations for combined short sale and puts purchase strategies for the US dollar, the Euro, the Australian dollar and the New Zealand dollar, and the Mexican peso. Utility functions are based upon an assumption of declining risk aversio with negative rescale factors and positive threshold factors in a hyperbolic cosine distribution. This distribution intersects with the cosine distribution of short sale prices on the U. S. dollar, the lognormal distribution of short sale prices on the Euro, the Weiner process for shorts on the Australian dollar and the New Zealand dollar, and the Laplace currency distribution for peso shorts. Similar utility functions intersect with Levy-Khintchine jump processes to provide put option prices for each type of foreign currency.
Hedge Fund Investing or Mutual Fund Investing: An Application of Multi-Attribute Utility Theory  [PDF]
Rebecca Abraham
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2019.94042
Abstract: This paper contrasts high-risk, hedge fund trading, with low-risk, mutual fund trading, in terms of their differing utility functions. We envision hedge funds, led by informed traders who use information to seek out investment opportunities, timing market conditions, with the expectation that prices will move in their favor. Directional hedge funds act to influence prices, while non-directional hedge funds do not act to influence prices. We present utility functions based on steeply-sloping Laplace distributions and hyperbolic cosine distributions, to describe the actions of directional hedge fund traders. Less steeply-sloping lognormal distributions, Coulomb wave functions, quadratic utility functions, and Bessel utility functions are used to describe the investing style of non-directional hedge fund traders. Flatter Legendre utility functions and inverse sine utility functions describe the modest profit-making aspirations of mutual fund traders. The paper’s chief contribution is to develop optimal prices quantitatively, by intersecting utility functions with price distributions. Price distributions for directional hedge fund returns are portrayed as sharp increases and decreases, in the form of jumps, in a discrete arrival Poisson-distributed process. Separate equations are developed for directional hedge fund strategies, including event-driven arbitrage, and global macro strategies. Non-directional strategies include commodity trading, risk-neutral arbitrage, and convertible arbitrage, with primarily lognormal pricing distributions, and some Poisson jumps. Mutual funds are perceived to be Markowitz portfolios, lying on the Capital Market Line, or the International Capital Market Line, tangent to the Efficient Frontier of minimum variance-maximum return portfolios.
The Fundamental Movement Skills of a Year 9 Group and a Gifted and Talented Cohort  [PDF]
Gillian Griffiths, Rebecca Billard
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2013.34035

Physical Education is often viewed as the place where Fundamental Motor Skills (FMS) are developed. These skills underpin the development of motor competence and perceived competence, therefore impacting on participation and physical literacy. Within education, Gifted and Talented (G & T) and inclusion agendas have been high profile yet research has shown that children across the world are not reaching expected levels of skill mastery at primary level (5 - 11 years). The aim of the research was therefore to investigate the levels of mastery at secondary level (11 - 16 years) and within a G & T cohort to establish their levels of mastery, and investigate how this may relate to their participation in physical activities. Forty five children, 19 years 9 pupils (13.24 ± 0.2 years) and 26 G & T pupils (13.24 ± 0.2 years) were evaluated performing a combination locomotor, manipulative (object control) and balance skills (n = 5). 5 trials of each skill were recorded and graded against the performance criteria by one experimenter. Mastery or near mastery were only achieved, if, in 4 out of the 5 trials, 5 of the 6 component criteria were present. If this was not attained non-mastery was designated. Results revealed that the G & T pupils had greater overall mastery of the 5 skills, however they did not master all skills. All G & T had significantly increased jumping and throwing skills, and males significantly increased kicking skills. In both groups the majority of participation outside the school curriculum was related to games activities and was dominated by invasion games however no males participated in “aesthetic” activity outside school. These results indicate that development of FMS may not be occurring in children at KS3 and there is both an invasion games bias and a gender bias in the activities accessed out of school.

Folk-Linguistic Attitudes in Eastern Massachusetts  [PDF]
Rebecca Day Babcock
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2014.43035

Folk linguistics attempts to study people’s beliefs and attitudes about language through their metalinguistic statements, usually collected in a naturalistic setting. Data was collected in a semistructured focus group setting with 11 white, middle- and working-class participants from Eastern Massachusetts. Participants spoke freely about linguistic topics. The results showed that the group focused their discussion on the speech of politicians (former Boston Mayor Tom Menino to be exact), linguistic status markers, specific features (r- and g-dropping, broad /a/), regions (local Massachusetts regions and Tennessee), and ethnicity (Black and Hispanic). All topics were introduced by the participants, rather than by the researcher.

Privacy of Wearable Electronics in the Healthcare and Childcare Sectors: A Survey of Personal Perspectives from Finland and the United Kingdom  [PDF]
Johanna Virkki, Rebecca Aggarwal
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2014.52005

The innovative development of Wearable Electronics (WE) is creating exciting opportunities for application across many industries. Two sectors with high potential are healthcare and childcare. However, it is in these two sectors where the challenges of privacy are presumed to be of the highest. In order to ascertain the personal views of people about potential privacy problems in WE application in these two sectors, interviews with questionnaires were conducted in two different countries: Finland and the United Kingdom (UK). The results indicated that the majority of people in both countries are positive about the use of WE in healthcare and childcare environments. However, when more information is added to be read wirelessly, the attitudes become more negative. In general, the application of WE is more favorable in the UK and the reason as to the difference will make for interesting further research. Several interesting viewpoints and concerns were presented in the interviews. It can be concluded that the implementation of WE in these two sectors will require the collaboration of work on several areas and the development of versatile user studies.

Consumption Patterns of the Millenial Generational Cohort  [PDF]
Rebecca Abraham, Charles Harrington
Modern Economy (ME) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/me.2015.61005
Abstract: This study constructs a consumption profile for the Generation Y age cohort using responses to the Consumer Expenditure Survey furnished by the Bureau of Labor Statistics from the financial crisis period. This generation was theorized to employ both economic reasons, i.e. preferences for inexpensive products, and the desire to comply with the values and normative beliefs of social referent groups. For the rent or buy a home decision, the variability of income, risk of foreclosure and loss of mobility governed the consumption choice. For the purchase a new car or a used car decision, economic considerations dominated with variability of income being the sole explanatory variable for the choice. Family size and the need to conform to group norms explained the choice of bringing food from home to the workplace. Socialization opportunities and group identification explained the decision to eat lunch away from the workplace. Family size and desire for group conformity explained vacation expenditure as they did for bringing food from home. For both furniture and large appliances and small appliances, the need to conform to group norms was significant suggesting that they may be the subject of social interactions. Given that investment in a private education is often considered a luxury, the proportion of the family budget allocated to this expense was significant along with the expected need for conformity with group values.
From Sexuality to Eroticism: The Making of the Human Mind  [PDF]
Ferdinand Fellmann, Rebecca Walsh
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2016.61002
Abstract: This paper proposes that the human mind in its creativity and emotional self-awareness is the result of the evolutionary transition from sexuality to eroticism. Eroticism is arrived at and defined by the high amount of energy displayed in animal sexuality. We propose that the unique human emotional intelligence is due to this “overflow” of mating energy. What from the survival viewpoint looks like an enormous waste of time and energy reveals itself to be an unexpected psychological benefit. The diversion of sexual energy from procreation—a process that results in erotic fantasies—turns intimacy into a source of human self-consciousness. This places different emphasis on the meaning of eroticism and provides a coherent scenario of mental development beyond mere cognitive capacities. Arguments are presented on how erotic imagination, or sexual excitation as an end in itself, promotes the human propensity for explorative curiosity; data from ethology, psychology, sociology, and neuroscience are presented to support these arguments. As philosophical anthropologists, we do not provide new empirical data, but the available results of comparative behavioral research confirm our hypothesis.
Emergency Department Admissions for Dental & Oral Health Concerns in Rural Northwestern Pennsylvania  [PDF]
Matthew Zaborowski, Rebecca Dawson
Open Journal of Emergency Medicine (OJEM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojem.2016.41004
Abstract: Background: Oral health emergency department (ED) visits are increasing nationally. This increase in ED admissions is an indicator that preventative dental and oral healthcare practices are not being utilized. Methods: Data was obtained from the Meadville Medical Center. Fourteen ICD-9 codes for dental and oral health admissions over 10 years were categorized and analyzed. Data was graphed to illustrate trends over time and the chi-square test of independence was used to determine associations between admissions types and demographic characteristics. Results: ED admissions for dental and oral health issues were most common among individuals age 19 - 38 years. Most individuals admitted to the ED for these concerns paid with private medical insurance or were uninsured. The categorization of ICD-9 codes allowed us to see that ED use for structural and soft-issues decreased at the end of the decade under study. However, admissions for infections and dental caries increased over time. Conclusions: The opening of a free dental clinic in 2011 might be associated with the decrease in overall admissions for dental and oral health concerns as well as soft tissue and structural admissions. The increase in ED admissions for dental caries and infections illustrates that more affordable and preventative dental and oral health care and education are need.
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