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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 404145 matches for " Rebecca M. Davidson "
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Gene Coexpression Network Analysis as a Source of Functional Annotation for Rice Genes
Kevin L. Childs,Rebecca M. Davidson,C. Robin Buell
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022196
Abstract: With the existence of large publicly available plant gene expression data sets, many groups have undertaken data analyses to construct gene coexpression networks and functionally annotate genes. Often, a large compendium of unrelated or condition-independent expression data is used to construct gene networks. Condition-dependent expression experiments consisting of well-defined conditions/treatments have also been used to create coexpression networks to help examine particular biological processes. Gene networks derived from either condition-dependent or condition-independent data can be difficult to interpret if a large number of genes and connections are present. However, algorithms exist to identify modules of highly connected and biologically relevant genes within coexpression networks. In this study, we have used publicly available rice (Oryza sativa) gene expression data to create gene coexpression networks using both condition-dependent and condition-independent data and have identified gene modules within these networks using the Weighted Gene Coexpression Network Analysis method. We compared the number of genes assigned to modules and the biological interpretability of gene coexpression modules to assess the utility of condition-dependent and condition-independent gene coexpression networks. For the purpose of providing functional annotation to rice genes, we found that gene modules identified by coexpression analysis of condition-dependent gene expression experiments to be more useful than gene modules identified by analysis of a condition-independent data set. We have incorporated our results into the MSU Rice Genome Annotation Project database as additional expression-based annotation for 13,537 genes, 2,980 of which lack a functional annotation description. These results provide two new types of functional annotation for our database. Genes in modules are now associated with groups of genes that constitute a collective functional annotation of those modules. Additionally, the expression patterns of genes across the treatments/conditions of an expression experiment comprise a second form of useful annotation.
Combining information from surveys of several species to estimate the probability of freedom from Echinococcus multilocularis in Sweden, Finland and mainland Norway
Helene Wahlstr?m, Marja Isomursu, Gunilla Hallgren, Dan Christensson, Maria Cedersmyg, Anders Wallensten, Marika Hjertqvist, Rebecca K Davidson, Henrik Uhlhorn, Petter Hopp
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-53-9
Abstract: The probability that Sweden, Finland and mainland Norway were free from E. multilocularis and the sensitivity of the surveillance systems were estimated using scenario trees. Surveillance data from five animal species were included in the study: red fox (Vulpes vulpes), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), domestic pig, wild boar (Sus scrofa) and voles and lemmings (Arvicolinae).The cumulative probability of freedom from EM in December 2009 was high in all three countries, 0.98 (95% CI 0.96-0.99) in Finland and 0.99 (0.97-0.995) in Sweden and 0.98 (0.95-0.99) in Norway.Results from the model confirm that there is a high probability that in 2009 the countries were free from E. multilocularis. The sensitivity analyses showed that the choice of the design prevalences in different infected populations was influential. Therefore more knowledge on expected prevalences for E. multilocularis in infected populations of different species is desirable to reduce residual uncertainty of the results.The fox tape worm Echinococcus multilocularis (EM) is a parasite of public health significance. The life cycle involves foxes and other canids as definitive hosts and rodents as intermediate hosts [1] although many other mammals species can be aberrant intermediate hosts (Figure 1). Humans become infected via the oral route, probably via contaminated hands after handling infected canids, contaminated plants or soil or through eating contaminated berries [1,2]. Human infection with EM can result in alveolar echinococcosis, a serious disease. If untreated the mortality exceeds 90% within 10 years, if treated the survival rate after five years increased to 88% [3].EM is endemic in large parts of Europe [1] and the parasite is increasingly reported from countries near Sweden, Finland and Norway [4-7]. There is evidence that the parasite may be emerging in Europe [3,8-11]. EM is notifiable in humans and animals and has never been found in Sweden, Finland and mainland Norway. This favour
Toxocara cati larva migrans in domestic pigs - detected at slaughterhouse control in Norway
Davidson Rebecca K,Mermer Anna,?ines ?ivind
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-54-66
Abstract: Routine Trichinella meat inspection at the slaughterhouse detected one larva in a pooled batch of 100 pig samples. The larva was sent to the Norwegian Veterinary Institute (NVI) for species identification. Morphological examination revealed that the larva was not Trichinella spp. Molecular analysis was performed. PCR and sequencing of 5S/ITS identified the larva as Toxocara cati. A second round of digests was carried out at the meat inspection laboratory, in smaller batches to try to identify the infected animal. No further larvae were detected and it was not possible to identify which of the 100 animals the larva had come from. This is the first time that Toxocara cati has been reported in slaughterhouse pigs in Norway. Although the infected individual could not be identified, the meat originated from one of six potential farms. A small survey regarding rodent control and cats was sent to each of these farms. Cats had restricted access to food storage areas (two farms reported that cats had access) whilst none of the farms allowed cats into the production housing. Cats were, however, present on all the farms (mostly stray cats of unknown health status). Half of the farms also reported seeing rodents in the pig housing during the previous six months and half reported finding rodents in the feed and straw storage areas. We were unable to narrow down the source of infection – however contamination of food or bedding material, with cat faeces or infected rodents, in addition to the presence of infected rodents in pig housing remain potential routes of infection.
Start to Finish: The Effect of Sportswriter and Reader Gender on Perception of Female Athletes  [PDF]
Rebecca Dell, Cynthia M. Frisby
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2017.54014
Abstract: Poor portrayal and perception of female athletes has a host of negative outcomes, such as objectification of women (Daniels, 2009; Daniels & Wartena, 2011) and negative reader judgment of female athletes (Knight & Giuliano, 2001). This study examines whether the gender of the sportswriter and reader affect the perception of female athletes (in terms of athleticism, respectability and interest in the sport). No significant interaction was found between sportswriter and reader gender, but a main effect was found for reader gender wherein women tend to think more highly of the athleticism and respectability of female athletes. Women were also more likely to view the sportswriter as credible; and higher credibility was positively correlated with perceptions of the athlete’s athleticism and respectability.
Utilizing Astrometric Orbits to Obtain Coronagraphic Images
John M. Davidson
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1086/661725
Abstract: We present an approach for utilizing astrometric orbit information to improve the yield of planetary images and spectra from a follow-on direct detection mission. This approach is based on the notion-strictly hypothetical-that if a particular star could be observed continuously, the instrument would in time observe all portions of the habitable zone so that no planet residing therein could be missed. This strategy could not be implemented in any realistic mission scenario. But if an exoplanet's orbit is known from astrometric observation, then it may be possible to plan and schedule a sequence of imaging observations that is the equivalent of continuous observation. A series of images-optimally spaced in time-could be recorded to examine contiguous segments of the orbit. In time, all segments would be examined, leading to the inevitable detection of the planet. In this paper, we show how astrometric orbit information can be used to construct such a sequence. Using stars from astrometric and imaging target lists, we find that the number of observations in this sequence typically ranges from 2 to 7, representing the maximum number of observations required to find the planet. The probable number of observations ranges from 1.5 to 3.1. This is a dramatic improvement in efficiency over previous methods proposed for utilizing astrometric orbits. We examine how the implementation of this approach is complicated and limited by operational constraints. We find that it can be fully implemented for internal coronagraph and visual nuller missions, with a success rate approaching 100%. External occulter missions will also benefit, but to a lesser degree.
The first report of Aelurostrongylus falciformis in Norwegian badgers (Meles meles)
Rebecca K Davidson, Kjell Handeland, Bj?rn Gjerde
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-48-6
Abstract: Aelurostrongylus falciformis (Schlegel 1933) is a metastrongyle lung nematode of European badgers (Meles meles) and has been reported in continental Europe [1,2] and Great Britain [3] but not Fennoscandia. Other lung nematodes seen in European badgers include the metastrongyles Angiostrongylus vasorum (Baillet 1866) [4,5], Crenosoma sp. (Molin 1861) [1-4], Aelurostrongylus pridhami (Anderson 1962) [5], as well as the trichuroid nematode Capillaria aerophila (Creplin 1839) [2]. A. vasorum is considered to be absent from the Scandinavian Peninsula. However, recently it has been found on the island of Sydkoster off the south west coast of Sweden [6] close to the Norwegian border. This parasite has its predilection site in the pulmonary artery and right ventricle of the heart. The diagnosis however, as for A. falciformis, is frequently based on the identification of first stage larvae (L1) in faeces or sputum [7]. Crenosoma sp. and Capillaria aerophila infections can be differentiated from those of A. vasorum and A. falciformis on the basis of their typical L1 (Crenosoma sp.) and eggs (Capillaria aerophila).Nine badgers from the Oslo and Akershus regions were sent to the National Veterinary Institute, Oslo, during 2004 and 2005 (Table 1). Routine post-mortem was carried out and revealed trauma as the cause of death in seven of the animals whereas two had been shot for humane reasons. Parasitological examination of the respiratory tract, cardiovascular system and faeces was also carried out.The trachea and bronchi were dissected; two scrapes from the mucous membrane were taken and examined for nematode eggs and larvae. Biopsies, from each lung lobe, were fixed in 10% formalin and embedded in paraffin. They were then cut at 5μm and stained with haematoxylin and eosin for histological examination. The right side of the heart was incised and this incision extended along the pulmonary artery to look for adult A. vasorum. At least two 10 gram faecal samples per animal, from s
Effect of Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate on the Composition of Electroless Nickel – Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Coatings  [PDF]
Nkem O. Nwosu, Alan M. Davidson, Colin S. Hindle
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2011.13018
Abstract: The influence of a surfactant on the composition of nickel – yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) cermet coatings, applied by electroless nickel plating technique was examined. The amphiphilic characteristics of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), was relied upon for enhanced dispersion of YSZ particles co-deposited for use as anodes in solid oxide fuel cell technology and potential heat absorbing layers in thermal barrier coatings. Optical microscopy was employed to study the correlation between the plating thickness, level of ceramic loading and SDS concentration while the effect of the surfactant and fineness of YSZ particles on the as-deposited coating’s ceramic to metal ratio, was analysed using energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) characterisation technique.
An Estimate of Charge Symmetry Breaking in Nuclear Deep Inelastic Scattering
R. M. Davidson,M. Burkardt
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1016/S0370-2693(97)00443-7
Abstract: We estimate the magnitude of charge symmetry breaking effects in deep inelastic scattering from nuclei. The resulting contribution to systematic uncertainties in hadronic determinations of $sin^2\theta_W$ are found to be less than the current experimental accuracy, but may be important in the analyses of more precise future experiments. We expect the largest nuclear charge symmetry breaking effects in the Paschos-Wolfenstein ratio $R^-$, where the resulting uncertainty in the determination of $sin^2 \theta_W$ reaches $10^{-3}$.
Marital Name Changing: Delving Deeper into Women’s Reasons  [PDF]
Megan M. Keels, Rebecca S. Powers
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.37038
Abstract: Using a mixed method approach, this study examines women’s reasons for the traditional practice of marital name changing. We utilize data collected via a questionnaire administered to first-year college students at a southeastern US public university and data gathered from in-depth interviews with recent college graduates. The quantitative results show that the reasons given for marital name changing are closely tied to social norms. The results from the qualitative analyses reveal more specifically how social norms direct the practice of marital name changing. Together the findings show that women’s perceptions of their family’s expectations are a key reason motivating them to practice marital name changing. However, in both samples, respondents express mixed and sometimes inconsistent reasons regarding marital name changing. Respondents emphasize the importance of adhering to the tradition while also reporting that they did not consider marital name changing as an important issue. These findings indicate the multifaceted quality of the issue. Together, the results illustrate how social norms shape people’s personal decision about marital name changing while also showing how the decision made by people shapes society.
The Initial Common Pathway of Inflammation, Disease, and Sudden Death
Robert M. Davidson,Stephanie Seneff
Entropy , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/e14081399
Abstract: In reviewing the literature pertaining to interfacial water, colloidal stability, and cell membrane function, we are led to propose that a cascade of events that begins with acute exogenous surfactant-induced interfacial water stress can explain the etiology of sudden death syndrome (SDS), as well as many other diseases associated with modern times. A systemic lowering of serum zeta potential mediated by exogenous cationic surfactant administration is the common underlying pathophysiology. The cascade leads to subsequent inflammation, serum sickness, thrombohemorrhagic phenomena, colloidal instability, and ultimately even death. We propose that a sufficient precondition for sudden death is lowered bioavailability of certain endogenous sterol sulfates, sulfated glycolipids, and sulfated glycosaminoglycans, which are essential in maintaining biological equipose, energy metabolism, membrane function, and thermodynamic stability in living organisms. Our literature review provides the basis for the presentation of a novel hypothesis as to the origin of endogenous bio-sulfates which involves energy transduction from sunlight. Our hypothesis is amply supported by a growing body of data showing that parenteral administration of substances that lower serum zeta potential results in kosmotropic cationic and/or chaotropic anionic interfacial water stress, and the resulting cascade.
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