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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 538678 matches for " Rebecca A. O'Leary "
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Habitat Associations of Juvenile Fish at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia: The Importance of Coral and Algae
Shaun K. Wilson,Martial Depczynski,Rebecca Fisher,Thomas H. Holmes,Rebecca A. O'Leary,Paul Tinkler
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015185
Abstract: Habitat specificity plays a pivotal role in forming community patterns in coral reef fishes, yet considerable uncertainty remains as to the extent of this selectivity, particularly among newly settled recruits. Here we quantified habitat specificity of juvenile coral reef fish at three ecological levels; algal meadows vs. coral reefs, live vs. dead coral and among different coral morphologies. In total, 6979 individuals from 11 families and 56 species were censused along Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Juvenile fishes exhibited divergence in habitat use and specialization among species and at all study scales. Despite the close proximity of coral reef and algal meadows (10's of metres) 25 species were unique to coral reef habitats, and seven to algal meadows. Of the seven unique to algal meadows, several species are known to occupy coral reef habitat as adults, suggesting possible ontogenetic shifts in habitat use. Selectivity between live and dead coral was found to be species-specific. In particular, juvenile scarids were found predominantly on the skeletons of dead coral whereas many damsel and butterfly fishes were closely associated with live coral habitat. Among the coral dependent species, coral morphology played a key role in juvenile distribution. Corymbose corals supported a disproportionate number of coral species and individuals relative to their availability, whereas less complex shapes (i.e. massive & encrusting) were rarely used by juvenile fish. Habitat specialisation by juvenile species of ecological and fisheries importance, for a variety of habitat types, argues strongly for the careful conservation and management of multiple habitat types within marine parks, and indicates that the current emphasis on planning conservation using representative habitat areas is warranted. Furthermore, the close association of many juvenile fish with corals susceptible to climate change related disturbances suggests that identifying and protecting reefs resilient to this should be a conservation priority.
Bayesian Classification and Regression Trees for Predicting Incidence of Cryptosporidiosis
Wenbiao Hu, Rebecca A. O'Leary, Kerrie Mengersen, Samantha Low Choy
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023903
Abstract: Background Classification and regression tree (CART) models are tree-based exploratory data analysis methods which have been shown to be very useful in identifying and estimating complex hierarchical relationships in ecological and medical contexts. In this paper, a Bayesian CART model is described and applied to the problem of modelling the cryptosporidiosis infection in Queensland, Australia. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the results of a Bayesian CART model with those obtained using a Bayesian spatial conditional autoregressive (CAR) model. Overall, the analyses indicated that the nature and magnitude of the effect estimates were similar for the two methods in this study, but the CART model more easily accommodated higher order interaction effects. Conclusions/Significance A Bayesian CART model for identification and estimation of the spatial distribution of disease risk is useful in monitoring and assessment of infectious diseases prevention and control.
Molecular evidence of Rickettsia felis infection in dogs from northern territory, Australia
Sze-Fui Hii, Steven R Kopp, Mary F Thompson, Caroline A O'Leary, Robert L Rees, Rebecca J Traub
Parasites & Vectors , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-198
Abstract: Rickettsioses are important emerging vector-borne diseases in humans [1], and some have been reported to infect dogs [2,3]. Rickettsioses that are purported to be endemic in Australia include murine typhus (Rickettsia typhi), Queensland tick typhus (Rickettsia australis), Flinders Island spotted fever (Rickettsia honei), scrub typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi) and Q fever (Coxiella burnetti). Cat flea typhus or flea-borne spotted fever, caused by Ricketsia felis, which was first described in humans in the USA [4], is an emerging zoonosis that has been reported from throughout the world and was recently reported in a cluster of family members in Victoria, Australia [5].The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is a reservoir and biological vector of R. felis [6]. In Australia, R. felis DNA was first identified in fleas in 2006 [7]. Very recently, a molecular study in Australia detected R. felis in 9% of 100 tested Southeast Queensland (SE QLD) pound dogs, suggesting that dogs may act as mammalian reservoir hosts for R. felis [8]. Given the close bond that exists between humans and canines, it is possible that dogs may be a potential source of R. felis infection for humans. Dogs are also important in indigenous community life, and it is therefore prudent to better understand the public health risks that may be associated with the human-animal bond in these communities. To this end, we sought to investigate the prevalence of spotted-fever group organisms in dogs from the indigenous community of Maningrida in the Northern Territory (NT), using PCR assays.Blood samples were collected from 130 dogs undergoing sterilisation facilitated by the Animal Management in Rural and Remote Indigenous Communities (AMRRIC) organisation in the indigenous community of Maningrida, NT. Sixty of these dogs were tested in September 2009 and 70 in September 2010. The sampled cohort of dogs was represented by 56 entire males and 69 entire females. Data on gender were unavailable for 5 dogs. One mL o
Environmental Factors Controlling the Distribution of Symbiodinium Harboured by the Coral Acropora millepora on the Great Barrier Reef
Timothy F. Cooper, Ray Berkelmans, Karin E. Ulstrup, Scarla Weeks, Ben Radford, Alison M. Jones, Jason Doyle, Marites Canto, Rebecca A. O'Leary, Madeleine J. H. van Oppen
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025536
Abstract: Background The Symbiodinium community associated with scleractinian corals is widely considered to be shaped by seawater temperature, as the coral's upper temperature tolerance is largely contingent on the Symbiodinium types harboured. Few studies have challenged this paradigm as knowledge of other environmental drivers on the distribution of Symbiodinium is limited. Here, we examine the influence of a range of environmental variables on the distribution of Symbiodinium associated with Acropora millepora collected from 47 coral reefs spanning 1,400 km on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Methodology/Principal Findings The environmental data included Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data at 1 km spatial resolution from which a number of sea surface temperature (SST) and water quality metrics were derived. In addition, the carbonate and mud composition of sediments were incorporated into the analysis along with in situ water quality samples for a subset of locations. Analyses were conducted at three spatio-temporal scales [GBR (regional-scale), Whitsunday Islands (local-scale) and Keppel Islands/Trunk Reef (temporal)] to examine the effects of scale on the distribution patterns. While SST metrics were important drivers of the distribution of Symbiodinium types at regional and temporal scales, our results demonstrate that spatial variability in water quality correlates significantly with Symbiodinium distribution at local scales. Background levels of Symbiodinium types were greatest at turbid inshore locations of the Whitsunday Islands where SST predictors were not as important. This was not the case at regional scales where combinations of mud and carbonate sediment content coupled with SST anomalies and mean summer SST explained 51.3% of the variation in dominant Symbiodinium communities. Conclusions/Significance Reef corals may respond to global-scale stressors such as climate change through changes in their resident symbiont communities, however, management of local-scale stressors such as altered water quality is also necessary for maintenance of coral-Symbiodinium associations.
Gene-based outcome prediction in multiple cohorts of pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a Children's Oncology Group study
Amanda L Cleaver, Alex H Beesley, Martin J Firth, Nina C Sturges, Rebecca A O'Leary, Stephen P Hunger, David L Baker, Ursula R Kees
Molecular Cancer , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1476-4598-9-105
Abstract: Using HG-U133Plus2 microarrays we modeled a five-gene classifier (5-GC) that accurately predicted clinical outcome in a cohort of 50 T-ALL patients. The 5-GC was further tested against three independent cohorts of T-ALL patients, using either qRT-PCR or microarray gene expression, and could predict patients with significantly adverse clinical outcome in each. The 5-GC featured the interleukin-7 receptor (IL-7R), low-expression of which was independently predictive of relapse in T-ALL patients. In T-ALL cell lines, low IL-7R expression was correlated with diminished growth response to IL-7 and enhanced glucocorticoid resistance. Analysis of biological pathways identified the NF-κB and Wnt pathways, and the cell adhesion receptor family (particularly integrins) as being predictive of relapse. Outcome modeling using genes from these pathways identified patients with significantly worse relapse-free survival in each T-ALL cohort.We have used two different approaches to identify, for the first time, robust gene signatures that can successfully discriminate relapse and CCR patients at the time of diagnosis across multiple patient cohorts and platforms. Such genes and pathways represent markers for improved patient risk stratification and potential targets for novel T-ALL therapies.T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) affects approximately 15% of newly diagnosed pediatric ALL patients. Continuous complete clinical remission (CCR) in T-ALL patients is now approaching 80% due to the implementation of aggressive chemotherapy protocols [1-6]. However, patients that relapse (R) have poor prognosis and aggressive therapy can lead to long-term side effects in those that achieve CCR [7]. In the clinical setting, age and white blood cell count (WBC) at diagnosis are used to stratify B-lineage ALL patients as either standard or high risk, significantly impacting on the type and intensity of post-induction therapy used. However these NCI-defined criteria have been shown to hav
Classification and Regression Tree and Spatial Analyses Reveal Geographic Heterogeneity in Genome Wide Linkage Study of Indian Visceral Leishmaniasis
Michaela Fakiola,Anshuman Mishra,Madhukar Rai,Shri Prakash Singh,Rebecca A. O'Leary,Stephen Ball,Richard W. Francis,Martin J. Firth,Ben T. Radford,E. Nancy Miller,Shyam Sundar,Jenefer M. Blackwell
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015807
Abstract: Genome wide linkage studies (GWLS) have provided evidence for loci controlling visceral leishmaniasis on Chromosomes 1p22, 6q27, 22q12 in Sudan and 6q27, 9p21, 17q11-q21 in Brazil. Genome wide studies from the major focus of disease in India have not previously been reported.
Relationships of Cetacea (Artiodactyla) Among Mammals: Increased Taxon Sampling Alters Interpretations of Key Fossils and Character Evolution
Michelle Spaulding, Maureen A. O'Leary, John Gatesy
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007062
Abstract: Background Integration of diverse data (molecules, fossils) provides the most robust test of the phylogeny of cetaceans. Positioning key fossils is critical for reconstructing the character change from life on land to life in the water. Methodology/Principal Findings We reexamine relationships of critical extinct taxa that impact our understanding of the origin of Cetacea. We do this in the context of the largest total evidence analysis of morphological and molecular information for Artiodactyla (661 phenotypic characters and 46,587 molecular characters, coded for 33 extant and 48 extinct taxa). We score morphological data for Carnivoramorpha, ?Creodonta, Lipotyphla, and the ?raoellid artiodactylan ?Indohyus and concentrate on determining which fossils are positioned along stem lineages to major artiodactylan crown clades. Shortest trees place Cetacea within Artiodactyla and close to ?Indohyus, with ?Mesonychia outside of Artiodactyla. The relationships of ?Mesonychia and ?Indohyus are highly unstable, however - in trees only two steps longer than minimum length, ?Mesonychia falls inside Artiodactyla and displaces ?Indohyus from a position close to Cetacea. Trees based only on data that fossilize continue to show the classic arrangement of relationships within Artiodactyla with Cetacea grouping outside the clade, a signal incongruent with the molecular data that dominate the total evidence result. Conclusions/Significance Integration of new fossil material of ?Indohyus impacts placement of another extinct clade ?Mesonychia, pushing it much farther down the tree. The phylogenetic position of ?Indohyus suggests that the cetacean stem lineage included herbivorous and carnivorous aquatic species. We also conclude that extinct members of Cetancodonta (whales + hippopotamids) shared a derived ability to hear underwater sounds, even though several cetancodontans lack a pachyostotic auditory bulla. We revise the taxonomy of living and extinct artiodactylans and propose explicit node and stem-based definitions for the ingroup.
Objective critical appraisal of mammography images in clinical audit: can we achieve this?
D O'Leary, A Teape, J Hammond, L Rainford
Breast Cancer Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2955
Abstract: The European Quality Criteria for mammographic IQ and the Breast Screening quality criteria classification of images as inadequate/moderate/good/perfect were modified to remove all subjective criteria. These objective classifications of IQ were tested for inter/intrarater reliability by a panel of experts and compared with original IQ criteria. Further objective measures such as breast volume, density and pectoral-nipple measurements were carried out.When tested with 278 surgically modified breast images from the larger research sample, inter-rater reliability (K > 0.701; P < 0.001) and agreement (Pearson's correlation r > 0.884; P < 0.01) by the evaluation panel were higher than when the original quality criteria methods were used. The intra-rater reliability was equally high (K > 0.7; P < 0.001) with agreement via Pearson's correlation at r > 0.844; P < 0.01.A method of scoring images combining the most objective components of major European, national and international image scoring systems is suggested. The removal of subjectivity from the scoring systems will remove all doubt regarding the achievement of high image-quality goals for all mammography departments.
SINOPSIS DEL GéNERO JUNELLIA (VERBENACEAE)
Nataly O'Leary,Paola Peralta,María E. Múlgura
Darwiniana , 2011,
Abstract: Se presenta una sinopsis del género Junellia, fundamentada en la reciente recircunscripción del género sobre la base de estudios de filogenia molecular y análisis de caracteres morfológicos. Se aporta una clave que incluye las 37 especies de Junellia según la más actual definición del género, se presenta una descripción actualizada del género y se establecen las diferencias con los demás géneros de la tribu Verbeneae. Se describen y/o ilustran nueve especies y una variedad de Junellia no tratadas previamente o cuyas descripciones son aquí enmendadas. Se proponen también dos nuevas combinaciones: Junellia hookeriana var. catamarcensis y Junellia trifida, y ocho nuevos sinónimos.
Asymptomatic Primary Fallopian Tube Cancer: An Unusual Cause of Axillary Lymphadenopathy
N. A. Healy,S. O. Hynes,J. Bruzzi,S. Curran,M. O'Leary,K. J. Sweeney
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/402127
Abstract: Primary Fallopian tube malignancy is considered a rare disease and is often mistaken histologically and clinically for ovarian cancer. The etiology is poorly understood, and it typically presents at an advanced disease stage, as symptoms are often absent in the initial period. As a result, primary fallopian tube cancer is generally associated with a poor prognosis. We present the case of a 45-year-old female who presents with a 5-day history of left axillary swelling and a normal breast examination. Mammogram and biopsy of a lesion in the left breast revealed a fibroadenoma but no other abnormalities. Initial sampling of the axillary node was suspicious for a primary breast malignancy, but histology of the excised node refuted this. PET-CT showed an area of high uptake in the right pelvis, and a laparoscopy identified a tumor of the left fallopian tube which was subsequently excised and confirmed as a serous adenocarcinoma.
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