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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3936 matches for " Rebeca; Maldonado-Bernal "
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El papel de la inmunidad innata en la obesidad
Fortis,ángeles; García-Macedo,Rebeca; Maldonado-Bernal,Carmen; Alarcón-Aguilar,Francisco; Cruz,Miguel;
Salud Pública de México , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342012000200014
Abstract: obesity in mexico is alarmingly increasing in prevalence in adults and children, and it is a risk factor for the development of insulin resistance, as well as, of other metabolic alterations. the discovery of the expression of the toll-like receptors (tlrs) in adipocytes, suggests an important role in innate immunity. in different models of obesity, there has been observed an increase of tlrs expression in the fat tissue, therefore tlrs could be involved in systemic inflammation in this disease, and in the development of insulin resistance. tlr activation is mediated by fatty acids and their expression is regulated by leptin, adiponectin and ppars. knowledge of the role of tlrs in inflammation and adipocyte differentiation and their regulation, then it is important to try to develop new therapeutic anti-inflammatory targets that contribute in the treatment of obesity.
Receptores tipo Toll, patogénesis y respuesta inmune a Helicobacter pylori
Sánchez-Zauco,Norma Angélica; Giono-Cerezo,Silvia; Maldonado-Bernal,Carmen;
Salud Pública de México , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342010000500012
Abstract: helicobacter pylori colonize the gastric epithelial, most infected people are asymptomatic, 10 to 20% develop atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer and less than 3% gastric cancer. these diseases are determined by the relationship between virulence factors of bacteria, host factors such as, genetic predisposition, and immune response. the innate immune response mainly represented by toll-like receptors and nod-like receptors that recognize their specific ligands, activate transcription factors as nf-kb, ap-1, creb-1, inducing production of inflammatory cytokines such as il -8, il-12, il-6, il-1β, il-18, tnf-α and il-10. chronic inflammation promotes gastric morphological changes, prevents apoptosis and allows angiogenesis generating neoplasic lesions and cancer. the aim of this review is to analyze the mechanisms proposed to date of the innate and adaptative immune response involved in h. pylori infection; remarking the mechanisms related in the elimination or persistence.
Infección, inflamación y cáncer gástrico
Fuentes-Pananá,Ezequiel; Camorlinga-Ponce,Margarita; Maldonado-Bernal,Carmen;
Salud Pública de México , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342009000500010
Abstract: a strong association between persistent infection, chronic inflammation and cancer has been described. helicobacter pylori is the main cause of gastric cancer, with 900 000 new cases yearly. helicobacter colonization triggers the gastric epithelial cells to secret il-8, a chemoattractant of immune cells, which persistently infiltrate the infected tissue. high levels of inflammatory cytokines are found, leading to loss of local homeostasis due to altered cell proliferation and apoptosis. it is not known how this local inflammatory response leads to cancer but the expression of mutagenic o2 and n2 free radicals might directly contribute to the irreversible mucosal genomic damage. epstein barr virus is another pathogen associated with gastric cancer. we review here our current knowledge of inflammatory mechanisms at the site of infection that could be important to the development of cancer and that could be shared by other pathogens. this is of great importance since around 25% of cancers are associated with infection.
TLR9 and NF-κB Are Partially Involved in Activation of Human Neutrophils by Helicobacter pylori and Its Purified DNA
Lourdes Alvarez-Arellano, Pedro Cortés-Reynosa, Norma Sánchez-Zauco, Eduardo Salazar, Javier Torres, Carmen Maldonado-Bernal
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101342
Abstract: Helicobacter pylori infection represents one of the most common bacterial infections worldwide. The inflammatory response to this bacterium involves a large influx of neutrophils to the lamina propria of the gastric mucosa. However, little is known about the receptors and molecular mechanisms involved in activation of these neutrophils. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in the response of human neutrophils to H. pylori and purified H. pylori DNA (Hp-DNA). Neutrophils were isolated from the blood of adult volunteers and challenged with either H. pylori or Hp-DNA. We found that both, H. pylori and Hp-DNA induced increased expression and release of IL-8. Furthermore, we showed that TLR9 is involved in the induction of IL-8 production by H. pylori and Hp-DNA. IL-8 production induced by H. pylori but not by Hp-DNA was partially mediated by NF-κB. In conclusion, this study showed for first time that both, H. pylori and Hp-DNA activate TLR9 and induce a different inflammatory response that leads to activation of neutrophils.
Expresión del receptor tipo-Toll 4 en la inflamación alérgica de ni?os asmáticos-obesos
Pacheco-Martínez, Mercedes Monserrat;Saucedo-Ramírez, Omar;Río Navarro, Blanca Del;Río-Chivardi, Jaime Del;Cruz, Miguel;Pérez-Figueroa, Gloria Erandi;Huerta-Yépez, Sara;Maldonado-Bernal, Carmen;
Boletín médico del Hospital Infantil de México , 2011,
Abstract: background. asthma is characterized by chronic inflammation of airways and obesity by persistent systemic inflammation. exposure to lipopolysaccharide (lps) may induce the development and severity of asthma. toll like-receptor 4 (tlr4) recognizes lps and can direct the response of t-helper cells. level of expression of tlr4 in patients with asthma and obesity is currently unknown. methods. we conducted a pilot study that included patients with asthma-obesity, asthma, obesity and those who were apparently healthy. using immunocytochemistry, we determined the level of expression of tlr4 with specific anti-tlr4 monoclonal antibody, blocking fc receptors. with a bx-40 olympus microscope, 100 cells were evaluated per slide. differences in the number and degree of positive cells were established by kruskal-wallis test and dunn post hoc analysis. results. expression of tlr4 in the cells of the asthmatic group of patients was significantly greater than in the healthy group of patients and higher than any of the other two groups. conversely, the obese group expressed less tlr4 than the healthy group and any of the other two groups (p<0.001). the asthma-obese group showed no significant difference with respect to healthy controls. additionally, we observed significant differences among the three groups of patients (p<0.05). conclusions. tlr4 expression was different in the three groups of patients. the highest level in the asthmatic patient may be explained by the high sensitivity to lps or to other tlr4 ligands. this is the first study to show the level of expression in obese patients with asthma.
Vigorous, but differential mononuclear cell response of cirrhotic patients to bacterial ligands
Varenka J Barbero-Becerra, María Concepción Gutiérrez-Ruiz, Carmen Maldonado-Bernal, Félix I Téllez-Avila, Roberto Alfaro-Lara, Florencia Vargas-Vorácková
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2011,
Abstract: AIM: To study the role of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in the pathogenesis of liver injury, specifically the activation of inflammatory mediators.METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 20 out-patients were studied, 10 of them with cirrhosis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and exposed to lipopolysaccharide or lipoteichoic acid. CD14, Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 expression was determined by flow cytometry, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-10 secretion in supernatants was determined by ELISA.RESULTS: Higher CD14, Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 expression was observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from cirrhotic patients, (P < 0.01, P < 0.006, P < 0.111) respectively. Lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid induced a further increase in CD14 expression (P < 0.111 lipopolysaccharide, P < 0.013 lipoteichoic acid), and a decrease in Toll-like receptor 2 (P < 0.008 lipopolysaccharide, P < 0.008 lipoteichoic acid) and Toll-like receptor 4 (P < 0.008 lipopolysaccharide, P < 0.028 lipoteichoic acid) expression. With the exception of TNFα, absolute cytokine secretion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was lower in cirrhotic patients under non-exposure conditions (P < 0.070 IL-6, P < 0.009 IL-1β, P < 0.022 IL-12). Once exposed to lipopolysaccharide or lipoteichoic acid, absolute cytokine secretion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was similar in cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients, determining a more vigorous response in the former (P < 0.005 TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-2 and IL-10 lipopolysaccharide; P < 0.037 TNFα; P < 0.006 IL-1β; P < 0.005 IL-6; P < 0.007 IL-12; P < 0.014 IL-10 lipoteichoic acid). Response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was more intense after lipopolysaccharide than after lipoteichoic acid exposure.CONCLUSION: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of cirrhotic patients are able to respond to a sudden bacterial ligand exposure, particularly lipopolysaccharide, suggesting that immune regulation mechanisms are still present.
Impact of cagPAI and T4SS on the Inflammatory Response of Human Neutrophils to Helicobacter pylori Infection
Norma Angélica Sánchez-Zauco, Javier Torres, Gloria Erandi Pérez-Figueroa, Lourdes álvarez-Arellano, Margarita Camorlinga-Ponce, Alejandro Gómez, Silvia Giono-Cerezo, Carmen Maldonado-Bernal
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064623
Abstract: Helicobacter pylori contains a pathogenicity island, cagPAI, with genes homologous to components of the type IV secretion system (T4SS) of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The T4SS components assemble a structure that transfers CagA protein and peptidoglycan into host epithelial cells, causing the increased release of interleukin 8 (IL8) from the cells. The Toll-like receptors on neutrophils recognize H. pylori, initiating signaling pathways that enhance the activation of NF-κB. However, the roles of cagPAI and T4SS in the inflammatory response of neutrophils are unknown. We evaluated the participation of cagPAI and T4SS in the response of human neutrophils to H. pylori infection. Neutrophils were isolated from the blood of healthy donors and infected with H. pylori cagPAI+, cagPAI–, and cagPAI mutant strains virB4– and virD4–. Whereas cagPAI+ strain 26695 induced the greatest IL8 production, a proinflammatory response, cagPAI– strain 8822 induced the greatest IL10 production, an anti-inflammatory response. In contrast, the virB4– and virD4– mutant strains produced significantly more of the two proinflammatory cytokines IL1β and tumor necrosis factor αthan the cagPAI+ strain 26695. We observed that H. pylori downregulated the expression of TLRs 2 and 5 but upregulated TLR9 expression in a cagPAI and T4SS-independent manner. These results show for the first time that the response of human neutrophils to H. pylori may vary from a pro-inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory response, depending on cagPAI and the integrity of T4SS.
Así- habló Zaratustra: una subversión de la temporalidad
Rebeca Maldonado
Signos filosóficos , 2000,
Abstract: ""Así- habló Zaratustra: Una subversión de la temporalidad" En La gaya ciencia, Nietzsche habí-a percibido ya el vací-o sobre el cual se asienta la existencia humana con la muerte de Dios. En Asi habló Zaratustra descubre que el sentido originario de la existencia no es el dolor ni el sufrimiento sino el placer y la risa. Así-, Zaratustra abre el abismo del hombre, su lugar sin Dios, para descubrir en el gozo la posibilidad de sí-ntesis entre la voluntad y el "fue". El tiempo no es más comprendido en su dimensión tridimensional como algo extrí-nseco al individuo, porque sólo desde una voluntad afirmativa se quiere la eternidad de las cosas y, en ese momento, se las libera de la caducidad y de la muerte. ""Zaratustra spoke this way: A subversión of the temporality" In The gay science, Nietzsche had already perceived the hole on which settles the human existence with the death of God. In Zaratustra spoke this way he discovers that the sense native of the existence is not the pain neither the suffering but the pleasure and the laugh. This way, Zaratustra opens the man's abyss, its place without God, to discover in the joy the synthesis possibility between the will and the "it was ". The time is not more understood as three-dimensional but like something extrinsic to the individual, because only from an affirmative will the eternity of the things is wanted and in that moment, it liberates them to him of (he expiration and of the death.
Sobre una posible solución a la disolución de la diferencia mundo sensible/suprasensible en el mundo de los útiles
Rebeca Maldonado
Signos filosóficos , 2003,
Abstract: Resumen: En buena medida, la modernidad significa la caída del hombre desde lo suprasensible hacia la Tierra como ámbito de lo práctico. Desde entonces, el hombre se constituye como centro de la naturaleza y de todos los seres que hay en ella. Todo está ahí a su servicio, dispuesto para que este hombre la explote, la expolie y la use. Esto significó reflexionar acerca de los objetos hechos por el hombre y la naturaleza desde diferentes puntos de vista. En la presente interpretación se parte de la perspectiva heideggeriana sobre la técnica y se explora la interpretación romántica de los objetos a partir de la oposición utilidad/belleza. Posteriormente, se construye una perspectiva crítica de dicha oposición, la cual trata de vislumbrar, en lugar de una oposición, una mediación entre utilidad y belleza. En dicha mediación se intenta llegar a una reconstrucción de lo suprasensible a partir de la experiencia de los objetos. Abstract: The article reflects on the opposition between utility and beauty within the Romantic works, which permeates Heideggerian thought about technique. My proposal tries to establish a compromise between utility and beauty by way of the concept of non-utilization. Non-utilization is the transition from utility to beauty, which reduces to zero the opposition between utility and beauty. The aesthetical experience is an antiutilitarian movement and this does not happen only in nature or art, but also with objects. According to the author, the aesthetic experience of objects is one way of describing the ontological difference between being and entity. And only because of this, the aesthetic experience of the world is in fact one and the same ontological experience within the realm of thought, a realm which goes beyond art and also beyond technique.
El filósofo como médico de la cultura. La enfermedad como exterminio (ensayo sobre el último periodo de Nietzsche)
Rebeca Maldonado
El Cotidiano , 2004,
Abstract: Antes del pensamiento de Nietzsche, nunca se había planteado la filosofía vinculada con procesos vitales de salud y de enfermedad, abundancia y debilita-miento de las fuerzas, esto es, ninguna filosofía había pensado en la constelación pensamiento y vida, y ninguna filosofía anterior había nacido de dicha constelación. Con Nietzsche estamos seguros de que la vida es el asunto del pensar. Y es desde ese ángulo de visión, desde el asunto de la vida, que la metafísica y el idealismo se volvieron ineludibles al descubrir su potencial destructor y exterminador.
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